International relations in the 20th century

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Slides on European History for Third Year Students - deals mainly with the fallout from World War One and the rise of Dictatorships

Slides on European History for Third Year Students - deals mainly with the fallout from World War One and the rise of Dictatorships

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  • 1. World War One, World War Two and the Cold War
  • 2.   The ALLIES: Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the USA  The CENTRAL POWERS: Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Turkish (Ottoman) empire The two sides in the War
  • 3.  Some people were very happy when World War One started….
  • 4.  It was all a laugh at the start…
  • 5.  But by the end….
  • 6.
  • 7.   1914 – Murder of Archduke of Austria triggers start of war. Other countries are “dragged in”  1916 – Battle of the Somme – biggest battle of the war  1917 – USA enters war on side of the Allies  1917 – Russian Revolution, Russia leaves the war  1918 – Stalemate and end of war  1919 – Versailles Treaty officially ends war Timeline
  • 8.
  • 9.   Formally ended World War One  Very harsh on Germany – had to pay reparations (compensation) to its enemies in the war  Germany had to give up land to its neighbours  German Army restricted to 100,000 men  Was blamed for starting the war  Germans felt very bitter about this – Adolf Hitler used this bitterness to get himself into power in the 1930s Treaty of Versailles
  • 10.   Former warring countries came together in an international organisation called the League of Nations  Aim was to prevent war between its members  Was a failure because it was weak – many countries ignored it.  America took no part in it – tried to stay away from Europe’s problems – this was known as isolationism League of Nations
  • 11.  2011 Junior Cert
  • 12.
  • 13.  League of Nations German Leader Versailles Number of war dead Reparations Tasty treat in the trenches The Great War Peace treaty signed here Eight Million Winners of World War 1 Trenches Compensation for war damage Rats Another name for WW1 Allies Losers of World War 1 Central Powers Fighting took place in these Kaiser International organisation to prevent war Matchup
  • 14.
  • 15.  The Russian Revolution – Communism takes over
  • 16.  The Russian Revolution – Communism takes over Worker Rich businessman
  • 17.   Until 1917, Russia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas II  Ordinary Russians were very poor and worked long hours – richest did very little work  War against Germany had made things worse  In Feb 1917 the Tsar was overthrown and a Russian Republic was declared The Russian Revolution – Communism takes over
  • 18.   New Government failed to stop war with Germany  Second uprising in October – this time the Bolsheviks (a.k.a. Communists) took control, led by Vladimir Lenin October 1917
  • 19.   Lenin died of a stroke in 1924 – replaced by Josef Stalin  Stalin tried to modernise the USSR through collective farms and a 5 year plan to develop industry  Collective farms – farms owned by the government  This impressed the rest of the world but was very harsh on ordinary people in the USSR Lenin dies, Stalin steps up..
  • 20.  “Comrades, join our Collective Farm” – Soviet Propaganda Poster
  • 21.  And the reality…famine victim in Russia
  • 22.  The five year plan – “do it in 4 years!”
  • 23.  NKVD providing motivation to “lazy” Russian workers
  • 24.  Mussolini – an Italian Fascist
  • 25.   Improved relations with the Catholic Church – signed a treaty that set up Vatican City as a “mini country” separate from Italy  At first opposed to Hitler, later became his ally (the Rome- Berlin axis). Signed “Pact of Steel” with Hitler in 1939  Invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) – condemned by France and Britain  Eventually overthrown by Italians during WW2 Mussolini
  • 26.  Across 6. where a country has only one ruling party 7. Country Mussolini was leader of Down Mussolini hated other races: thus he was a ...... 2. Mussolini's secret police 3. Fascist youth movment 4. Mussolini's followers 5. Mussolini hated people like these
  • 27.   Mussolini  Fascist/Blackshirt  Communist  Pact of Steel  Communism  Lenin  Stalin  Propaganda  Dictatorship  Lateran Treaty  Abyssinia  League of Nations Key Terms
  • 28.   Germany became a Republic after World War 1 – known as “Weimar Republic” after town of Weimar  As the new Democratic Government was seen as weak and unable to solve Germany’s problems, it became unpopular  Threats from Communists meant that anti-communists (like Hitler) became more popular  Economic Depression after 1929 led people to turn away from democracy…. The Weimar Republic
  • 29.  A disabled War Veteran begging in Weimar Germany
  • 30.  Economic Depression in Germany – money becomes worthless
  • 31.   Born in Vienna, fought in World War One for Germany  Very anti-semitic (hated Jewish People) – blamed them for Germany’s problems & for the war  Joined the German Worker’s Party and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party)  Great Public Speaker Hitler
  • 32.  The Sturmabteilung (SA) – Hitler’s Henchmen
  • 33.  The Schutzstaffel (SS) – Hitler’s most fanatical followers at work
  • 34.   Munich Putch (Beer Hall Putch) – Hitler’s unsuccessful attempt to seize control of Germany in 1923  Mein Kampf – “My Struggle” – Hitler’s book which promoted his racist ideas and demands for Anschluss (German Domination of Europe) Munich Putsch and Mein Kampf
  • 35.  1929 – the “Wall Street Crash” and economic recession
  • 36.  Economic Depression makes German banknotes worthless – banknotes used as wallpaper
  • 37.   Hitler’s Nazi party (NSDAP) became the largest party in the German Parliament (Reichstag) elections  Hitler was appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg 1933 – Hitler becomes Chancellor (Prime Minister) (Nazis)
  • 38.  Hitler and Hindenburg
  • 39.   Bans Communist Party  Gets Reichstag (German Parliament ) to pass the Enabling Act law – becomes dictator of Germany  Night of the Long Knives – leader of Stormstroopers (SA) Ernst Rohm is murdered by Hitler (to stop him becoming too powerful) Hitler in Control
  • 40.   Hitler blamed the Jews for all of Germany’s problems  During World War 2, Hitler decided to end the Jewish “problem” by murdering all of them – the Final Solution  Hitler’s deputy (Heinrich Himmler) was in charge of this  First step was to herd the Jews into overcrowded Ghettos (e.g. Warsaw ghetto) The Holocaust
  • 41.   Second step was the construction of extermination camps  Concentration Camps – worked people to death  Extermination Camps – just killed people  People were murdered using poison gas (Zyklon B) and their bodies burned  6 Million Jewish people died this way The Holocaust
  • 42.  Holocaust – murder of mother and child
  • 43.  Arrival of Jews at a Concentration Camp
  • 44.  Holocaust – Gassing of civilians took place here
  • 45.  Holocaust – disposal of bodies by burning
  • 46.  Mass Grave of Jewish Holocaust Victims
  • 47.   Hitler believed that Germany should expand into other countries for “living space” (Lebensraum)  After World War 1, he wanted to build up Germany into an empire which he called the Third Reich  He began to break the Versailles Treaty by building up a bigger army and air force (Luftwaffe)  The French and British were afraid of him and tried to give him what he wanted – this was known as appeasement Hitler’s Foreign Policy
  • 48.  Fuhrer Mass murder of Jews Anti-Semitism A Concentraton Camp Weimar Republic Hitler’s Autobiography Mein Kampf “Father” – e.g. Hitler Kristallnacht Democratic Germany Dachau Hitler’s Henchmen Holocaust Hatred of Jews Brownshirts Night of Broken Glass Matchup