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  • Not organizations (or markets)Not 2-way partnerships or alliancesInformal networking (cocktail parties)
  • Obama has tried a number of interactive Internet applications for his governmentCitizen’s briefing book: initiated during the transition for citizens to submit their ideas to the president. 44,000 proposals and 1.4 million votesEmbarrassing results …. Highest ranking idea was about marijuana legalization (despite being in the middle of two wars and an economic recession) In March, Office of Science and Technology Policy crowd-sourced to see how to best become transparent Got good ideas as well as a bunch of unrelated, pithy debates Currently, Joe Biden and his “middleclass task force” asks for comments from web-users Also,Twitter, youtube, Facebook, Flickr all have whitehouse accounts to disseminate informationPositives of Gov 2.0Expectation that citizens are to be consulted about everything all the timeInternet, in democratizing access to facts and figures, encourages decisions based on facts Negatives of Gov 2.0Extermists (either positive or negative) are more likely to participate, pushing the moderate voice asideEasy to spread lies Groups can simulate support to take over the public voice
  • Many upsets in the industry: closures, jobs lost, bankruptcy filings Rocky Mountain News folded; Boston Globe up for sale; SF Chronicle struggling; Seattle PI has gone online-only; Conde Nast closes Portfolio magazineTribune Company filed for bankruptcy reorganization in December 2008; GateHouse Media effectively broke by mid-2008; Journal Register, Philadelphia Newspapers, and the Minneapolis Star-Tribune went into bankruptcy early in 2009.According to the American Society of News Editors, 2,400 full-time professional newsroom jobs were lost at American dailies in 2007 and 5,900 more in 2008.Newspaper ad revenues fallen 23% in last two years.Chart highlights continuing losses in newspaper circulation in the US: Losses accelerated to 4.6 % daily and 4.8% Sunday, in the six months ending 30 Sep 2008. Chart represents aggregate data for US newspapers. Source: Deutsche Bank Securities in “State of the News Media 2009.”Online news consumption increased: number of unique visitors to newspaper websites each month was up 15.8% to 65 million in the third quarter of 2008 over a year earlier.Source: “State of the News Media 2009,” Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism, www.stateofthemedia.org
  • Rise of non-profit (esp. investigative) and citizen journalism and new business modelsWeb allows news coverage to be increasingly “hyperlocal” Witness the rise of numerous online publications dedicated to covering only community news: Voice of San Diego, Chi-Town Daily News, MinnPost, New Haven Independent, Arizona GuardianVoice of San Diego: focuses on investigative reporting on local issues in San Diego. Maintains specific geographic focus without state or national coverage. Voice of San Diego, like many, is nonprofit corporation supported by foundations, donors, audience contributions, etc.Increasing popularity of news sites fostering amateur reporters filing pictures, stories, reports on local events: iReport, Twitter, uReportiReport: started by CNN, site contains user-generated content to tell the mainstream media about the “stories [they’re] not used to seeing”Twitter: during Mumbai terrorist attacks, information about militants and bloodshed posted in real time over Twitter News organizations experimenting with non-profit model and new business models, as revenue from traditional sources declines: Huffington Post, ProPublica, Global PostHuffington Post: over concern that layoffs at newspapers stunting investigative journalism, site announced it will collaborate with Atlantic Philanthropies to bankroll a group of investigative journalists (an initial budget of $1.75 million)ProPublica: seeing investigative journalism as being at risk (very expensive to produce), founders started non-profit organization with independent newsroom dedicated to investigative journalism (works with budget of $10 million)Global Post: focuses on international coverage. Content generated by correspondents who are paid in cash and given ownership in company—not staffers. Solicits ideas for stories from readers.“The advent of Internet and interactive web technologies has given rise to a new breed of citizen journalists, who are contributing and making news as the mainstream media.”Merinew, May 2, 2009“There is an option that might make [newspapers] stronger: Turn them into nonprofit, endowed institutions. [This] would enhance newspapers’ autonomy while shielding them from the economic forces that are now tearing them down.”New York Times, January 27,2009
  • Top picture: “How to Improve Health for All” competitionBottom picture: “Tracking Trends and Ideas: Meeting Disaster” competition – entry: “Time to Take a Holistic View of disasters**Caption: “Indonesian children smile and cheer as U.S. Navy helicopters fly in purified water and relief supplies to a small village on the Island of Sumatra, Indonesia”
  • When Institute started work with Packard two years ago/When Heather was researching her book, few of these books had been written, few blogs existedSince then, there has been an explosion in study of networks, attempt to gain understandingExplosion in blogs (Beth’s blog), books (Clay Shirky), events, training

Working Wikily SSIR Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Beijing
    Hong Kong
    Los Angeles
    Social Change with a Network Mindset
    Stanford Nonprofit Management Institute
    Oct. 7, 2009
    Heather McLeod Grant
    New York
    Palo Alto
    San Francisco
    São Paulo
    This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 2. Who is the Monitor Institute?
