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  1. 1. ICT4D Annotated BibliographyHOW THE APPLICATION OF ICT’S CAN AID IN DISASTER PREVENTION ANDRECOVERYCATHERINE VINCEThis bibliography is intended to provide the reader with a large range of differentinformation relating to the use of ICT in disasters. I have chosen to only include webbased information as my target audience are unlikely to have accessibility to booksand other sources of information. I feel that this is more appropriate as the people Iintend to reach with this are those in countries where information on disasters islimited. Therefore the entire bibliography is fully interactive and complete withhyperlinks to allow the reader to directly connect to the sources. Also I acknowledgea very limited source of information on this subject in published books and journals inthe ICT4D field. Specific attention however has been made to include a variety ofinformation ranging from academic publications to organisations and educationalprogrammes.GIS AS AN ICT FOR DISASTER PREDICTION AND MANAGEMENT1. web site GIS Development is a company that aims to promote and propagateusage of GIS and related technologies in various areas of development. The actualsite provides links to a wide range of papers and articles written explaining andfocusing on the application of GIS to aid development. Particular reference is given tothe study of natural hazards in Asia. A large number of papers can be accessed hereproviding ranging from rough overviews to specific hazard papers such asearthquakes and volcanoes. The majority of sites are well references and come froma variety of sources including academics, governments and companies.2. link directs the user straight to a power point presentation displaying how GIScan be used and it’s effectiveness in natural disaster management. A vivid displaywith clear bullet pointed information for the less advanced user which clearlyaddresses the important issues through a basic approach. The presentation explainsboth basic knowledge of natural hazards and a degree of GIS methods. Detailedimages portraying how GIS can be used to map varying types of risks are displayedeventually being combined into a layered effect to assess the areas at highest risk.The presentation is extremely user-friendly providing good visual imagery combinedwith factual information suitable for users with both none or good knowledge of GIScapabilities.3. site emphasises the importance of integrated GIS mapping solutions withinternet communications. It suggests how it is possible to integrate the two so thatsuch mapping can be carried out in the field without the need for specialist softwarewhich can be extremely expensive. It suggests how previously gathered information1
  2. 2. ICT4D Annotated Bibliographycan be accessed through the internet on sites such as the web site of the GeographicData Technology (GDT). This type of data can then be combined with field datacollected by NGO’s to produce detailed maps and risk analysis. Included is a casestudy of how the Red Cross used internet based GIS to aid over 4,000 families byplacing their services in the neediest areas according to mapping which theyproduced according to previously published and field data.4. article written by Dr Alok Gupta from the NCDM (National centre fro disastermanagement). This article focuses on the use of GIS and remote sensing in theprediction and forecasting of natural disasters. Focus is particularly paid to disastersin India as well as including chapters on various disasters such as flooding,earthquakes and hurricanes. Gupta argues that the correct use of GIS and remotesensing can significantly reduce the devastating effects of a disaster through theprovision of early warning systems encouraging evacuation procedures. Attention isalso paid to the aftermath of disasters and how GIS can aid this for example howsatellite imagery can be used to locate specific areas possible to draw water from ina drought that may not have been acknowledged from the ground. Generally this is avery detailed and specific article which requires no need for a previous background inGIS techniques.EDUCATION AND E-LEARNING ASSOCIATED WITH DISASTERS5. is a GIS virtual campus which allows people to take a course in GIS from theirown computer anywhere in the world. It has been designed as a form of e-learning toeducate those whose do not have access to courses although it does require theuser to have purchased the software. One of the newly introduced courses availableon the site is a course in disaster management through the application of GIS. Whilealso providing valuable e-learning this course focuses on disaster prevention tomigration and mapping of such disasters. It appears to be an extremely beneficialsite as once software has been installed on a computer even in a developing countrymany can benefit from accessible knowledge which ESRI make widely available.6. broacher produced by the ITU to emphasis the importance of telecommunicationsin saving lives in the event of a natural disaster. It is a very useful accompaniment toseminar or presentations for educational purposes or for distribution amongststudents studying related topics. The focus is largely on how telecommunications canprevent such devastating effects and also how they can aid in disaster migration. It’ssimply form makes it easily accessible and suitable for most readers.7. preparedness week aims to educate its users on the effects and necessaryprocedures should a hurricane occur. It is also an extremely useful site for those in hurricaneregions with little knowledge on the subject. It’s motto ‘preparation through education is lesscostly than learning though tragedy’. It is a very easy site to navigate and therefore would2
