Rosscraft Innovations Inc. Presentation To EAA Congress


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A presentation made to the EAA Congress and Satellite Congress on Jan. 18/2006
European Anthropological Association

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  • Rosscraft Innovations Inc. Presentation To EAA Congress

    1. 1. William D Ross Scientific Director Rosscraft Innovations Incorporated Surrey BC Canada Allometry, Dimensionality and Human Proportionality: Implications for a new generation of Health Professionals Western Washington University 18 January 2007
    2. 2. Origins of the Study of Human Growth Edith Boyd (1895-1977).
    3. 3. Methods of Studying Human Growth <ul><li>Richard Scammon and Edith Boyd (1980) in </li></ul><ul><li>the introductory pages of the Origins of the Study of Human Growth listed six methods of increasing complexity and sophistication for studying human growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pictorial </li></ul><ul><li>3. Serration </li></ul><ul><li>4. Quantification </li></ul><ul><li>5. Inconometrography </li></ul><ul><li>6. Individual growth </li></ul>
    4. 4. Departed but never forgotten Otto Eben was one of the greatest human biologists of his or any generation. He was a friend to all and a pathfinder who assembled pristine evidence in abundance and used all the methods for the study of human growth. 130 years from now, he will be regarded as we do Adolph Quetelet to-day. Ottó Eiben ( 1931 – 2004 )
    5. 5. Iconometrography <ul><li>“ 5. Iconometrography, seriation of drawings or photogrqaphs with some dimension held constant to demonstrate change in form or proportion of the body and its parts .” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Scammon & Boyd, Boyd (1980) XXIV </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Phantom <ul><li>The Phantom is not a norm. It is an iconometrographical model used to compare proportionality characteristics within and between individuals and samples. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on an aribtrary size-dissociated unisex adult population. </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of variables as in all size dissociated paired male and female samples is basically unimodal . </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Phantom, Fig 3: is a unisex reference human described by over 100 lengths, breadths, girths, skin fold thicknesses, whole body and fractional masses (P-values) and ascribed standard deviation distances (S-values) based on an arbitrary human population. Derived from the literature and internal constraints, the Phantom serves as a calculation device to obtain proportionality scores (z-values) that are used to compare individual or group proportionality characteristics. Obtained raw scores are usually but not necessarily scaled geometrically to a standard stature .
    8. 8. z = 1/s*(v*(Cp/Co)b-p) <ul><li>z a Phantom proportionality score </li></ul><ul><li>s Phantom standard deviation for variable (V) </li></ul><ul><li>Cp Phantom scaling constant eg 170.18 stature </li></ul><ul><li>Co actual obtained value for scaling varible </li></ul><ul><li>b a dimensional exponent, in the geometrical similarity system: 1 for all lengths, breadths, girths and skin fold thicknesses, 2 for all areas, surfaces, and cross sections, 3 for whole body and fractional volumes and masses. </li></ul><ul><li>p the given Phantom value for variable (V) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Kinanthropometry A scientific specialization for human biology and the health professions To foster 1) optimal growth and development of all the children of all the people 2) health and vigor of adults throughout their life span Kinanthropometry Movement Human Measurement Gross Function Maturation Commerce Nutrition Composition Government Performance Proportion Education Exercise Shape Health Growth Size Implications for: to understand: for study of : Relevance Application Specification Identification
    10. 10. Johanna Faulhaber (1911-2003) <ul><li>First to show detailed proportional growth characteristics in longitudinal data. </li></ul><ul><li>Faulhaber J (1978) Algnunos cambios morphologicos durante el Crecimiento , Anales de Antropologia, VX, 323-340 . </li></ul>
    11. 11. Otto Eiben, the mentor to many The impulse for her classical paper on proportional growth of infants was a result of her participation in one of Otto Eiben’s memorable symposia on human biology.
    12. 12. Baby & Adult Proportionality <ul><li>Geometrical Similitude </li></ul><ul><li>Baby 4 heads tall </li></ul><ul><li>Adult 8 heads tall </li></ul><ul><li>Baby head 4 times SA </li></ul><ul><li>Baby head 8 times mass </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram Stratz 1909 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Many implications <ul><li>Differential growth of systems </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Shaking baby trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Car seats </li></ul><ul><li>Movement constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Drug dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and perinatal insults </li></ul>
    14. 14. 3 months deflection point inference and hypothesis
    15. 15. Hypothesis <ul><li>Premature birth, fetal or maternal malnutrition, smoking environment, </li></ul><ul><li>drugs, very young pregnancy, fear, environmental stress: these insults will not affect the time of the proportional body weight deflection point but thereafter will alter the slope to adult proportions. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Paradigm Shifts <ul><li>Creativity may not be primarily a matter of curiosity about the nature of things as it is about the need for explanation of astonishing facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Also a model may not be concerned with finding of new facts as it is with the establishment of a framework whereby facts can be understood and interpreted . </li></ul>
    17. 17. For posterity <ul><li>Computer capabilities facilitate the posthumous overarching magnum opus by friends and colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>A learning vehicle for them: a gift from her to all of us. </li></ul><ul><li>Johanna Faulhaber, in preparation, Characteristics of Child Growth. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Three-dimensional graphics unordered ordered x = years of age y = subjects z = velocity cm yr
