The partition of africa


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The partition of africa

  1. 1. The Partition of Africa
  2. 3. North Africa <ul><li>Sahara Desert and Fertile land along the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Close ties to the Muslim world </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1800’s, under control of Ottoman Empire </li></ul>
  3. 4. West Africa <ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic reform movement </li></ul><ul><li>Usman dan Fodio: Jihad: holy struggle to revive and purify Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Forest regions: Asante kingdom: traded with Europeans and controlled smaller states </li></ul>
  4. 5. East Africa <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Port cities: Mombasa and Kilwa </li></ul><ul><li>Slave ports to the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Ivory and copper exchanged for cloth and firearms from India </li></ul>
  5. 6. Southern Africa <ul><li>Shaka united the Zulu nation in early 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Mass migrations and wars create chaos </li></ul><ul><li>1830’s: Zulus vs. Boers </li></ul>
  6. 7. European Contact <ul><li>Explorers fascinated by African geography: Mungo Park and Richard Burton </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries: Catholic and Protestant sought to convert natives (children in need of guidance) to Christianity </li></ul>
  7. 8. Dr. David Livingstone <ul><li>Crisscrossed Africa for 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Less bias than most Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>End of slave trade would come from opening up interior to trade and Christianity </li></ul>
  8. 9. King Leopold II of Belgium <ul><li>Sent Henry Stanley to explore Congo River basin </li></ul><ul><li>“ civilizing mission” </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamed of conquest and profit </li></ul><ul><li>Exploited riches of the Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Belgian overseers brutalizing villagers </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to work for almost nothing, savagely beaten and mutilated </li></ul><ul><li>International outraged forced Leopold to turn control of Congo over to Belgian Gov’t </li></ul>
  9. 10. Berlin Conference 1884 <ul><li>European countries arguing over land </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid bloodshed, met in Berlin to divide up Africa </li></ul><ul><li>No Africans present at Conference </li></ul><ul><li>No European power could claim a part of Africa unless they set up a government office in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>20 years later, European powers partitioned almost the entire continent </li></ul>
  10. 11. European’s Spoils <ul><li>France: Mediterranean and N. Africa, empire was as large as continental United States at its height </li></ul><ul><li>Britain: smaller and more scattered than France, but included more heavily populated regions </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese: Angola and Mozambique </li></ul><ul><li>Italy: Libya and horn of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Germany: eastern and southwestern </li></ul>
  11. 13. The Africans Strike Back <ul><li>Armed resistance across the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia was one of the only areas in Africa (besides Liberia) to successfully hold off the Europeans (Italy) </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Imperialism led to the development of a western-educated African Elite </li></ul>
  12. 14. Egypt and Iran
  13. 15. Egypt: Muhammad Ali <ul><li>Muhammad Ali appointed governor in 1805 </li></ul><ul><li>“ father of modern Egypt” </li></ul><ul><li>Improved tax collection, reorganized landholding system, backed irrigation projects, increased Egyptian participation in world trade </li></ul><ul><li>Western military experts to help build well trained, modern army </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered Arabia, Syria, Sudan </li></ul>
  14. 16. Suez Canal
  15. 17. Suez Canal <ul><li>1859 Ferdinand de Lesseps (French) organized a company to build the canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt increasingly under foreign control </li></ul><ul><li>100 miles long, links Med. with Red </li></ul><ul><li>1875 ruler of Egypt couldn’t pay loans taken out for the canal, so had to give up his shares in it to Britain </li></ul>
  16. 18. Protectorate <ul><li>Egyptian nationalists revolted against foreign influence in 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain made Egypt a protectorate </li></ul><ul><li>Governor of Egypt was still an official of the Ottoman government but followed policies dictated by Britian </li></ul><ul><li>Protectorate=Puppet government </li></ul>
  17. 19. Iran <ul><li>Qajar shahs ruled Iran from 1794-1925 exercised absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Improved finances, sponsored building of telegraph lines and railroads, experimented with a liberal constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Russia and Britain battled for influence </li></ul>
  18. 20. Why Britain and Russia? <ul><li>Britain wanted to protect interests in India </li></ul><ul><li>Russia wanted to protect southern frontier </li></ul>
  19. 21. Spheres of Influence <ul><li>Russia operated in the North and Britain in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Oil discovered in 1900’s </li></ul><ul><li>Both persuaded Iranian government to grant concessions or special economic rights and sent troops into Iran </li></ul>