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Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
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Rock types and their Formation

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Slides for Leaving Certificate Geography on Rocks and their formation

Slides for Leaving Certificate Geography on Rocks and their formation

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  • 1. Recapping from Junior Cert… _____________ are formed from hot volcanic material that has cooled down – two examples are __________ and _______________. ________________ rocks are formed from particles of animal or plant remains, or other rocks. Examples include _______________ and ______________. _________________ rocks are rocks that are changed by great _____ or ___________. Examples include ____________ and _______________.
  • 2. 2006 OL
  • 3. Igneous rocks  Formed underground (intrusive) or on the surface (extrusive)  Two basic intrusive types  Plutonic – formed deep underground, with large crystals. Example – Granite of Wicklow Mountains  Hypabassal – formed close to the surface, smaller crystals. Example – Dolerite of Co. Antrim.  One extrusive type  Basalt (Giant’s Causeway)
  • 4. Hypabassal Dolerite – Fair Head sill Formed close to the surface, has an appearance like Basalt. Crystals are small.
  • 5. Plutonic Igneous Rock - Granite Contains many crystals due to slow cooling underground as it was formed. Found in the Dublin & Wicklow mountains (Batholith)
  • 6. Extrusive Rocks - Basalt
  • 7. Definitions & Examples Extrusive ____________________________________________ Example of Extrusive rock ______________________________ Intrusive ____________________________________________ Hypabassal __________________________________________ Example of Hypabassal Rock ____________________________ Plutonic _____________________________________________ Example of Plutonic Rock _______________________________
  • 8. 2010 HL
  • 9. 2010 OL
  • 10. 2010 Ordinary Level LC
  • 11. Sedimentary rock - formation  Key words and phrases  Accumulation – build up of Strata (layers) of particles  Compaction – squashing of layers together  Cementation – glueing together of particles  Lithification – the process of changing sedimentation into stone
  • 12. Sedimentary Rock types  Organically formed from dead plant/animal material (e.g. Coal, Limestone, Chalk)  Inorganically formed – from particles of other rocks (e.g. Sandstone, Mudstone)  Chemically formed (less common) – formed from evaporation of sea water, leaving the salts behind (e.g. Gypsum, Rocksalt)
  • 13. Gypsum – a chemically formed sedimentary rock (from seawater evaporating)
  • 14. Sediments laid down – a salt pan
  • 15. Metamorphic Rocks – P 68  Three types:  Thermal (rocks changed by intense heat – e.g. Quartzite (thermal metamorphism of Sandstone, Sugar Loaf Mountain)  Dynamic Metamorphism – (rocks changed by pressure – e.g. Shale into slate)  Regional Metamorphism – (rocks changed over a long time and over a large area, being slowly “cooked” to form new rocks e.g. Gneiss. Found in N. Scotland, NW Ireland and Canada)
  • 16. Metamorphic Rock - Gneiss
  • 17. Slate used as a roofing material
  • 18. Ireland’s Rocks
  • 19. 2011 LC Hons Q
  • 20. Rock Cycle – P 62  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7YQ5vwaL98  The process by which rocks are constantly “recycled” by the natural processes of the Earth.
  • 21. The Rock Cycle
  • 22. 2006 LC HL
  • 23. Tara Mines – Case Study
  • 24. Case Study - Tara Zinc and Lead mines  An important Primary Economic Activity in the GDA (Greater Dublin Area)  At Tara Mines people interact with the Rock Cycle in many different ways  Constructing Shaft Mines  Working on new methods to extract ore  Inventing safe methods to dispose of mining waste  Developing transport systems to move ore to the market
  • 25. Zinc and Lead
  • 26. Zinc and Lead - uses  Zinc  Used in alloys for car manufacture  Galvanising  Dietary supplements  Batteries  Lead  Soldering  Bullets  Batteries
  • 27. Shaft Mine
  • 28. Tara Mines – ore extraction
  • 29. Tara Mines – stope and pillar mining
  • 30. Ore Transportation
  • 31. Tara Mines  Largest Zinc Mine in Europe, 5th largest in the world  Ore (rock that contains the metals) is extracted at Navan, shipped to refineries in Finland and Norway  The ore was formed approx 350 million years ago between layers of carboniferous limestone, now lies 500 to 900m below surface  “Stope and Pillar” mining is used (see p 66)  Rock is crushed to a powder, mixed with water and chemicals to remove the metals from the rock  Waste water is toxic, needs to be treated carefully
  • 32. Tara Mines - Environment  Mining is potentially very dangerous for environment  Sediments and chemicals used are vulnerable to transport by wind – can get blown onto crops, towns, people  Since 1997 improvements have been made at the mine to improve the local environment  Waste water treated by natural bacteria  Landscaping in local area  Restoration of tailings pond (where sediments are allowed to settle)  Constant monitoring for pollution
  • 33. LC Exam Question on mining (2009)  Discuss, with reference to one of the following, how humans interact with the rock cycle (30 marks)  Mining  Extraction of building materials  Oil / Gas exploitation  Geothermal energy production Marking Scheme  Interaction identified: 2 marks  Discussion: 14 x SRPs  Give credit for up to two examples of location.
  • 34. LC Exam Question 2009 Examine, with reference to examples from Ireland, the formation of sedimentary rocks. [30m] Marking Scheme  Name two sedimentary rocks: 2 + 2 marks  Name two associated Irish locations: 2 + 2 marks  Examination: 11 x SRPs  Give credit for 1 SRP for diagram without annotation.  Give credit for extra labelling in diagram from Examination SRPs.  Allow treatment of up to 3 rocks in examination.  At least 3 SRPs for treatment of second sedimentary rock  If description only –2 x SRPs max

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