WHAT ARE MOOCS?
A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is an online
course aimed at unlimited participation and open
access via the web. In addition to traditional course
materials such as videos, readings, and problem sets.
MOOCs provide interactive user fora that help build a
community for students, professors, and teaching
assistants . MOOCs are a recent development in
WHAT WAY IS A MOOC MASSIVE?
The massiveness of a MOOC is a natural result of being an
online course open for anyone to enter. What counts as
massive varies quite a bit.
Some MOOCs have a few hundred students and a few have
had more than 100,000 students. But one way to look at it is
to consider a course massive when it has more students than
the teachers and assistants can themselves interact with.
When machine grading, peer assessment and other peer
support become not only desirable but necessary, that counts
as massive from the teacher’s perspective, and a few
thousand more or less doesn’t make much difference
WHEN DID THE MOOCS START?
Although we cannot date back as to when MOOCS started but they date back to as
far as the arrival of electronic media. It grew as people got more into electronic and
by the help of the media and so on.
Though moocs were there they lacked content and still the lectures and students could
not interact Videotape was used by many distance learning initiatives but was
criticized because of its passivity. The multimedia generation had popularized
distance learning and allowed new possibilities, but only computers and the web could
unite forces to provide a new e-learning infrastructure, mainly built upon networks and
The evolution of technology and of new learning experiences have always been
closely related. As distance learning specialists affirm, the field of distance-learning
had three main generations:
The first of these distance learning models grew exponentially in Europe and United States after the Industrial
Revolution, especially because a more qualified work force was needed for the factories. In addition, postal
services were becoming faster, cheaper and more reliable. For example, in the 19th century, students from
Australia were already able take correspondence courses from prestigious universities, such as the London
School of Economics, one of the first in the United Kingdom to offer distance education.
WHY MOOCS WERE STARTED?
MOOCs were started to offer knowledge without borders which is a great
advantage for many, and the absolute numbers are impressive. This was because a
person could learn in the comfort of her own home and learn from lectures outside his
country of origin.
There has been an exponential growth in the number of MOOC providers. But some
see MOOCs as a disruptive technology in higher education.
MOOCs have a global impact. They have created a wider and more engaged
audience, but there are still a number of challenges just like any other form of
learning Some of the challenges include:
Low completion rates (meaning that the
courses aren't really "Massive")
Varying time zones.
Meetings can sometimes go on too long.
A lack of face to face contact which is no
There are currently no regulating agencies
for MOOCs which can monitor quality.
There is a potential for academic dishonesty.
The what, when ,how and why moocs were created has been answered now there have been
uncertainties about the moocs that will be discussed as follows.
Individual Instruction MOOCs require course delivery to a large number of learners. They
attract a wide variety of students with different learning styles from all around the world. It is
a challenge for instructors to engage students, maintain their interest in the course, and tailor
the learning environment to fit the need of each student.
Student Performance Assessment One of the biggest challenges of MOOCs is the assessment
of student performance (Rodriguez, 2012). Cheating presents a major challenge of online
education (Carr, 2012). How to validate original work to prevent or detect plagiarism is one
of the widely discussed challenges in online education (Cooper & Sahami, 2013). Some
solutions for the challenge are being proposed by institutions that offer MOOCs. For example,
Udacity and edX use test centres for their online courses. However, the cost to students presents
a barrier. Coursers attempted to use plagiarism-detection software in detecting cheating. Also,
machine learning has been proposed to identify cheating by the analysis of learner
Long-Term Administration and Oversight Those on the front lines of MOOC development and
implementation warn that, although MOOC’s might be open and free to participants, the costs to
institutions can be significant. For
example, course development assistance through edX can reach upwards of R250,000 per course
with an additional R50,000 fee each time the course is offered (Kolowich, 2013b). For
instructors who develop their own courses, human resource needs include course development
(typically 100 hours) and course management (8-10 hours per week) in addition to existing
Make discussion a challenge. It’s impossible to facilitate meaningful conversation in a classroom with
150,000 students. There are electronic alternatives: message boards, forums, chat rooms, etc., but the
intimacy of face-to-face communication is lost, emotions often misunderstood. This is a particular
challenge for humanities courses. Heller writes, "When three great scholars teach a poem in three ways, it
isn't inefficiency. It is the premise on which all humanistic inquiry is based.“
Make it easier for students to drop out. Heller reports that when MOOCS are strictly online, not a
blended experience with some classroom time, "dropout rates are typically more than 90%.“
l shrink faculties, eventually eliminating them. Heller writes that Burgard sees MOOCS as destroyers of
traditional higher education. Who needs professors when a school can hire an adjunct to manage a
MOOC class? Fewer professors will mean fewer Ph.D.s granted, smaller graduate programs, fewer fields
and subfields taught, the eventual death of entire "bodies of knowledge."