  3. 3. ICT4D Annotated Bibliographyalso be highly accessible to children and also provides learning material such as posterswhich can easily be downloaded and printed for display. A special section is designatedspecifically for children including weather games and posters. The site also providedinformation on survival kits for families which can be extremely useful in the wake of adisaster.PARTICULAR INITIATIVES RELATING TO ICT’S IN DISASTERS8. Website the Community Radio Network set up as a project of the UNDP hasvast amounts of information on the effectiveness of radio communication in disasters.In particular is an article focused on the effectiveness of radio communication inPakistan following an earthquake. The article focuses on how private radio stationsbanded together to broadcast programmes to those affected. The entire website isdedicated to the use of Community Radios and the impact they can have indevelopment. Many useful links, articles and general discussion around the topic arealso available.9.www.freeplayfoundation.orgThe Freeplay Foundation is a charitable organisation which has produced anddistributed lifeline radios. Lifeline radios are radios which are designed specifically forhumanitarian aid in the form of education, health and in times of disasters. Despitebeing specifically designed for children these radios have been key in many naturaldisasters. The web site describes the technology which has enabled the creation ofthe lifeline radios as well as explaining projects which are being run with them. Thesite also acts as publicity for the radios and encourages its viewers to donate alifeline. The site in general has some truly amazing images and stories emphasisingthe huge impact and aid the lifeline radios have become in many cases. Particularlyuseful is the article on the use of lifelines in the recent Tsunami located in theprojects section in the dropdown menu of the lifeline radio button.10. news article dated 26thJune 2003 published on the BBC website explains a newform of mobile telephony in disasters which phone companies are currentlyexperimenting with. The idea is that mobile phones could be fitted with a device oralarm which would sound in the event of a disaster leading rescuers to preciselocations faster. It would be possible to activate all the alarms of mobile deviceswhich could be considered to be in the disaster area.EDUCATING CHILDREN ONLINE ABOUT DISASTERS11. Cool Planet site operated as part of the Oxfam site has been particularlydesigned for children however provides basic information about the use of mobilephones in developing countries and specifically by NGO organisations in the event ofa disaster.3
  4. 4. ICT4D Annotated Bibliography12. site provided an online colouring book all about disaster preparedness. It is fullyprintable providing a useful form of education for children while being fun. It alsoincludes a letter to parents explaining the content of the colouring book and outliningsome of the things and topic with they should explain and support their child learning.This site is extremely useful to those children who have no access to formaleducation who would learn from a fun exercise.13. website designed in educating children in disasters and how to prepare or recoverfrom them. Also FEMA is an American organisation the content is clearly relevant tochildren all over the world. The site is extremely colourful and attractive to children ofall ages providing interactive games, quizzes, homework and a library. It also offerschildren the chance to become a disaster action kid gaining a certificate and furthereducation in disaster management. This site should be recommended to all childrenliving in disaster prone areas.ORGANISATIONS FOCUSING THE USE OF ICT’S IN DISASTERS14.’s disaster web site outlines several programmes using the application ofGIS to manage and reduce the risk of natural hazards. It states ‘The originalobjective of the programme was Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction(CBNDR)’ The site usefully explains project outlines and objectives includinginformation about pilot surveys in Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador,Guatemala and Honduras. A small summery of results outlines how successful GIScan be if properly applied in the context of development. Perhaps the most useful toolUNESCO produced as a result of this project was a training pack consisting of twoCD ROMs containing information and GIS mapping of the specific areas studied tobe used in education and hazard management. Information on these packs is alsoavailable on the site as well as other links relating to ICT in development.15. paper states ‘ICT improves the ability to obtain, store and integrate largevolumes of environmental data and to conduct stimulation and analysis in real time’.Produced by the World Bank the paper emphasises the importance of raisingawareness of environmental issues through the use of ICT. It focuses on severalICT’s which can have substantial effects on environmental polices such ascommunication between governments and the public. A project known as ANFAS(Data fusion for flood analysis and decision support) is among one of the projectsmention which aims to produce and information system which will provide newsolutions for flood prevention and management. Also outlined is the World banksNatural Disaster Risk Management project which involves the invention of a privatesector driven risk management scheme. Generally this is a very useful websiteproviding information on ICT’s use in a broader environmental context.4
