Internet Filtering Pp


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This presentation is about internet filtering and censorship in academic libraries.

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Internet Filtering Pp

  1. 1. Internet filtering is the modern equivalent of Censorship. Discuss this statement with particular attention to Academic Libraries. By Nombeko Salaze
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Internet Filtering: it is blocking online content of certain web pages (Zittrain and Edelman, 2003:70) While: </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship: it is the limitation of the people’s exposure to information (Zittrain and Edelman (2003:70) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Internet Filtering Methods <ul><li>Web Server IP address </li></ul><ul><li>DNS server IP address </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword direction </li></ul><ul><li>DNS direction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Internet Filtering Methods <ul><li>Platform for internet content selection (PICS) Its a “set of specifications created by the World Wide Web consortium (W3C) to define a platform for the creation of content rating system” (Lee and Fong,1999) </li></ul><ul><li>It makes it possible for the Web publishers to connect labels or meta data with Web pages so as to limit certain Web content with explicit nature targeted at adult (Lee and Fong, 1999) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Internet filtering Methods cont … <ul><li>Lee, Hui and Fong argued that the disadvantage of this approach is that its adoption is not controlled and it is possible for some publishers to mislabel their Web content either international or by mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator (URL), blocking keyword filtering and intelligent content analyses. </li></ul><ul><li>This blocking system (URL) is used to restrict or grant access to the requested Web pages or a blacklist of inaccessible pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, Hui and Fong view this approach as an effort and time consuming approach because the reference list is compiled by the human experts at a rate they desire. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only when the reference list is available that the blocking of the URL can filter out black listed Web pages effectively as soon as the user specifies the URL without loading the page for analysis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Advantages of Internet filtering <ul><li>Can be used to decrease company overheads, for instance internet is expensive and mostly students like to download videos, music and all the other stuff that is expensive, so if those are cut then the institution will cut the cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances productivity, like in the case of an Academic Library if the internet access is filtered, students and employees will spend much time doing their work when they are on the internet and that will increase the productivity of the institution and its reputation will be good. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Internet Filtering and Censorship in academic Libraries <ul><li>When used for non academic purposes Feret and Szezepanska argue that students like using peer to peer (P2P) programs to download images, music, video or software. Such programs are Kazaa, Morphevs, Bearshare and they are the successor of Napster. </li></ul><ul><li>Feret and Szezepanska further argue that librarians don’t like the use of peer to peer programs by students on internet workstation in libraries. Reason being the question of the legality of such programs and because usually down loads are not related to study and research. For these reasons libraries usually forbid the installation and the use of peer to peer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Adult content is also of great concern within the libraries because internet workstations are widely available in libraries which means students can easily access pornographic material. To avoid the use of academic library computers for such a content Ferret and Szezepanska argue that academic libraries should either introduce appropriate exclusion paragraphs in the usage rules for internet work stations or they should install filtering software. They give an example of academic libraries in the United States of America where filtering software is installed and the users are made aware of them </li></ul>
  8. 8. References <ul><li>Byrne, A. 2004. The end of history: Censorship and Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Ebbs, G. Rheingold, H. Censorship on the information highway. Internet research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy. Volume 7.Number 1.1997.pp.59-60. </li></ul><ul><li>Feret, B. Szezepanska, B. Internet in the Library-the sky is Not blue, comments on the selected library problems when offering Patrons Access to the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Hannabuss, S. Allard, M. Issues of Censorship.Library Review Volume 50.No 2. 2001. pp. 81-89. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, P.Y. Hui, S.C. Fong, A.C.M. A structural and content-based analysis for Web filtering. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Workstations with Computers