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Rock types and landscapes

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Rock types and the landscapes they can create. For Leaving Certificate Geography (Ireland)

Rock types and the landscapes they can create. For Leaving Certificate Geography (Ireland)

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  • 1.  ¼ of the world’s population live in Karst areas (most of this ¼ is found in China)  Formed by Chemical weathering (from rainwater) and erosion
  • 2.  Lack of rivers/lakes  Presence of Swallow Holes – where water disappears underground  Presence of hollows – dolines  Presence of underground water (in caves)
  • 3.  Limestone is permeable (water can pass through)  Well jointed (vertical “gaps”)  Has bedding planes (horizontal “gaps” between layers)  Easily chemically weathered
  • 4.  Many cave features are formed by Deposition  Rainwater (slightly acidic from the CO2 in the air) dissolves Calcium Carbonate in Limestone.  The dissolved Calcium Carbonate (called Calcite) is deposited in caves
  • 5.  Important source of water – many springs in Limestone areas.  Ballygowan water – from limestone area in Limerick
  • 6.  Very important for tourism ◦ Caves are tourist attractions (e.g. Ailwee Cave) ◦ Unique landscape ◦ Planning restrictions mean landscape is kept unspoilt – no housing estates/McDonalds/Shopping centres allowed ◦ Historic features
  • 7.  Unique Ecosystem…. Unusual plants and animals
  • 8.  Engineering difficulties ◦ Caves may collapse ◦ Industrial Development Restricted ◦ Problems with fresh water contamination due to permeable nature of landscape – fertiliser, sewerage etc can easily contaminate drinking water supplies ◦ Agricultural development restricted – farming is difficult