  5. 5. ICT4D Annotated Bibliography16.,,contentMDK:20686822~menuPK:828158~pagePK:64020865~piPK:51164185~theSitePK:559460,00.htmlThis site associated with the World Bank hosts a number of articles relating toeducation in the field of ICT and disasters. The site has been designed to advertiseseminars and conferences available to educate people in disaster management. Italso holds publications of material from the seminars as well as project descriptions.Perhaps the most useful is the presentation at the World Bank for ICT for DisasterManagement and Post Conflict Reconstruction which is included. This presentationoutlines the key targets of the World Bank in a very simple yet effective form suitablefor a large number of users. Also available is an online video of the seminars for theeducation of users. A site which is very user-friendly containing a large amount ofmultimedia to aid addition textual information.ARTICLES AND PUBLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ICT’S AND article published in the Feb 2005 issue of COL’s news publication focuses onthe effects of the Asian Tsunami in Dec 2004. It discusses how the implementation ofrelevant ICT’s could have reduced the impact. However it also acknowledges howuse of media and communication systems enabled the disaster to be dealt with worldwide following such emotive media coverage. ‘Ironically, although there was nowarning system in place to reduce the lost of life along the shores of the Bay ofBegal, word of the disaster spread around the globe instantly thanks to moderntechnology (video cameras, cell phones, the world wide web, e-mail, text messaging)and dominated the news for weeks’. The article stresses the need for radio initiativesand open based education analysing the effects this could have on disastermanagement. COL’s article is extremely relevant in light of the recent Tsunamis whilealso raising positive suggestions for the application of ICT and programmes in thefuture.18. site allows the user to view summarised section of the World Disaster Report2005 published by the International federation of Red Cross and Red Crescentsocieties. The report emphasises strongly the need for information as aid. Althoughthe report pays little focus specifically on natural disasters chapter 6 relating to theevents of the Tsunami and the importance of humanitarian media coverage in thedigital age is particularly relevant. Other ITC initiatives are mentioned such as theuse of radio and the internet although not so explicitly relating to natural disasters.The site overall consists of very valuable information assessing the appropriatenessof IT and its relevance in disasters as well as providing critical analysis of previousprojects and initiatives. It allows the user to purchase the full copy of the report andlinks to many other useful sites.19. to below
  6. 6. ICT4D Annotated BibliographyThis website provides documents and articles relating to the use of ICT’s in disasterreduction and management. One of particular interest is the PDF file given abovewhich can be easily navigated to via the site. It outlines specific case studies whichhave taken place in India.20. site contains an informative article written by Dr. Michael Gurstein currently aVisiting Professor in the School of Management at the New Jersey Institute ofTechnology. Gurstein is writing in the context of the recent Tsunami disasterquestioning whether ICT are really capable of delivering. The article questions thereliability of the internet and its current role in disasters arguing its use for missingpersons etc is highly functional yet where is the actual factual information the peopleneed to know. Although highly critical of some ICT initiatives it is a well structuredargument. The Development Gateway web site also contained many links to otherICT related programmes and information in the disaster field of development.21. site titled the Natural Hazard Centre is an extremely constructive site containinga wide range of links for further reading. It is in essence a much larger annotatedbibliography dived into sections according to the hazard type. Each reference is fullyinteractive and accessible leading the user to further sites of interest. A briefsummary of each site is also given in much the same way as the presentbibliography has been compiled. The bibliography contains not only articles andwebsites but also a large range of images and multimedia data forms.22. Jamaica is a website specifically designed for ICT4D initiatives and progressionwhich has been made in Jamaica. The web site itself has a number of usefulfunctions such as online chat facilities, country information, case studies and a newsand events section. There is not a huge amount of emphasis placed on how the roleof ICT’s can implement disaster management and strategies although focus is paid toreducing the risk. This is largely done through an article which explains andanalysis’s the rise of telecities. The main line of argument posed is that with theinvention of telecities possible though increased telecommunications and the reverseof a trend towards mega cities it is possible to reduce the risk associated withdisasters and terrorist attacks. ‘We need to reverse the trend toward mega cities,which puts vast numbers of people at risk for terrorist attacks and natural disasters.Telecities are one solution’. In general a useful website however for all aspects ofICT although particularly specific to Caribbean solutions.23.