    19. 19. Growth and perinatal insults A heuristic is a replicable method or approach for directing one's attention in learning, discovery, or problem-solving. It is originally derived from the Greek &quot;heurisko&quot; (εὑρίσκω), which means &quot;I find&quot;. (A form of the same verb is found in Archimedes' famous exclamation &quot; eureka! &quot; – &quot;I have found [it]!” Often one needs only one example to suggest many solutions and applications in the health professions, Creativity is largely a matter of having different perspectives and making the mental conjunction
    20. 20. Another example of complex analysis made simple <ul><li>Let’s compare size and proportionality characteristics of 23 items for four sub- samples with respect to a control. </li></ul><ul><li>Data by Jan Borms & WDR at the IFBB World Championships, Cairo, 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Control sample assembled from archives by WDR. </li></ul>
    21. 21. IFBB World Championships 9 ½ in mesomorphy
    22. 22. IFBB World Championships <ul><li>Competitive weight categories and the number of subjects </li></ul><ul><li>LW <70 kg n = 19 </li></ul><ul><li>MW <80 kg n = 18 </li></ul><ul><li>LH <90 kg n = 16 </li></ul><ul><li>HW >90 kg n = 13 </li></ul><ul><li>CN 73.2 kg n =158* </li></ul>Body weight was at time of measurement occasion not weigh-in time specified by the rules of competition ,
    23. 23. Standard scores <ul><li>Phantom z-values, plus and minus standard error distances from the mean 0.00, can be converted to any standard scores. </li></ul><ul><li>We often use Hull scores assigning the mean z-value a Hull score of 50 and the standard deviations 14. </li></ul><ul><li>Hull score = (14*z)+50 </li></ul>
    24. 26. Click on any plot <ul><li>Series “>90” Point “ArmF G Value “115” “120” </li></ul><ul><li>Series “<90” Point “ArmF G Value “103” “116” </li></ul><ul><li>Series “<80” Point “ArmF G Value “98” “116” </li></ul><ul><li>Series “<70” Point “ArmF G Value “84” “106” </li></ul><ul><li>Series “CN” Point “ArmF G Value “50” “50” </li></ul>21% BB size range L 14% BB proportional range R
    25. 27. A comparison of individuals <ul><li>The sixth and most sophisticated of the methods for the study on growth is individual analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Already there are colleagues using stratanalysis, with 36 anthropometric as well as physiological, performance and behavioral profiles. They can analyze these as fast as they can read a sentence. </li></ul>
    26. 28. It is just that simple <ul><li>15 yr old and 28 yr old players Hull Scores Compared to the Phantom scaled to 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler still, 15 yr old’s variables minus the 28 yr old’s scaled to 50. The youngster has smaller proportional weight, arm, thigh and hip breath, but proportionally larger elbow and knee breaths </li></ul>
    27. 29. 15 yr vs 28 yr to Phantom
    28. 30. 15 yr old vs 28 yr old
    29. 31. Who is most vulnerable to knee trauma, 15 or 28 year old? <ul><li>All things being equal, compared to the 28 year the 15 year old has proportionally greater elbow and knee breaths (greater surface area for dissipation of impact force) and likely less proportional weight and muscle and bone mass to manage. </li></ul>
    30. 32. What can we infer?
    31. 33. Craft wisdom leads <ul><li>“ The practical arts at first run ahead of science; only in very recent years have scientific discoveries affected practice to a greater extent than practice has affected science.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- James B Conant </li></ul><ul><li>Technically excellent, some non-academic health professionals are very insightful in assessing physique status and monitoring growth and training efficiency. </li></ul>
    32. 34. Who are the best scientists? <ul><li>Those who assess group characteristics and pontificate? </li></ul><ul><li>Those who assess individual differences with respect to sample norms, compare individuals, and compare an individual with themselves measured on previous occasions? </li></ul>
    33. 35. How do they interpret significance? <ul><li>Easily, when they know their own technical errors of measurement for each item, they judge accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>The others’ technical errors of measurement at best, skinfolds 5%. Other measures 1%. </li></ul><ul><li>When they use median of replicated measures (2 trials) the reduction of error is about 29%, if they use the median of three trials the reduction is about 42%. </li></ul>
    34. 36. Implication <ul><li>Precise and accurate data requires training and diligence, especially when one attempts individual assessment, the most difficult and sophisticated of the methods for the study of human growth. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Important advances in science are based on quantitative measurements only if the measured quantity is large as compared with possible systematic and accidental errors.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-- James B Conant </li></ul>
    35. 37. Methods of study of Human Growth <ul><li>1. Description </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pictorial representation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Serration </li></ul><ul><li>4. Quantification </li></ul><ul><li>5. Inconometrography </li></ul><ul><li>6. Individual growth </li></ul>
    36. 38. Rosscraft WebNet <ul><li>In our 26 th year, Rosscraft Innovation Incorporated will add five sites to the main one at </li></ul><ul><li>These will provide free downloads and enhance communication with our many FORs (Friends of Rosscraft): scholars, scientists, artists, artisans and health, fitness and lifestyle enhancement professionals. </li></ul>
    37. 39. Volume 1 1. Human Variability 2. Status & Change 3. Body Composition 4. Allometry & Dimensionality 5. BMI: conspiracy of ignorance 6. O-Scale , updated software 7. Comprehensive bibliography 8. Quote un Quote 9. Links 10. Rosscraft Sales & Service A compendium of what’s what and why . . .
    38. 42. TOOLS