Human Rights in Philippine Schools


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A discussion on the current status of Human Rights education in formal Philippine schooling system. Presentation made possible by Amnesty International.

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Human Rights in Philippine Schools

  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Institutional Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Field Survey in Selected Schools </li></ul>
  3. 3. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Characteristics of Human Rights Education in Philippine Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching of human rights as a requirement for all educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of human rights content </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription of various forms of human rights education </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of mandate to develop components of human rights education </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of human rights based ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of responsible government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of logistical support for the implementation of the activities </li></ul>
  4. 4. TEACHING OF HUMAN RIGHTS AS A REQUIREMENT FOR ALL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>The 1987 Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Article II, Sec. 11: “the State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights.” </li></ul><ul><li>Other constitutional guarantees to promote human rights include: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Article III, the Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Article XIII, the Social Justice and Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Article XIV, Section 3(2) requires all educational institutions to “inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship…” </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Republic Act No. 9201: An Act Declaring December 4 to 10 As National Human Rights Consciousness Week in the Country (April 1, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Executive Order No. 27 issued on July 4, 1986 - provides for the inclusion of the study and understanding of human rights in the curricula of all levels of education and training in all schools of the country, adapting the scope and treatment of the courses on human rights in the respective educational levels </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Proclamation No. 1139 by the President of the Philippines on December 10, 1997: Declaring 1998 as “Human Rights Year in the Philippines” and the Years 1998-2007 as “Human Rights Education Decade” </li></ul><ul><li>This is an agreement between the Commission on Human Rights and the Department of Education to pursue the promotion of Human Rights Education in all schools at all levels. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROVISION OF MANDATE TO DEVELOP COMPONENTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION <ul><li>Department of Education Culture and Sports Memorandum No. 180, s. 1990-Prototype Materials for the Integration of Human Rights Concepts in Teacher Education Courses </li></ul>
  8. 8. CHILDREN’S RIGHTS <ul><li>Child Friendly Schools System </li></ul><ul><li>Multigrade Program in Philippine Education </li></ul><ul><li>Child 21 (E.O. 310, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>IPRA for Indigenous Children </li></ul>
  9. 9. WOMEN’S RIGHTS DECS KEY CONCEPTS AND CORE MESSAGES ON GENDER-FAIR EDUCATION <ul><li>A. Shared Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>1. In two parent families, both father and mother share in child-rearing joys and responsibilities to develop the nurturing and emotive capabilities of each. Parents exercising shared parenting are better role models for their children. </li></ul><ul><li>2. In other families, all supportive adults in the household can share parenting. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Shared Home Management </li></ul><ul><li>Both parents are capable income earners and providers for the family. Both parents perform household chores and attend to family needs such as health care, recreation and values education. </li></ul><ul><li>Economically able household members have the responsibility to share in providing for family needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Family budgeting is a joint family affair/concern. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Shared Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making is shared at all levels within the family. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness between husband and wife is encouraged in all major and minor matters affecting the family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family council for consultation should be encouraged to allow parents, children and other household members to speak and listen to each other freely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the number and spacing of children and/or choice of fertility mnagement to be used is a joint decision of husband and wife. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Equalized Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunity in education, non-traditional livelihood/occupation, health services, credit/loan programs should be provided to both male and female. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Admission policies, scholarship, policies training guidelines should be reviewed. Both male and female should have an access to resources i.e. information, training, technology, credit. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>E. Equalize Representation in Public Affair (NGO, Breaucracy, Electoral Politics, Business) and Enhance Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for women to track their careers in the breaucracy, business and in the NGOs. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage women to enter electoral politics. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Make Women’s Roles and Contribution Visible, Valued & Recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Make women affirm themselves as nurturer, mothers and producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the role of women as farmers, fisherfolk, traders, self employed, employers. </li></ul><ul><li>Women have proven themselves to be creative, versatile, intelligent, enterprising and hardworking. They can be self-propelled, self-directed and can handle multifarious jobs, accept challenge with “tact”, initiate savings and utilize resources efficiently, and excel in music, entertainment and the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Women can be active in the field of science and can involve themselves in environmental protection, livelihood projects, cotinuing education and community work. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Eliminate All Forms of Violence Against Women </li></ul><ul><li>Make women realize that domestic violence is a social concern and not just a personal matter/problem and that they are entitled to help/assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>All forms of violence against women are human rights violation. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic violence stemsfrom unequal power relations between men and women, parents and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider existence of gender bias in the courts. </li></ul>
  11. 11. HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION <ul><li>Philippine Constitution as a Mandated Course </li></ul><ul><li>Commission on Higher Education Memorandum No. 31 </li></ul><ul><li>This is a memorandum encouraging Presidents of colleges and universities to promote Human Rights Education in the tertiary level </li></ul>
  12. 12. HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION IN THE TERTIARY LEVEL <ul><li>Philippine Normal University </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Peace and Human Rights Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of the Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of the Philippines Law Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miriam College </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and Gender Institute (WAGI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ateneo de Manila University </li></ul><ul><li>Ateneo Human Rights Center </li></ul>
