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Surublien-Strategies To Conserve Palawan's Biodiversity

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The entire island of Palawan is a designated Man and Biosphere …

The entire island of Palawan is a designated Man and Biosphere
Reserve, with two internationally recognized
World Heritage Sites, an Endemic Bird Area, and a Philippine Priority Area for biodiversity conservation.

Over 1,700 species of flowering plants
and about 41% of the more than 1,100
species of terrestrial vertebrates that
are known in the Philippine Archipelago
are found in the province.

Its marine ecosystem boasts of an astonishing assemblage of marine life that sits atop the famed Coral Triangle.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature has identified at least 82 terrestrial and marine species that are found in Palawan to be among the list of globally important species, their classification having been determined as either endangered or threatened.

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  • 1. THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTThe Palawan Corridor Strategy Development Project is an initiative of the Conservation International, in collaboration with the ProvincialGovernment of Palawan, Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff, Department of Environment and Natural Resources –Region IV (MIMAROPA), and the Palawan NGO Network, Inc.The project was aimed at developing a conservation model for Palawan biodiversity corridor utilizing current knowledge of localstakeholders and scientific experts, and fostering a consensus among key stakeholders in the province to support and undertake strategiesto strengthen corridor initiatives.The development of this strategy involved the analysis of biophysical, social, economic, and policy dimensions of biodiversity conservationand resource management efforts in the province. Moreover, a consultative process have been employed to instill a strong sense ofownership from among the stakeholders participating in the project.The development of a conservation strategy among key stakeholders is expected to begin a coordinated effort to save species and keybiodiversity areas in Palawan. Such effort is especially important considering the numerous actors in the conservation field who are workingin the province but are not necessarily able to pull together efforts that will allow maximization of resources and a better understanding ofthe issues, threats and opportunities for conservation.Furthermore, this strategy document guides the NGOs, government and communities to make better decisions about where to focusconservation efforts and what needs to be done most urgently. It also provides a road map for grant making within Palawan by the CriticalEcosystem Partnership Fund, and hopefully, for future investment of conservation resources by other donors. PROJECT PARTNERSThe Provincial Government of Palawan aims towards having its people, culture, religion and economy in harmony with the environmentand natural resources, through relevant and responsive programs guided by the principle of sustainable development. The ProvincialGovernment works to achieve this through continuing research, regulatory activities, policy reforms, well-coordinated and integrated clusterprojects among concerned agencies/institutions, an orchestrated effort and shared responsibility between and among NGOs, LGUs and theprivate sector.The Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff (PCSDS) is a government organization duly established by virtue of RepublicAct 7611. PCSDS, through the complementation of environmental preservation, protection and rational utilization of Palawan’s naturalresources within the framework of the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan, envisions to ensure sustainable development.The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), is a government agency whose mission is to catalyze people’sparticipation to protect, conserve, manage and sustainably develop the environment and natural resources; to facilitate people’s equalaccess to natural resources through simplified and customer-oriented procedures and more community-based program for the upland/coastal communities. Furthermore, it envisions a sustainably developed region with rich and diverse natural resources equitably shared bythe people in empowered community working harmoniously in a wholesome environment for better quality of life.The Palawan NGO Network, Inc. (PNNI) is a network of non-government and people’s organization duly registered at the Securities andExchange Commission. PNNI shares a common vision of social justice and equitable distribution of wealth rooted within the framework ofself-help and participatory democracy and have a mission of helping improve the quality of life of the Palaweños while maintaining thebalance on environment and development endeavors.Conservation International is an international non-profit, non-government organization organized and existing under the laws of the Stateof California, USA, dedicated to the protection of global biodiversity; the worlds natural ecosystems and the species that rely on thesehabitats for survival. Recognizing the economic realities that impinge on pure scientific conservation, CI synthesizes the approaches ofbusiness, community development and applied science to promote the conservation of biodiversity. This is combined with a strongemphasis on local capacity building, close coordination and partnership with in-country institutions for planning and implementation ofbiodiversity conservation.
