King Saud University College of Nursing Blood Transfusion Hatem Alsrour
Out line Definition. Objective. What is a Blood ? Blood Types. Types of Blood Transfusion. Who Needs a Blood Transfusion ? Before a Blood Transfusion. During a Blood Transfusion. After a Blood Transfusion. Risks of Blood Transfusion. References.
Definition ( Blood Transfusion ) is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another.
Objective Recognise different blood components and explain why they might be prescribed. Understand the essential safety measures necessary when collecting and transporting blood from the blood bank to a clinical area. Minimise risk through the use of appropriate patient and component identification checks. Make informed decisions about patient care before, during and after a blood transfusion. Confidently respond in the event of an adverse reaction to transfused blood.
? What is a BloodBlood is composed of fluid and different kinds of blood cells:• Plasma is the fluid portion of blood.• White Blood Cells protect against disease and infection. It range 4.5 – 11 k/ul• Platelets help form blood clots when bleeding occurs. It range 150 – 450 k/ul .• Red Blood Cells transport oxygen from the lungs to the other cells of the body and return carbon dioxide to the lungs. It range 4 – 5.5 k/ul
Blood Types Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, or O. Also, every persons blood is either Rh- positive or Rh-negative. So, if you have type A blood, its either A positive or A negative.
If you have Rh-positive blood, you can get Rh- positive or Rh-negative blood. But if you have Rh- negative blood, you should get only Rh-negative blood. Rh-negative blood is used for emergencies when theres no time to test a persons Rh type. Type O blood is safe for almost everyone. About 40 percent the population has type O blood. People with type AB blood are called universal recipients. This means they can get any type of blood.
Types of Blood TransfusionBlood is transfused either as whole blood (with all its parts) or, more often, as individual parts. The type of blood transfusion you need depends on your situation: Red Blood Cell Transfusions Red blood cells are the most commonly transfused part of the blood. These cells carry oxygen from the lungs to your bodys organs and tissues. They also help your body get rid of carbon dioxide and other waste products. You may need a transfusion of red blood cells if youve lost blood due to an injury or surgery. Platelets and Clotting Factor Transfusions Platelets and clotting factors help stop bleeding, including internal bleeding that you cant see. Some illnesses may cause your body to not make enough platelets or other clotting factors. You may need regular transfusions of these parts of your blood to stay healthy.
Plasma TransfusionsPlasma is the liquid part of your blood. Its mainly water, but also containsproteins, clotting factors, hormones, vitamins, cholesterol, sugar, sodium,potassium, calcium, and more. If you have been badly burned or have liverfailure or a severe infection, you may need a plasma transfusion.
? Who Needs a Blood Transfusion Many people who have surgery need blood transfusions because they lose blood during the operation. For example, about one-third of all heart surgery patients have a transfusion. Some people who have serious injuries—such as from car wrecks, war, or natural disasters—need blood transfusions. Some people need blood or parts of the blood because of illnesses. You may need a blood transfusion if you have: - A severe infection or liver disease that stops your body from properly making blood or some parts of blood. - An illness that causes anemia, such as kidney disease or cancer. Medicines or radiation used to treat a medical condition also can cause anemia. - A bleeding disorder, such as hemophilia or thrombocytopenia.
Before a Blood Transfusion The nurse should being sure of:- The doctor order and signature.- The serial number of blood unit.- The blood type of ordered unit and pt’s blood type.- Date of having blood unit not exceed one month.
During a Blood TransfusionThe nurse should : Assessment of vital signs prior to transfusion. Tow nurses verify correct and unit of blood are correctly matched. Direct observation of client during first 15 minutes of infusion. Check vital signs according to protocol.
If blood transfusion reaction occur the nurse should: Stop transfusion immediately. Continue IV infusion with normal saline. Notify physician of client’s signs and symptoms. Provide care for client as indicated. Complete reaction from according to institution protocol. Obtain urine specimen from client and send for free hemoglobin.
After a Blood Transfusion After a blood transfusion, vital signs are checked (such as your temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate). The patient maybe have some bruising or soreness for a few days at the site where the IV was inserted . need blood tests that show how your body is reacting to the transfusion.
Risks of Blood TransfusionMost blood transfusions go very smoothly. However, mild problems and, very rarely, serious problems can occur. Such as: Allergic Reaction Viruses and Infectious Diseases Fever Iron Overload Lung Injury Acute Immune Hemolytic Reaction Delayed Hemolytic Reaction Graft-Versus-Host Disease