Airfield operations and_management-rw_configurations-ppt03
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    Airfield operations and_management-rw_configurations-ppt03 Airfield operations and_management-rw_configurations-ppt03 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • 12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • The operational capacity of an airport, which is usually defined as the maximum possible number of aircraft landings and takeoffs, is determined by the number of runways that are available for use at any one time.
      • The vast majority of airports around the world have the simplest possible layout, a single runway .
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • Runways are laid out according to the numbers on a compass. A runway's compass direction is indicated by a large number painted at the end of each runway. Preceding that number are 8 white stripes. Following that number by 500 feet is the "touchdown zone" which is identified by 6 white stripes. A runway's number is not written in degrees, but is given a shorthand format.
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • When runways are built, their layout is influenced by many factors:
      • Federal Aviation Regulations
      • Environmental concerns
      • Noise level impacts
      • Terrain and soil considerations
      • Natural and man-made obstructions
      • Annual weather patterns
      • The size and performance characteristics of the airplanes that will use the runways
      Cultural and Historic Wet lands and Habitat Noise and Safety Site Pollution 12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • One of the most severe problems is that of aircraft noise in and around an airport. Laying out runways so that air traffic patterns occur minimally over heavily populated areas is a practice now widely employed during runway expansion and when building new airports.
      • The ground on which the airport is to be built must have a stable stratum of earth upon which building foundations can be anchored. The soil must be capable of supporting heavy loads without shifting or sinking.
      • Man-made obstructions like multi-storied high rises, transmissions towers and bridges can and do influence runway orientation.
      • Consideration of local weather patterns is also a factor in determining an airport's layout. The weather patterns of an area, especially the prevailing winds, are a major factor in determining runway headings.
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • There are 4 basic runway configurations:
      • Single runway
      • Parallel runways
      • Open-V runways
      • Intersecting runways
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • This is the simplest of the 4 basic configurations. It is one runway optimally positioned for prevailing winds , noise, land use and other determining factors. During VFR (visual flight rules) conditions, this one runway should accommodate up to 99 light aircraft operations per hour. While under IFR (instrument flight rules) conditions , it would accommodate between 42 to 53 operations per hour depending on the mix of traffic and navigational aids available at that airport.
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • There are 4 types of parallel runways. These are named according to how closely they are placed next to each other . Operations per hour will vary depending on the total number of runways and the mix of aircraft. In IFR conditions for predominantly light aircraft, the number of operations would range between 64 to 128 per hour.
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • Two runways that diverge from different directions but do NOT intersect form a shape that looks like an "open-V" are called open-V runways. This configuration is useful when there is little to no wind as it allows for both runways to be used at the same time. When the winds become strong in one direction, then only one runway will be used. When takeoffs and landings are made away from the two closer ends, the number of operations per hour significantly increases. When takeoffs and landings are made toward the two closer ends, the number of operations per hour can be reduced by 50%.
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • Two or more runways that cross each other are classified as intersecting runways. This type of configuration is used when there are relatively strong prevailing winds from more than one direction during the year. When the winds are strong from one direction, operations will be limited to only one runway. With relatively light winds, both runways can be used simultaneously. The greatest capacity for operations is accomplished when the intersection is close to the takeoff end and the landing threshold as shown below (with the configuration on the left). The capacity for the number of operations varies greatly with this runway configuration. It really depends on the location of the intersection and the manner in which the runways are operated (IFR, VFR, aircraft mix). This type of configuration also has the potential to use a greater amount of land area than parallel runway configurations.
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3
      • Thank You
      12/22/10 Masters In Aviation Science-EU-Course ASC 640,wk3