    We are…
    part consulting firm, drawing on the talents of our own dedicated team and the resources of the global professional services firm, Monitor Group.
    part think tank, analyzing and anticipating important shifts in the rapidly changing context that leaders must navigate.
    part incubatorof new approaches. We work with clients and partners to test and prove new models for social impact.
  • 3. How can Networks Accelerate Social Impact?
    In partnership with the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, Monitor Institute explored the role of social networks and social media in the non-profit sector
  • 4. Theory: Building Our Knowledge (IP)
    Convened Experts
    Scanned Literature
    Scanning Environment
    Network Resources Inventory
    Study Research
  • 5. Action: Pilot Projects
    Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) Networks
    Nitrogen Wiki
    Mapping Networks in Salinas
    Network Effectiveness (ONE) Support
    Farm Bill Network Mapping
  • 6. Monitor Institute’s Network Practice
    Publications: “Working Wikily 2.0”
    Blog: workingwikily.net
    Membership Organizations Research
    & CoPs
    Net Effectiveness Working Sessions
    Network of Network Funders COP
    Integration of Net Effectiveness into TMI toolkit
    Projects with Monitor Institute clients
  • 7. Objectives for Today’s Presentation
    Share network frameworks and tools that we’ve developed
    Use brief “case studies” to illustrate network approaches
    Help you be more effective in your networks
  • 8. What are Networks?
    Groups of individuals or organizations connected through meaningful relationships.
  • 9. We’re most Interested in Networks With…
    Many participants
    Ability to self-organize
    Fueled by new technologies
    Collaborative mindset and behaviors
    Source of photo: http://www.midnightpoutine.ca/archives/flashmob1.jpg
  • 10. Networks Have Been Around Forever…
  • 11. New Technologies for Sharing Content…
    …New Online Spaces for Building Relationships
  • 12. Advances in Our Understanding of Networks…
    “If someone tells you that you can influence 1,000 people, it changes your way of seeing the world.”
    • Dr. James Fowler
  • …Combined with Established Group Processes
  • 13. “Working Wikily” = With a Network Mindset
    “… wikis and other social media tools are engendering a new, networked mindset—a way of working wikily—that is characterized by principles of openness, transparency, decentralized decision-making, and distributed action. "
    - Working Wikily 2.0
  • 14. What Do We Mean by “Working Wikily”?
    Established Ways of Working
    Working Wikily
    • Decentralized
    • 15. Loosely controlled
    • 16. Emergent
    • 17. Open, shared
    • 18. Relational
    • 19. Two-way
    • Centralized
    • 20. Firmly controlled
    • 21. Planned
    • 22. Proprietary
    • 23. Transactional
    • 24. One-way
    Where are you? The answer will be different for different situations
  • 25. Obama Used Networks to Mobilize 13 M Supporters
    “One of my fundamental beliefs…is that real change comes from the bottom up. And there’s no more powerful tool for grass-roots organizing than the Internet.”
    • Barack Obama
  • His Administration is Experimenting with Gov. 2.0
    “We live in an age of democratic experimentation — both in our official institutions and in the many informal ways in which the public is consulted”
    • James Fishkin, Stanford political scientist
    Source: Whitehouse.gov; NY Times
  • 26. 250K Individuals Coordinated Protests
    “Ordinary folks are using the power of the Internet to organize. In the old days, organizing large groups of people required an organization. Now people can coordinate themselves.”
    • Wall Street Journal, April 15, 2009
  • Twitter “Emboldened” Iranian Election Protesters
    “If anyone had questions about the power of citizen media, those questions were answered by the Iran protests.”
    • HamidTehrani (Iran editor for Global Voices)
    Source: ethanzuckerman.com/blog Twitter, youTube Time Magazine
  • 27. We’re Witnessing the Death of Old Models…
    “While newspaper circulation has long been in decline, the latest figures show the drop is accelerating…Weekday circulation declined 7.1% for the six months that ended March 31, compared with the previous year.”