  7. 7. ICT4D Annotated BibliographyThis article written by Dr Suvit Yodman and David Hollister directors of ADCP (Asiandisaster preparedness centre) fully available online discusses communicationtechnology in disasters using Asia as a case study. It discusses the role ofcommunications and the social and technical aspects. This paper is extremelyinformative previding information on disaster mitigation, recovery and aspects ofprediction through the use of ICT. It considers a large number of case studies andfocuses on many aspects of communication technologies.24. site leads the user to an undergraduate thesis from the University of Calvarytitled New approaches in disaster communications: Towards a global communicationlifelines structure. The full text of the thesis is fully downloadable although a detailedabstract is given on the opening on the site. The main body of the thesis focuses oncomputer mediated networking on disaster communications for example using theinternet as a valuable tool in disaster prevention and recovery. Due to the academiccontent this paper may be considered a difficult read to those without a previousknowledge in the field of development however a very useful source.WEBSITES PROVIDING WEATHER INFORMATION25. national hurricane centre site part is part of NOAA (National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration’s). Although this site is maintained and managed byNOAA an American organisation it is accessible all over the world providing weatherrelated information particularly relating to tropical storms and hurricanes. It actspartially as a prediction site providing advance warnings and mapping of weathersystems before they strike world wide.26. and managed by the WMO (World Meteorological Organisation) this siteprovided up to date world weather reports and predictions. Severe weather warningsare published here however its most useful tool is to allow the user to navigate aworld map to portray weather and climate information in any part of the world a vitaltool in disaster prone areas.27.http://www.nws.noaa.govThis site leads the user to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’sweather forecasting. This site is simply a large online weather forecast which iscapable of portraying up to date weather all round the world. It also has links tovarious pages including those relating to disasters and weather warnings andprediction systems.DOCUMENTS RELATING TO SPECIFIC MEETINGS, CONFERENCES ANDSUMMITS28.
  8. 8. ICT4D Annotated BibliographyThis site outlines the agendas and discussions hosted at the APT-ITU meeting on theRole of ICT For Disaster Reduction. As a result of the recent Tsunami disaster whichaffected many APT member countries this meeting addressed key issues on the roleof ICT to prevent disaster occurring in the future. Available on the site are useful linksand button leading the user to other pages outlining programmes and initiatives aswell as downloadable material from the meeting. It is generally a very useful siteincluding lots of telecommunication and disaster information.29. website outlines the outcomes of the WSIS regional thematic meeting on ‘Roleof ICT for Disaster Reduction’ which was co-organised by the ATP and ITU in Feb2005. The meeting recognised the importance of ICT’s in disaster reduction andconfirms several possible ways this can be achieved. It also acknowledges theimportance for these issues to be continued at the next WSIS meeting for progress tobe successfully made in the future.30. press release published on the ITU site (International telecommunication union)describing how post Tsunami telecommunication links have been strengthened. Itoutlined how the recent Tsunamis have been a wake up call in the field of ICT4Despecially concerning telecommunications in disasters. Drawing on informationgathered at the recent summit in Geneva 2005 the ITU propose further work andinitiative which they aim to carry out in the future.31. web site allows the user to access the Tampere Convention document(Tampere (Finland) Convention on the Provision of Telecommunication Resourcesfor Disaster Mitigation). Useful links from this page are ‘telecommunications in theservice of humanitarian aid’ and some of the localised case studies such as the SriLanka pilot study.8