Recapping from Junior Cert…
_____________ are formed from hot volcanic material that
has cooled down – two examples are __...
2006 OL
Igneous rocks
 Formed underground (intrusive) or on the surface
(extrusive)
 Two basic intrusive types
 Plutonic – form...
Hypabassal Dolerite – Fair Head sill
Formed close to the surface, has an
appearance like Basalt. Crystals are
small.
Plutonic Igneous Rock - Granite
Contains many crystals due to slow
cooling underground as it was
formed. Found in the Dubl...
Extrusive Rocks - Basalt
Definitions & Examples
Extrusive ____________________________________________
Example of Extrusive rock __________________...
2010 HL
2010 OL
2010 Ordinary Level LC
Sedimentary rock - formation
 Key words and phrases
 Accumulation – build up of Strata (layers) of particles
 Compactio...
Sedimentary Rock types
 Organically formed from dead plant/animal material (e.g.
Coal, Limestone, Chalk)
 Inorganically ...
Gypsum – a chemically formed sedimentary
rock (from seawater evaporating)
Sediments laid down – a salt pan
Metamorphic Rocks – P 68
 Three types:
 Thermal (rocks changed by intense heat – e.g. Quartzite
(thermal metamorphism of...
Metamorphic Rock - Gneiss
Slate used as a roofing material
Ireland’s Rocks
2011 LC Hons Q
Rock Cycle – P 62
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7YQ5vwaL98
 The process by which rocks are constantly “recycled” by
t...
The Rock Cycle
2006 LC HL
Tara Mines – Case Study
Case Study - Tara Zinc and Lead
mines
 An important Primary Economic Activity in the GDA (Greater
Dublin Area)
 At Tara ...
Zinc and Lead
Zinc and Lead - uses
 Zinc
 Used in alloys for car manufacture
 Galvanising
 Dietary supplements
 Batteries
 Lead
 ...
Shaft Mine
Tara Mines – ore extraction
Tara Mines – stope and pillar
mining
Ore Transportation
Tara Mines
 Largest Zinc Mine in Europe, 5th largest in the world
 Ore (rock that contains the metals) is extracted at N...
Tara Mines - Environment
 Mining is potentially very dangerous for environment
 Sediments and chemicals used are vulnera...
LC Exam Question on mining
(2009)
 Discuss, with reference to one of the following, how humans
interact with the rock cyc...
LC Exam Question 2009
Examine, with reference to examples from Ireland, the
formation of sedimentary rocks. [30m]
Marking ...
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
Rock types and their Formation
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Rock types and their Formation

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Rock types and their Formation

  1. 1. Recapping from Junior Cert… _____________ are formed from hot volcanic material that has cooled down – two examples are __________ and _______________. ________________ rocks are formed from particles of animal or plant remains, or other rocks. Examples include _______________ and ______________. _________________ rocks are rocks that are changed by great _____ or ___________. Examples include ____________ and _______________.
  2. 2. 2006 OL
  3. 3. Igneous rocks  Formed underground (intrusive) or on the surface (extrusive)  Two basic intrusive types  Plutonic – formed deep underground, with large crystals. Example – Granite of Wicklow Mountains  Hypabassal – formed close to the surface, smaller crystals. Example – Dolerite of Co. Antrim.  One extrusive type  Basalt (Giant’s Causeway)
  4. 4. Hypabassal Dolerite – Fair Head sill Formed close to the surface, has an appearance like Basalt. Crystals are small.