  13. 13. PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS BASED ETHOS <ul><li>DECS Memorandum No. 467, s. 1998: School-Based Activities to Commemorate the 50 th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Nov. 20, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>DECS Memorandum Order No. 487, s. 1998: Second National Conference on Peace and Human Rights Education (Dec. 3, 1998) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Memorandum on the Survey of Human Rights Awareness Level of Elementary and Secondary Classroom Teachers (August 10, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>DepEd Memorandum No. 160, s. 2003: Analysis of the Human Rights Awareness Level of Classroom Teachers and Workshop on Designing Teacher Training Packages on Human Rights Education </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>DepEd Order No. 31, s. 2003: An Act Declaring December 4 to 10 as National Human Rights Consciousness in the Country and for other Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>DepEd Memorandum No. 16, s. 2004: Training of Trainers and Teachers on Human Rights Education (HRE) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Identification of human rights content </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription of various forms of human rights education </li></ul>
  17. 17. INTEGRATION OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS CONCEPTS IN THE 2002 REVISED BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM CORE VALUES HUMAN RIGHTS CONCEPTS Will to Discover the Truth and Good Discovery Grade I – Love for Knowledge Grade V – Wise and Rightful use of Knowledge Grade VI – Knowledge for Progress Appreciation of One’s Strength and Weaknesses Grade I – Self-Awareness Grade II – One’s Strength and Weaknesses Grade III – Developing One’s Potential and Abilities Self-Discipline Grades I and II – School Rules Ways of Acknowledging Belief in God Grade I – Faith in God Grade II – Respect for Place of Worship Grade III – Respect for One’s Religion and Beliefs Grade IV – Abundant Blessings from God Grade V – Living in Accordance with One’s Belief Grade VI – Appreciation of Godly Deeds
  18. 18. Respect for Each Other as Persons Grade I – Respect for Parents, Elders and Other Members of the Family Grade II – Respect for Fellow Children and School Officials Grade III – Respect for Officials and Authorities as Members of the Community Grade IV – Respect for People’s Right to Ownership Grade V – Respect for Human Rights Grade VI – Respect for Law, Authority and Freedom Concern for Others in Different Ways Grade II – Concern for Others, School and Community Grade VI – Concern for People in Need
  19. 19. CIVICS AND CULTURE (GRADES I-III) GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY AND CIVICS (GRADES IV-VI) CORE VALUES HUMAN RIGHTS CONCEPTS Different Ways to Maintain Peace Grade II – Happy and Peaceful Community Grade III – Concern for Others for a Peaceful Environment Grade IV – Respect for Culture Toward Peaceful Living Grade V – Cooperation Towards Peace Grade VI – Solving Crisis Towards Peace Helping One Another for the Good of the Majority Grade I – Family Solidarity Grade II – Cooperation in the Community Grade III – Cooperation in Groups Grade IV – One Country, One Mind Grade V – The Rule of the Majority Grade VI – Love, Cooperation and Helpfulness Awareness on the Culture of Other Countries Grade I – Equality among Men in the Universe Grade II – Respect for People All over the World Grade III – Respect for One’s Beliefs, Opinions, Customs and Traditions Grade IV – Respect for Other Countries’ Contribution to Philippine Culture Grade V – Awareness of our Cultural Contributions to Other Countries Grade VI – Spreading Peace and Cooperation
  20. 20. MUSIC, ARTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION (Grade IV-VI) CORE VALUES HUMAN RIGHTS CONCEPTS Respect for One’s Culture Grade IV – Cultural Heritage CORE VALUES HUMAN RIGHTS CONCEPTS Positive Self-Awareness Grade IV – Self-Confidence Grade V – Membership in Different Organizations Concern for Others for the Good of Majority Grade IV – Concern for the Sick and Disabled; Concern for the Old Grade V – Concern for Fellows in Times of Need Attitude for Labor Grade IV – Commitment to Labor Grade V – Honor and the Dignity of Labor
  21. 21. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT AGENCIES <ul><li>Administrative Order No. 370 of the President of the Philippines, Creating the Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee on Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandum of Agreement: Commission on Human Rights, Department of Education Culture and Sports, Amnesty International Pilipinas and the Commission on Higher Education on October 16, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Declaration of Undertaking by the Commission on Human Rights and Department of Education Culture and Sports on December 9, 1992 </li></ul>
  22. 22. FIELD SURVEY <ul><li>Knowledge, Comprehension and application of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the high school students know human rights but majority have not heard about UDHR </li></ul><ul><li>Schools, parents and media are sources of human rights </li></ul><ul><li>A large number of those who heard UDHR said that all countries must observe human rights and all human beings must enjoy human rights </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Type of school, ethnicity, geographic classification were significant factors in understanding human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Region VII had the highest percentage of performance in human rights </li></ul>
  24. 24. PROCESS OF LEARNING, MATERIAL AND SCHOOL ETHOS <ul><li>Majority said that almost all schools teach human rights as part of the subjects and extra-curricular activities (integration approach) </li></ul><ul><li>ARMM has the highest number of respondents that human rights are integrated in their subjects while NCR students were taught occasionally </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights is mostly taught in Social Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools used textbooks as sources of knowledge while public schools refer to newspaper clippings and stories from magazines </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Debates, group work and discussion of resource persons are the three most common human rights activities </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement in community fieldwork, celebration of human rights week and making newsletters are outside the classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Debates are avoided in Muslim schools to avoid conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Majority wants the school to integrate human rights </li></ul>
  26. 26. SCHOOL ATMOSPHERE AND HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Schools sometimes consider dissenting views s </li></ul><ul><li>Almost majority of students believe that sometimes their school rules promote human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict are solved by teachers talking to students </li></ul>
  27. 27. EFFECTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION <ul><li>Students who advocate human rights were inferred as activists </li></ul><ul><li>Students from Muslim Mindanao believed that teaching human rights can never decrease human rights violation </li></ul><ul><li>Majority thought that teaching them human rights will help them exercised their rights </li></ul>
  28. 28. CHALLENGES <ul><li>New policies are needed to consolidate the substantive experiences gained and link human rights education to other education programs and projects of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights education has to be defined in relation to the over-all objective of quality and relevant education. </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights methodology consistent with the family, schools, media and other institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant school activities </li></ul><ul><li>Research-based teaching methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional support mechanisms (e.g. budget, center of excellence in human rights, rights-based accreditation, etc.) </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Thank you!!!! </li></ul>