1 Preventing Bullying Hot Issues & HOT (Higher Order Thinking) Strategies for Student–Centred Dialogue Empowering students to adopt values-based behaviour Presenter: Dr Toni Noble Adjunct Professor Faculty of Education Australian Catholic University firstname.lastname@example.org www.bounceback.com.auStep by Step Instructions on Teaching StrategiesCOOPERATIVE CONTROVERSYPurposeTo develop and expand students’ understanding of a topic; for students to practise theskills of taking different perspectives and evaluating arguments; to use as a formativeor summative assessment taskSummaryIn pairs, students are asked to identify two arguments in support of a topic-related controversial proposition (Pair A) and two arguments against it (Pair B).Each pair presents their arguments to the other pair. Then the perspective isreversed and pair A is now asked to identify one reason AGAINST the propositionwhich is different to the two already identified by Pair B. Pair B is asked toreverse and identify another argument IN SUPPORT of the proposition. Each pairpresents to the other again and then together they negotiate to decide on the onestrongest argument for and the one strongest argument against the proposition.Finally the group of 4 negotiates to decide whether they are FOR or AGAINST thepropositionFollow up can take many forms such as: writing a paragraph to sum up their positionand the arguments that support this position (identifying the strongest one); reportingtheir position to the class in some way (e.g. as a summary poster of 40 words)This strategy is based on the work of David Johnson and Roger Johnson. Formore information see:Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1995). Creative controversy: Intellectual challengein the classroom (3rd ed.). Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. 1All teaching strategies from Hits & Hots. Teaching + Thinking + Social Skills. Pearson Education.
2Multi-view (HITS & HOTS, 2010)This cooperative structure gives students an opportunity to practise theirperspective-taking skills. Students work in groups of four to consider a controversialissue from each of the perspectives of the key people involved. They identify four ormore people who are likely to have different perspectives and then they considertheir likely needs, wants, concerns, rights and responsibilities. In each group of fourone student takes on one of the 4 perspectives and answers questions from theothers in the group from that point of view. Then the group reflects on their groupperspective on the issue.Examples Cyberbullying: Any four of these perspectives: the targeted student (and perhaps their parents), the ringleader of the bullying, a class teacher, a bystander & the principalSOCRATIC CIRCLESThe Socratic Circle explores a controversial or provocative issue related to acurrent topic or text for which students have prepared and made notes. A leaderbegins with a question that is open-ended and has no right or wrong answers andleads discussion. The class sits in two circles. Speakers sit in an inner circle andpractise using good thinking questions and responses. Observers sit in an outercircle, take notes on how well the Speakers used good thinking questions andresponses and give them feedback when the discussion concludes. Speakers andobservers then swap places.Classroom OrganisationStudents initially work in pairs. Later half the class sits in an inner discussion circlewhilst the other half sit in an observation outer circle. Students conclude working insmall groups.Teaching IdeasA Socratic circle can be used to discuss any ‘big ideas’ such as: Current controversial events or issues (e.g. how can our community respond to the problems created by alcohol and violence?) Important classroom or school issues (Can bullying ever be eradicated in a school and what can we do about it in our school? ) Issues that arise from texts, history, philosophy, works of art etc (e.g. should this book/film be recommended for students next year? Did this illustrator/director deserve to receive the award they were given? (or should they have been nominated and why?) Social justice issues (e.g.why are so many people homeless and what can we do about it?) Issues that arise from particular curriculum topics (e.g. why do so many young people smoke?[Health]; How can we encourage more people to continue to play team sports when they leave school?[PE];Socratic circles can also be used to discuss a text or an aspect of a topic in an in-depthwayMaterials and Preparation 2All teaching strategies from Hits & Hots. Teaching + Thinking + Social Skills. Pearson Education.