  5. 5. Plutonic Igneous Rock - Granite Contains many crystals due to slow cooling underground as it was formed. Found in the Dublin & Wicklow mountains (Batholith)
  6. 6. Extrusive Rocks - Basalt
  7. 7. Definitions & Examples Extrusive ____________________________________________ Example of Extrusive rock ______________________________ Intrusive ____________________________________________ Hypabassal __________________________________________ Example of Hypabassal Rock ____________________________ Plutonic _____________________________________________ Example of Plutonic Rock _______________________________
  8. 8. 2010 HL
  9. 9. 2010 OL
  10. 10. 2010 Ordinary Level LC
  11. 11. Sedimentary rock - formation  Key words and phrases  Accumulation – build up of Strata (layers) of particles  Compaction – squashing of layers together  Cementation – glueing together of particles  Lithification – the process of changing sedimentation into stone
  12. 12. Sedimentary Rock types  Organically formed from dead plant/animal material (e.g. Coal, Limestone, Chalk)  Inorganically formed – from particles of other rocks (e.g. Sandstone, Mudstone)  Chemically formed (less common) – formed from evaporation of sea water, leaving the salts behind (e.g. Gypsum, Rocksalt)
  13. 13. Gypsum – a chemically formed sedimentary rock (from seawater evaporating)
  14. 14. Sediments laid down – a salt pan
  15. 15. Metamorphic Rocks – P 68  Three types:  Thermal (rocks changed by intense heat – e.g. Quartzite (thermal metamorphism of Sandstone, Sugar Loaf Mountain)  Dynamic Metamorphism – (rocks changed by pressure – e.g. Shale into slate)  Regional Metamorphism – (rocks changed over a long time and over a large area, being slowly “cooked” to form new rocks e.g. Gneiss. Found in N. Scotland, NW Ireland and Canada)
  16. 16. Metamorphic Rock - Gneiss
  17. 17. Slate used as a roofing material
  18. 18. Ireland’s Rocks
  19. 19. 2011 LC Hons Q
  20. 20. Rock Cycle – P 62  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7YQ5vwaL98  The process by which rocks are constantly “recycled” by the natural processes of the Earth.
  21. 21. The Rock Cycle
  22. 22. 2006 LC HL
  23. 23. Tara Mines – Case Study
  24. 24. Case Study - Tara Zinc and Lead mines  An important Primary Economic Activity in the GDA (Greater Dublin Area)  At Tara Mines people interact with the Rock Cycle in many different ways  Constructing Shaft Mines  Working on new methods to extract ore  Inventing safe methods to dispose of mining waste  Developing transport systems to move ore to the market
  25. 25. Zinc and Lead
  26. 26. Zinc and Lead - uses  Zinc  Used in alloys for car manufacture  Galvanising  Dietary supplements  Batteries  Lead  Soldering  Bullets  Batteries
  27. 27. Shaft Mine
  28. 28. Tara Mines – ore extraction
  29. 29. Tara Mines – stope and pillar mining
  30. 30. Ore Transportation
  31. 31. Tara Mines  Largest Zinc Mine in Europe, 5th largest in the world  Ore (rock that contains the metals) is extracted at Navan, shipped to refineries in Finland and Norway  The ore was formed approx 350 million years ago between layers of carboniferous limestone, now lies 500 to 900m below surface  “Stope and Pillar” mining is used (see p 66)  Rock is crushed to a powder, mixed with water and chemicals to remove the metals from the rock  Waste water is toxic, needs to be treated carefully
  32. 32. Tara Mines - Environment  Mining is potentially very dangerous for environment  Sediments and chemicals used are vulnerable to transport by wind – can get blown onto crops, towns, people  Since 1997 improvements have been made at the mine to improve the local environment  Waste water treated by natural bacteria  Landscaping in local area  Restoration of tailings pond (where sediments are allowed to settle)  Constant monitoring for pollution
  33. 33. LC Exam Question on mining (2009)  Discuss, with reference to one of the following, how humans interact with the rock cycle (30 marks)  Mining  Extraction of building materials  Oil / Gas exploitation  Geothermal energy production Marking Scheme  Interaction identified: 2 marks  Discussion: 14 x SRPs  Give credit for up to two examples of location.
  34. 34. LC Exam Question 2009 Examine, with reference to examples from Ireland, the formation of sedimentary rocks. [30m] Marking Scheme  Name two sedimentary rocks: 2 + 2 marks  Name two associated Irish locations: 2 + 2 marks  Examination: 11 x SRPs  Give credit for 1 SRP for diagram without annotation.  Give credit for extra labelling in diagram from Examination SRPs.  Allow treatment of up to 3 rocks in examination.  At least 3 SRPs for treatment of second sedimentary rock  If description only –2 x SRPs max
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