Recapping from Junior Cert…
_____________ are formed from hot volcanic material that
has cooled down – two examples are __________ and
________________ rocks are formed from particles of
animal or plant remains, or other rocks. Examples include
_______________ and ______________.
_________________ rocks are rocks that are changed by
great _____ or ___________. Examples include
____________ and _______________.
Formed underground (intrusive) or on the surface
Two basic intrusive types
Plutonic – formed deep underground, with large crystals.
Example – Granite of Wicklow Mountains
Hypabassal – formed close to the surface, smaller crystals.
Example – Dolerite of Co. Antrim.
One extrusive type
Basalt (Giant’s Causeway)
Hypabassal Dolerite – Fair Head sill
Formed close to the surface, has an
appearance like Basalt. Crystals are
Plutonic Igneous Rock - Granite
Contains many crystals due to slow
cooling underground as it was
formed. Found in the Dublin &
Wicklow mountains (Batholith)
Definitions & Examples
Example of Extrusive rock ______________________________
Example of Hypabassal Rock ____________________________
Example of Plutonic Rock _______________________________
Sedimentary rock - formation
Key words and phrases
Accumulation – build up of Strata (layers) of particles
Compaction – squashing of layers together
Cementation – glueing together of particles
Lithification – the process of changing sedimentation into
Sedimentary Rock types
Organically formed from dead plant/animal material (e.g.
Coal, Limestone, Chalk)
Inorganically formed – from particles of other rocks (e.g.
Chemically formed (less common) – formed from
evaporation of sea water, leaving the salts behind (e.g.
Gypsum – a chemically formed sedimentary
rock (from seawater evaporating)
Metamorphic Rocks – P 68
Thermal (rocks changed by intense heat – e.g. Quartzite
(thermal metamorphism of Sandstone, Sugar Loaf
Dynamic Metamorphism – (rocks changed by pressure –
e.g. Shale into slate)
Regional Metamorphism – (rocks changed over a long time
and over a large area, being slowly “cooked” to form new
rocks e.g. Gneiss. Found in N. Scotland, NW Ireland and
Case Study - Tara Zinc and Lead
An important Primary Economic Activity in the GDA (Greater
At Tara Mines people interact with the Rock Cycle in many
Constructing Shaft Mines
Working on new methods to extract ore
Inventing safe methods to dispose of mining waste
Developing transport systems to move ore to the market
Largest Zinc Mine in Europe, 5th largest in the world
Ore (rock that contains the metals) is extracted at Navan,
shipped to refineries in Finland and Norway
The ore was formed approx 350 million years ago between
layers of carboniferous limestone, now lies 500 to 900m below
“Stope and Pillar” mining is used (see p 66)
Rock is crushed to a powder, mixed with water and chemicals
to remove the metals from the rock
Waste water is toxic, needs to be treated carefully
Tara Mines - Environment
Mining is potentially very dangerous for environment
Sediments and chemicals used are vulnerable to transport
by wind – can get blown onto crops, towns, people
Since 1997 improvements have been made at the mine to
improve the local environment
Waste water treated by natural bacteria
Landscaping in local area
Restoration of tailings pond (where sediments are allowed
Constant monitoring for pollution
LC Exam Question on mining
Discuss, with reference to one of the following, how humans
interact with the rock cycle (30 marks)
Extraction of building materials
Oil / Gas exploitation
Geothermal energy production
Interaction identified: 2 marks
Discussion: 14 x SRPs
Give credit for up to two examples of location.
LC Exam Question 2009
Examine, with reference to examples from Ireland, the
formation of sedimentary rocks. [30m]
Name two sedimentary rocks: 2 + 2 marks
Name two associated Irish locations: 2 + 2 marks
Examination: 11 x SRPs
Give credit for 1 SRP for diagram without annotation.
Give credit for extra labelling in diagram from Examination
Allow treatment of up to 3 rocks in examination.
At least 3 SRPs for treatment of second sedimentary rock
If description only –2 x SRPs max
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