    • New York Times, April 27,2009
  • …And New Models Are Emerging
  • 28. The Way Our Work Gets Done Is Changing
  • 29. Nonprofits Need to Find Ways to Work Wikily
    Increasing Number of Nonprofits
    Many Nonprofits Not at Scale
    More Competition for Resources
    82% of Nonprofits operate on less than $1M in budget
    • Center for Nonprofits ‘07
    Networks are one answer for increasing scale, efficiency, coordination, and impact
    Source: “Index of National Fundraising Performance, 2009 First Calendar Quarter Results”, Target Analytics, 2009, Alliance Trends
  • 30. Networks Can Address Diverse Challenges
    Working Wikily Potential
    • Isolation
    • 31. Unmet needs
    • 32. Lack of power
    • 33. Duplication and fragmentation of effort
    • 34. Lack of shared knowledge
    • 35. Untapped talent and wisdom
    • 36. Suboptimal impact and challenges with growth
    • 37. Build community
    • 38. Engage people
    • 39. Advocate for policy change
    • 40. Coordinate resources and services
    • 41. Develop and share knowledge
    • 42. Innovate
    • 43. Get to scale
  • Build Community
    162 Countries
    400,000 Ministers / Priests
    205 Members
  • 44. Engage People
    2008: 400,000 Volunteers in
    104 Countries
    Single-site Effort in US
  • 45. Advocate for Policy Change
    2009: 5+ Million Members
    1998: Email to
    100 friends
  • 46. Coordinate Resources and Services
    Total Loans
    2009: $66 million
    Total Loans
    2006: $1 million
  • 47. Develop and Share Knowledge
    14 Countries
    1,300 Trained Volunteers
    Interagency Program
    Integrated Fire Management
  • 48. Innovate
    “Open Sourcing Social Solutions”
    Internal, Proprietary
    R&D Labs
  • 49. - EGYPT-
    Get to Scale
    …transformingcommunities through collaborations to address root causes of poverty and homelessness
    Typical HFH country programs produce 200 houses each year
    In Egypt, HFH builds 1,000 houses a year, on average
    Source: Jane Wei-Skillern and Kerry Herman, “Habitat for Humanity—Egypt,” Harvard Business School Cases, October 3, 2006.
  • 50. Quick Conversations Exercise
    Turn to your neighbor and share:
    A personal network I’m part of and purpose. . .
    A network I’ve worked with professionally. . .
    My biggest questions are…
    Source: June Holley
  • 51. Understanding Networks
    Source: orgnet
  • 52. A Typology of Organizing Structures
    • Nonprofit organizations (withoutnetwork structure)
    • 53. Membership organizations
    • 54. Nonprofits with explicit network structure
    • 55. Coalition / Alliance
    • 56. Networks of networks
    • 57. Ad hoc networks
    Note: These categories often overlap. Most of the examples fit in to multiple categories.
    Developed from: Plastrik and Taylor, “Net Gains,” (2006); Patti Anklam, “Net Work,” (2007); Krebs and Holley. “Building Smart Communities,” (2006).
    Source: orgnet
  • 58. How Do Movements and Campaigns Relate to Networks?
    A large, informal grouping that brings people together around shared values, and provides strategy and structure for collective action
    An organized effort which attempts to persuade others to change certain ideas, attitudes, practices, or behavior
    Groups of individuals or organizations connected through meaningful relationships
    Choose Justice:
    Campaign to Protect Roe
    Pro-Choice Movement
    Sources: Movement def’n- LokmanTsui on Marshall Ganz (www.lokman.org). Campaign def’n- Kotter Philip, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee. Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Movement image - commondreams.org. Network graphics: orgnet.com
  • 59. Periphery
    A Few Helpful Definitions
    Source: Monitor Institute
  • 60. Social Network Analysis
    • Anthropologists in 30s
    • 61. Sociologists & Teachers in the 50s
    Source: June Holley
  • 62. Network Mapping can be Low-Tech…
    Source: June Holley
  • 63. …Or More High-Tech
  • 64. What’s Possible from Network Analysis?