3 Decide how long the Socratic circle will last for and whether students will move between the inner discussion circle or the outer Observation circle prior to a Socratic circle research and/or re-read appropriate material on the general topic or texts chosen. Generate about 10 relevant and interesting discussion questions on the topic for the circle leader to use. If you plan to have students swap over half way you may need more questions. Prepare enough classroom space to enable students to move their chairs into 2 concentric circles. Prepare one icy pole stick /token/card per student using four different colours and a container so each student can randomly be assigned into one of four colour groups Rules for Socratic circles BLM for display or give every student a copy. one copy of the Observation Sheet (BLM) for each student in the outer circleSocratic CirclesStep 1 (in pairs)Pairs spend 5 minutes preparing key points on the chosen topic.Step 2Form an inner discussion circle and an outer observation circle. Outer circlegroups observe the students with the same colour in the inner circle.Step 3Outer circle: Read through the Observation checklist with your colour groupbefore the discussion begins. Your job is to watch the students with the samecolour as you in the inner circle and to tick the checklist when you see thembehaving in that way.Inner circle: Read and share the Socratic inner circle ‘rules’.Step 4The inner circle discusses the topic for 10 minutes while the outer circlecompletes the Observation checklist. The inner circle leader keeps the discussionmoving by asking further questions.Step 5After 10 minutes, each outer circle colour group gets together and spends 2minutes comparing their observational data.They combine their data. The outer circle then gives feedback to the inner groupwith the same colour.Step 6Swap: Inner circle students now become the outer circle students and a seconddiscussion circle is conducted. The colour connections remain the same. The newleader now asks the questions that were not asked in the first inner circle.THEME PARKIn a group, students create a hypothetical theme park based around a broadtopic. They first use the Theme Park Planner to identify five important things forpeople to learn about their theme and then use the Theme Park Features tobrainstorm what features could be included in their Theme Park to teach thesefive important things. They also decide on a name for theme park they createTeaching Ideas Animals (SafariRama, Equinasia, Herptile Park, Rodentville, Insectland) Antarctica (Frozenworld; Penguin Paradise) Egypt (Pyramiddia) Electricity (Sparkyworld) Planet Earth (Weatherworld, Rainforest Dreams; Ecoland) Gold (Goldworld) 3All teaching strategies from Hits & Hots. Teaching + Thinking + Social Skills. Pearson Education.
4 The Body or Health (Gastroworld, Nutriland) Literature (Literatureland) Space and Flight (Lunar Park, Aviation Destination)Materials and Preparation Identify a suitable topic that is broad enough to provide a lot of options. Students will need opportunities prior to this activity to learn about and research the information that will be the basis of the Theme park. one copy of the Theme Park Features BLM per group for students to use to prompt creative thinking one enlarged Theme Park Planner BLM for each groupUNDER THE MICROSCOPEStudents work in groups of four to use this cooperative multi-level thinking tool toconsider (for example) an idea, object. procedure, system or concept. Under theMicroscope consists of 7 laminated thinking ‘lenses’ similar to the lenses of amicroscope) which are randomly distributed to students in the group. Each student isresponsible for 2 or 3 ‘lenses’ & they lead, facilitate and record notes from theirgroup’s discussion on those ‘lenses’. The discussion moves in sequence from Lens 1 toLens 7. Students put an object, idea, concept etc ‘under the microscope ‘ in order toexamine it in more detail. The different lenses focus on: its description and function,its most important and useful features, its links to other things, its past and futuredevelopment, how life would be different without it, its impact on the lives of thestudents and their responsibilities in regards to it.Teaching ideasThe following types of objects, ideas, procedures, systems or concepts can be putunder the microscope: Five year marriage licenses that need to be renewed Unemployment benefits Ban on students wearing any clothing that indicates their religion to school Hunters shooting feral animals for sport in order to assist the government to cull them Fox Hunting Day light savings Conscription English not compulsory in yr 11 and 12 A National identification cardThe Ten Thinking Tracks(HITS & HOTS, 2010) and Eight Ways at Once, 2005)Students work in groups of five. Each student is given responsibility for leading thediscussion from the perspective of two of the 10 tracks and taking notes about whatthe group says. Visual laminated ‘tracks’ are used to form a pathway towards adecision. It is used with propositions such as: the abolition of unemploymentbenefits, zoos; lowering the driving age, a national identity card etc. 4All teaching strategies from Hits & Hots. Teaching + Thinking + Social Skills. Pearson Education.
5Ten Thinking Tracks Clearly state the issue or problem to be discussedWhat is it How would this work in real life? What do we already know about this? Knowledge What do we need to know more about and how can we find this out? Is this similar to anything we already know about? What are the good aspects of this? What positive outcomes could happen? The Bright Side What good opportunities could this provide? What are the not-so-good aspects of this? The Down Side What problems could possibly happen? How does this make you feel? (Use feeling words eg pleased, excited, worried) Feelings How might this affect the feelings of any of the people involved What changes could make this better? What could be added, removed, reduced or altered to improve it? Improvements Have we made any assumptions that could be challenged? Thought Are we using a trustworthy source of evidence? What unanswered questions are still bothering us? Police Do we have enough evidence for what we have been saying? How well does this match our expectations of what we want? Are there any safety or legal issues involved? Are there any moral dilemmas? Have we considered the impact on smaller groups eg people with disabilities, the elderly, different cultural groups etc? Is it fair? Are there any parts of this which are not fair to one gender? Are there any big-picture or global issues that need to be considered? I-think What opinion does each one of us have and why? ( ‘I think…… because…….’ What is our joint conclusion when we put our ideas together We-think and negotiate? What are our main reasons for this decision? Can we sum up the opposite point of view? 5All teaching strategies from Hits & Hots. Teaching + Thinking + Social Skills. Pearson Education.
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