Urbanisation - Junior Cert Geography


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A Presentation made for Junior Cert Geography on the topic of urbanisation in the developed and developing world. Contains some past Junior Cert exam questions.

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Urbanisation - Junior Cert Geography

  1. 1. The Growth of Towns and Cities
  2. 2. Economic – urban areas are market centres for the buying and selling of Goods and Services Administrative – urban areas are the places from which the surrounding area is governed e.g. Carrickmacross Town Council Social Activities – Cinemas, pubs, theatres, sportsgrounds etc.
  3. 3. Founded around 980 AD by Viking Traders Originally a small settlement around a dark pool – Dubh Linn – where Temple Bar is now Very few traces exist today as buildings were made of wood
  4. 4. 1169 – arrival of Anglo Normans. Built stone buildings such as Dublin Castle, Christchurch and St. Patrick’s Cathedral Started period of English control of Ireland
  5. 5. 1500 to 1800 – English control grew, Trinity College and much of Georgian (redbrick) city built
  6. 6. 1800 to 1900 – After losing its Parliament, Dublin declined in importance. Slums called tenements grew. Development of Canals and Railways connected Dublin to the rest of Ireland
  7. 7. Rapid development after independence – development of roads and railways increased ease of transport, high birth rates and inward migration increased population
  8. 8. The Central Business District – banks, department stores and shopping is found here. Very few people live in the CBD. Land here is expensive – buildings are tall to maximise land use
  9. 9. Outlying shopping areas – to discourage unnecessary travel and traffic congestion some shopping areas have developed outside the CBD
  10. 10. Factories are located in Industrial Estates at the edge of urban areas. There are several reasons for this: ◦ Land is cheaper on the outskirts ◦ Access and transport is easier outside towns ◦ There are less complaints from residents as factories are kept away from houses ◦ Workers are available in nearby residential areas ◦ Often near ports or airports
  11. 11. Residential Areas – Most people today live in housing estates which are quieter and safer than the CBD or industrial zones. Types of housing can vary a great deal here. Also Called suburbs (Sub-Urban)
  12. 12. Open Space – Urban areas require open public spaces where people can relax and play in safety.
  13. 13. People travel from satellite towns to the city for work Lower land values mean homes are often cheaper here Irish Example: Leixlip. French Example: Marne-La-Valee
  14. 14. Land Values are highest in the CBD and most businesses that locate here need lots of customers buying services or small goods. Eg. Law Companies, Department Stores etc. Outside the city, lower land values encourage companies selling bulky products to set up Eg. Car dealers, builder providers, etc.
  15. 15. Old Houses - Two Up, Two Down – Two bedrooms upstairs, two rooms downstairs, toilet in back garden! Modern Materials – today’s houses are better constructed and better insulated Central Heating has replaced open fires More bedrooms, bathrooms and toilets
  16. 16. Rush Hour – when most commuters are either going to work (before 9AM) or going home (after 5.30 PM approx) In London people have to pay extra to drive into the city at this time In Dublin, cars are banned from certain streets at this time. This is designed to stop Traffic Congestion
  17. 17. Decline of the Inner City: As cars become more common, people move out of the inner city which then becomes run down
  18. 18. As the population of the inner city moves to the suburbs, the area goes into decline and becomes run down
  19. 19. Urban Sprawl – this refers to the rapid growth of a city outward, usually as a result of housing growth
  20. 20. Unemployment – many factories have now moved out of the CBD, leading to unemployment for inner city communities. Also many Inner City residents drop out of school and have few skills.
  21. 21. Crime – a major problem in inner cities is a high crime rate, often fuelled by drug dealing
  22. 22. Community Disruption – when people move out of cities, it breaks connections between families and neighbours Ballymun in Dublin was a failed housing development because it broke connections between families
  23. 23. Urban Renewal – tearing down old shops and housing and putting up new shops AND housing in its place. Original residents move into new homes in the same area. Example: Ballymun Urban Redevelopment – tearing down old shops and housing and putting up new shops ONLY. Original residents move out of the area. Example: Jervis Street, Dublin In redevelopment, the function of the area changes.
  24. 24. Urban Sprawl – where residential areas spread far out from the CBD Housing ONLY – this makes it difficult to get jobs in the area – v few shops/factories - leads to urban problems (crime, drugs etc.)
  25. 25. Tallaght – once a small village it grew rapidly in the 1970s as people moved to it from inner city Dublin and the rest of the country
  26. 26. Very spread out town – hard to get around easily Very few services – just like a gigantic housing estate with little else Few jobs – people left Tallaght to work in other parts of Dublin After falling into decline in the 1980s it was decided to develop new jobs and services in Tallaght
  27. 27. LUAS provides easy access New Developments – provides jobs and leisure opportunities New educational facilities (Tallaght Institute of Technology) Sporting Facilities (Shamrock Rovers)
  28. 28. Problems
  29. 29. Same city, different life….