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Leaving Certificate Geography slides on a non european region

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  1. 1. INDIA
  2. 2. Massive Population – 1,200 000 000 (1.2 Billion) people Massive poverty but also massive potential – India economy is now growing rapidly after decades of stagnation Significant natural and human resources Huge cultural and economic impact – India is a regional superpower and Indian culture has spread worldwide One of the world’s few nuclear armed countries
  3. 3. India has a subtropical climate – fairly high temperature and high precipitation Monsoons (wet seasons) are frequent, as is flooding India’s poverty means that floods are particularly devastating West is generally drier and hotter than the east
  4. 4. Huge country – huge soil variety Alluvial Soils at the deltas of major rivers (e.g. Ganga Valley) Laterites (leached soils) inland Black Soils at the Deccan Plateau
  5. 5. Describe and explain any two factors that influence the development of agriculture in a non-European Continental / Sub-Continental Region that you have studied. (2010 LC Hons) Region named: 2 marks Two named factors: 2 marks + 2 marks Examination: 12 x SRPs (6SRPs per factor) Do not accept Irish or European regions Discussion without reference to appropriate region = 0 marks
  6. 6. Agriculture – 1.2 Billion people to feed – major economic activity Subsistence farming is common, poor soils and major floods mean that food shortages sometimes occur Irrigation has led to salt buildups in soil – reducing fertility – as has failure to rotate crops Malnutrition is a major problem – 2nd highest level of malnourished children in the world (higher than Sub-Saharan Africa)
  7. 7. Much of the land is covered in scrub vegetation India’s tropical rainforests have been heavily overexploited – for use as fuel, building material and for export Rapid population growth has put great strain on forest resources and much of the original rainforest has disappeared
  8. 8. Big Coastline – fishing is a major activity Like Ireland, fishing industry was undeveloped until recently – now expanding rapidly Sharks, Sardines and Anchovies main species caught Kerala most important fishing state
  9. 9. India’s large energy sources and mineral ores have been recently exploited and industrial development is rising as a result ◦ Iron Ore (e.g. in Madhya) ◦ Copper (in Bihar) ◦ Petroleum (Mumbai High Field, at sea) ◦ Coal (3rd largest reserves in world) India’s energy exports are significant earners for the economy India also produces significant amounts of Biofuels
  10. 10. Mixture of small scale companies (serving local market) and large companies who export ◦ Textiles (in most large cities) ◦ Food Processing (e.g. tea, coffee) ◦ Iron, Steel, Copper mills (e.g. Mittal, largest steel company in world) ◦ Film making (e.g. Bollywood) ◦ Car manufacturing (recent growth sector)
  11. 11. Transport – state controlled – now developing rapidly after decades of stagnation – very bureaucratic Road – greater car use (e.g. Tata Nano) has led to increased car use – road building has increased as well Rail – new developments include Kolkata’s first underground railway Air – Government airlines still dominate the market Military – constant tensions with Pakistan means that India’s army is relatively large
  12. 12. Describe and explain the development of secondary or tertiary economic activities in a non-European Continental / Sub-Continental Region that you have studied. Region named: 2 marks Examination: 14 x SRPs Do not accept Irish or European regions Discussion without reference to appropriate region = 0 marks
  13. 13. India is majority Hindu, largest minorities are Muslims and Sikh Long standing tension between Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu) – similar to Irish situation Occasionally results in sporadic outbreaks of violence (e.g. Mumbai, 2008)
  14. 14. Lack of proper planning/development until recently Subject to massive in-migration from rural areas Steep social divisions between rich and poor Major pollution/congestion problems HOWEVER…. Cities also drive economy by providing a labour pool