WILL SHRINK FACULTIES, EVENTUALLY ELIMINATING THEM. HELLER WRITES THAT
BURGARD SEES MOOCS AS DESTROYERS OF TRADITIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION.
WHO NEEDS PROFESSORS WHEN A SCHOOL CAN HIRE AN ADJUNCT TO MANAGE A
MOOC CLASS? FEWER PROFESSORS WILL MEAN FEWER PH.D.S GRANTED, SMALLER
GRADUATE PROGRAMS, FEWER FIELDS AND SUBFIELDS TAUGHT, THE EVENTUAL
DEATH OF ENTIRE "BODIES OF KNOWLEDGE."
WE DO WANT CHANGE BUT IS IT WISE TO ELIMINATE PEOLPLE AND REPLACE THEM
WITH MECHINES.THINK OF ALL THE PROFFESSORS WHO ARE GOING TO LOOSE
THEIR JOBS DUE TO MMOCS CUMIMNG IN AT A FAST PACE.
Are free. Right now, most MOOCs are free or nearly free, a definite plus for the
student. This is likely to change as universities look for ways to defray the high cost
of creating MOOCs.THINK OF WHAT YOU PAY WHERE YOU ARE .
Force professors to improve lectures. Because the best MOOCS are short, usually
an hour at the most, addressing a single topic, professors are forced to examine
every bit of material as well as their teaching methods.
Are designed to ensure that students keep up. MOOCS are real college courses,
complete with tests and grades. They are filled with multiple choice questions and
discussions that test comprehension.
Allow teachers to make the most of classroom time in blended classes. In what is
called a "flipped classroom," teachers send students home with assignments to listen
to or watch a recorded lecture, or read it, and return to the classroom for more
valuable discussion time or other interactive learning.
One of the largest problems with MOOCs is their impersonal nature. In many
cases, thousands of students enroll in a single section with a single instructor.
Sometimes the instructor is only a "facilitator" rather than the course creator, and
other times the instructor is absent all together. Assignments designed to be
interactive such as group discussions can reinforce the impersonal nature of these
large courses. It's hard enough for a class of 30 to get to know each other, forget
learning the names of your 500 peers.
In traditional classrooms, the point of instructor feedback isn't just to rank students.
Ideally, students are able to learn from feedback and catch future mistakes.
Unfortunately, in-depth feedback simply isn't possible in most MOOCs. Many
instructors teach unpaid and even the most generous simply aren't capable of
correcting hundreds or thousands of papers a week. In some cases, MOOCs
provide automatic feedback in the form of quizzes or interactives. However,
without a mentor, some students find themselves repeating the same mistakes over
and over again.
MOOCS: Many will try but few will pass. Those high enrollment numbers may be deceiving.
When enrollment is nothing more than a few mouse clicks, getting a class of 1000 can be
simple. People find out through social media, blog posts, or internet surfing and enroll in just a
couple minutes. But, they soon fall behind or forget to login to the course from the beginning.
In many cases, this isn't a negative. It gives student the chance to try out a subject without risk
and allows access to materials for those that may not be willing to make a larger time
commitment. However, for some students, the low completion rate means that they just weren't
able to stay on top of the work. The self-motivated, work-as-you-please atmosphere doesn't
work for everyone. Some students thrive in a more structured environment with set deadlines
and in-person motivation.
When professors become expected to do more for free, one of two things will happen:
colleges will need to adjust salaries accordingly or many of the most talented academics will
find work elsewhere. Students benefit when they learn from the best and brightest, so this is a
concern that will increasingly effect everyone in the academic sphere.
How will we deal with unemployment? Teaching is the mother of all professions but teaching
does not teach one to create imbalances moocs are generally here to create them a lot of our
already qualified professors will loose jobs .
The quality of education will not be measured due to its incompetency our students will lack
focus and online dishonesties will occur.moocs are more like a walk in the park and an
invitation to students to say “welcome to the free degree course”.
the future of higher education and frankly, the future of our culture. The key problem is not
even MOOCs so much as it is with the reduction of knowledge to that which can be tested by
a multiple-choice exam or similar methods. It is the “massive” aspect of MOOCs that raises the
deepest problems. MOOCs pose a great threat to the most important value of higher
education: “literacy.” By “literacy” I mean, very broadly, the ability to read, think about, and
intelligently respond (both orally and in writing) to the literature of any field of study. Thus,
implementation of MOOCs for university credit is bad because it is bad for our students.