    • Visualize the network: see connections
    • 65. Make visible network resources, flow
    • 66. Spark a conversation among participants
    • 67. Diagnose the “health” of a network
    • 68. Assess change in network over time
    Source: June Holley
  • 69. Salinas Network Mapping Pilot
  • 70. Network by Organization Type
    Maps Were Used to Analyze the Network
    A map of the different networks shows fairly loose connections
  • 71. Barr’s Green and Healthy Building Network: 2005
    Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
  • 72. The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2007
    Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
  • 73. Network Diagnosis:Characteristics of Healthy Networks
  • 74. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Overview
    • Clearly articulated give and get for participants
    • 75. Delivers value/ outcomes to participants
    • 76. Trust
    • 77. Diversity
    • 78. High engagement
    • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
    • 79. Space for self-organized action
    • Leadership with “network mindset”
    • 80. Distributed leadership
    • Strategic communications
    • 81. Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
    • Ability surface & tap network talent
    • 82. Model for sustainability
    Learning & Adaptation
    • Learning-capture
    • 83. Ability to gather and act on feedback
    Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky
  • 84. Leading with a Network Mindset
  • 85. How is Network Leadership Different?
    • Role, behavior
    • 86. Collective
    • 87. Facilitation
    • 88. Emergent
    • 89. Relational, connected
    • 90. Bottom-up
    • 91. Process-oriented
    • 92. Position, authority
    • 93. Individual
    • 94. Control
    • 95. Directive
    • 96. Transactional
    • 97. Top-down
    • 98. Action-oriented
    What would it take for you to work more wikily?
  • 99. Network Leadership Roles
    • Establishes value proposition(s)
    • 100. Establishes first links to participants
    • Provides initial resources for organizing the network
    • Works to increase connections among participants
    • 101. May focus on growing the network by connecting to new participants
    • 102. Can be multiple people with formal and informal roles
    Facilitator / Coordinator
    • Helps participants to undertake collective action
    • 103. Ensures flow of information and other resources
    Technology Steward
    • Facilitates the network use of online technology to learn, coordinate, connect or share information together
    Sources: Peter Plastrik and Madeleine Taylor, Net Gains (2006); Beth Kanter; Stephanie Lowell , Building the Field of Dreams (2007); White, Wenger, and Smith, Digital Habitats (2009)
  • 104. What is the Work of Network Leadership?
    Convene diverse people and groups
    Engage network participants
    Generate collective action
    Broker connections and bridge difference
    Build social capital – emphasize trust
    Nurture self-organization
    Genuinely participate
    Leverage technology
    Create, and protect network ‘space’
    Source: Adapted from Net Work by Patti Anklam (2007) and “Vertigo and the Intentional Inhabitant: Leadership in a Connected World” by Bill Traynor (2009)
    Source of picture: flickr
  • 105. A Few Challenges Faced by Network Leaders
    Unlearning past behaviors and frameworks
    Engaging and inspiring network participants
    Letting go of control
    Determining network boundaries
    Dealing with information overload
    Making the case; measuring success
    Learning and leveraging new technologies
    Source of images: Cut Throat Communications, Blog.com, Rutgers University RU FAIR, Kodaikanal International School, flickr
  • 106. Quick Conversations Exercise
    Turn to your neighbor and share:
    Would any of these tools be valuable to help you understand your networks?
    How might you contribute to developing or leading a network?
    What are the barriers to working more wikily?
  • 107. How Can you Begin to Make the Shift?
    Established Ways of Working
    Working Wikily
    • Decentralized
    • 108. Loosely controlled
    • 109. Emergent
    • 110. Open, shared
    • 111. Relational
    • 112. Two-way
    • Centralized
    • 113. Firmly controlled
    • 114. Planned
    • 115. Proprietary
    • 116. Transactional
    • 117. One-way
    What would it take for you to work more wikily?
  • 118. Eight Lessons We’re Learning
    Design your experiments around a problem, not the tools
    Experiment a lot, make only new mistakes
    Set appropriate expectations for time and effort required
    Prioritize human elements like trust and fun
    Understand your position within networks
    Push power to the edges
    Balance bottom-up and top-down strategies
    Be open and transparent
  • 119. So, Whether You’re Launching New Networks…
    Mom’s rising is new organization designed using network principles:
    open, flat, flexible, collaborative, adaptive, fast
  • 120. …or Transforming Old Organizations…
    AJLI: an older organization using network principles to transform itself
  • 121. The Choice is Yours
  • 122. Thank You!
    Additional Resources:
    Networks Resources page on blog
    Barr Foundation
    IISC - collaboration
    Leadership Learning Community
    Thinkers: Clay Shirky, Marshall Ganz, Peter Plastrik & Madeline Taylor, Bill Trainer, June Holley, Marty Kearns, etc.
    Beth’s Blog
    WeAreMedia training
    N-Ten, TechSoup, Net-Squared
    Case Foundation
    New Organizing Institute
    Personal Democracy Forum
    Blog (twitter):
    Stanford Continuing
    Studies, Winter ’10