Discourse Analysis (Linguistic 101)


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Discourse Analysis (Linguistic 101)

  1. 1. A discourse is behavioral unit. It is a set of utterances which constitute a recognizable speech event e.g. a conversation, a joke, a sermon, an interview etc. In its historical and etymological perspective the term is used in different perspectives e.g.
  2. 2.  Verbal communication.  All this fine talk.  Direct / indirect speech.  To chat.
  3. 3. In order to narrow down the range of possible meanings, the modern linguists have given different views or definitions. EXAMPLES: Discourse is written as well as spoken: every utterance assuming the a speaker and a hearer as discourse. (Benvenisle, 1971: 208-9) An individualizable group of statements and sometimes as a regulated practice that counts for a number of statements. (Foucault, 1972: 80)
  4. 4. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISCOURSE AND TEXT Text analysis focuses on the structure of written language, as found in such text as essays, notices, road signs and chapters. (Crystal. 1987) Some scholars talk about ‘spoken or written discourse’ other about ‘spoken or written text’ (Crystal. 1987)
  5. 5. Discourse analysis is an attempt to discover linguistic regularities in discourse using grammatical, phonological and semantic criteria e.g. cohesion, anaphora, inter sentence connectivity etc. It is an effort to interpreter what the writer or speaker intended to convey with in a sensitive social context. Example: Father: Is that your coat on the floor again? Son: yes (goes on reading)
  6. 6. EXAMPLE: My natal was in a small town, very close to Riyadh capital of Saudi Arabia. The distance between my town and Riadh 7 miles exactly. The name of this Almasani that means in English factories. It takes its name from the people carrer. In childhood I remember the people live. It was very simple most the people was farmer.
  7. 7. DEVICES FOR DISCOURSE ANALYSIS WE USE DIFFERENT TOOLS FOR DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. SOME OF THEM ARE AS UNDER: (1)Cohesion Cohesion refers to the ties and connections which exist within texts that link different parts of sentences or larger unit of discourse. Cohesive Devices (a)Anaphoric Relation Interpretation of text from some previously expressed idea entity. Example: He did that there. Every word has some anaphoric reference with which interpretation could not be made.
  8. 8. (b) Cataphoric Relation It means referring forward. It refers the identity what is being expressed and what is to be expressed. Example: Here is the 9, O Clock news. By using these relation and links we can better interpret and analyzed discourse.
  9. 9. (2)COHERENCE The language users try to come to an interpretation in the scenario of knowledge of the world they posses. Coherence is not something which exists in the language but something which exists in people. By using coherence the reader arums semantic unity the paragraph. Example: Her: That’s the telephone Him: I’ am in the both. Her: Ok. We can interpret the above dialogue with the help of conventional action and by our background knowledge that someone in the bathroom can not attend the telephone.
  10. 10. (3) PARALLELISM Parallelism means side by side. In some piece of literature some comparisons or contrasts go side be side with each other. They also help to interpreter the whole text. Example: In Jane Austen’s ‘Pride and Prejudice’, good marriages and bad marriages are compared and contrasted on parallel levels.
  11. 11. (4) SPEECH EVENTS Speech events are mainly concerned what people say in different environment e.g. Debate, interview, discussions, quiz etc. are different Speech Events. Speakers may have different speech roles as friend, strangers, young or old of equal or unequal status. This background knowledge about the personality and environment give a better comprehension for better interpretation of discourse.
  12. 12. (5) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Background knowledge can be very much helpful in interpreting any text. Schema and script are two terms that comprise the background knowledge. Schema and script tells us what actually the real situation is and what the actions are. Schema is conventional knowledge which exists in memory. Script is essentially a dynamic schema in which conventional action takes place.
  13. 13. EXAMPLE Trying not to be out of the office Suzy went into the nearest place, sat down and ordered a apple.
  14. 14. Schema tells us: Suzy may be an office girl The nearest place is some supermarket. Script tells us: About the action she performed as: Firstly, she unlocked the door. Secondly, she walked to the nearest supermarket. Thirdly, she opened the door of the supermarket. etc.
  15. 15. (6) CONVERSATIONAL INTERACTION Conversation is an activity where for the most part tw0 or more people take turn at speaking: in these turns at speaking one has to pick up the completion point to take his turn to speak. This is conversational interaction. During the discourse we not only taking part in conversation but we are also analyzing. The discourse simultaneously. So in the conversation turn taking helps us to successfully complete the discourse.
  16. 16. (7) THE CO-OPERATION PRINCIPLE Grice (1975) set Four Maxims which say that in conversational exchanges the participants are in fact co- operating with each other. (i). Maxim of Quantity Make your contribution as informative as is required but not more or less than is required. (ii). Maxim of Quality Don’t say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack evidence. (iii). Maxim of Relation Be relevant (iv). Maxim of Manner Be clear, brief and orderly.
  17. 17. EXAMPLE: Carol : Are your coming to the party tonight? Lara: I’ve got exam tomorrow. 1. Maxim of Quantity:- information is that Lara has exams 2. Maxim of Quality: She is describing a fact of her exams. 3. Maxim of Relation: It is the reason why she could not come to the party 4. Maxim of Manner: A clear cut refusal. The following can be the intended meaning: Tomorrow : Exam To night : Study, Preparation Tonight : No party Intended meaning : Refusal
  18. 18. THANK YOU