  • 2. Palawan Council for Sustainable DevelopmentSURUBLIEN: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY Funding for the project has been provided by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF), a joint initiative of Conservation International, The Global Environmental Facility, the Government of Japan, the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank. A fundamental goal is to ensure civil society is engaged in biodiversity conservation.
  • 3. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF PALAWAN Capitol Complex, Puerto Princesa City 5300 Palawan, Philippines www.palawan.net DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES – Region IV (MIMAROPA) 1515 L&S Building, Roxas Boulevard Manila, Philippines Tel. No. (632) 4050015; 4050047, Fax No. (632)4050046 PALAWAN COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STAFF Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City 5300 Palawan, Philippines Tel. No. (6348) 4343370, Fax No. (6348) 4336155 www.pcsd.ph PALAWAN NGO NETWORK, INC. Zanzibar Building, Rizal Avenue, Puerto Princesa City 5300 Palawan, Philippines Tel/Fax No. 4335525 pnni@mozcom.com CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL Unit 207, Pacific Plaza Buidling, Rizal Avenue, Puerto Princesa City 5300 Palawan, Philippines Tel. No. (6348) 4333551, Fax No. (6348)4342419 palawan@conservation.org.ph 5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Quezon City, Philippines Tel. No. (632) 4128194, Fax No. (632) 4128195 philippines@conservation.org.ph 1919 M Street, NW Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA Tel. No. (202)9121000, Fax No. (202) 9121030 www.conservation.org EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Redempto D. Anda and Jeanne Tabangay-Baldera TECHNICAL WRITERS Dr. Rowena R. Boquiren, PhD, Atty. Grizelda Mayo-Anda, Dante Dalabajan, Noela Lasmarias, Rodger Valientes, Elvira Orbeta, Grace Wong, Miguel Castrence, Arvin Diesmos, Nadia Palomar DESIGN & LAYOUT William D. Manuel COVER PHOTOGRAPH PCSDS & CI-Phils MAPS & LANDSAT IMAGES PCSDS, NAMRIA, PPDO-GIS and CI-Phils Philippine Copyright © 2004 by Provincial Government of Palawan, Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff, Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Region IV (MIMAROPA), Palawan NGO Network, Inc. and Conservation International Philippines. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. ISBN: This report can be reproduced as long as the project collaborators are properly acknowledged as the source of information. SUGGESTED CITATION Anda, R.D. and J.G. Tabangay-Baldera (eds). 2004. Surublien: Strategies to Conserve Palawan’s Biodiversity . Provincial Government of Palawan, Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff, Department of Environment and Natural Resources- MIMAROPA Region IV, Palawan NGO Network, Inc., and Conservation International Philippines, Puerto Princesa City, Philippines. 124pp.ii ii
  • 4. CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................. vi1.0 THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR ............................... 12.0 SOCIAL PROFILE OF PALAWAN STAKEHOLDERS………………………………………..…………….. 93.0 ISSUES, THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES 3.1 Profile of Threats to Biodiversity............................................................................ 15 3.2 Threats to Forest Resource Conservation............................................................... 20 3.3 Threats to Palawan Fishery: An Economic Analysis................................................. 24 3.4 Assessment of Conservation Policies as Applied in Palawan .................................. 28 3.5 Issues in Conservation Initiatives .......................................................................... 384.0 PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES 4.1 Outcomes Definition............................................................................................. 47 4.2 Species Outcomes ............................................................................................... 48 4.3 Site Outcomes ..................................................................................................... 52 4.3.1 Terrestrial……………………………………………………………………………………..54 4.3.2 Marine………………………………………………………………………………………….78 4.4 Palawan Corridor Conservation Strategies and Priority Actions .............................. 925.0 CORRIDOR SPATIAL MODELING: A Case Study for Southern Palawan................................................................................ 956.0 INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY..................................... 99List of Acronyms……………………………………………………………………………………………………...…106References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…107Contributors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….108Photo Credits…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 113 iii
  • 5. TABLES 1. Population distribution according to households ……………………………………………….. 11 and urban-rural classification, 2000 2. Population density by municipality, 2000 ………………………………………………………….. 12 3. Population densities relative to various types of ………………………………………………… 13 land-use, Palawan corridor 4. Funding sources for conservation-related projects, …………………………….………………. 39 Province of Palawan (1990-2002) 5. Distribution of major conservation projects, ……………………………………………..………… 40 Province of Palawan (as of 2002) 6. Assessment of conservation objectives ………………………………………………………………. 41 7. Assessment of management approaches in ……………………………………………….………. 42 conservation 8. Summary of assessment of components in ………………………….…………………………….. 45 major conservation initiatives 9. Key terrestrial and marine species of Palawan: ………………………………………………….. 48 threatened and restricted-range species 10. Variables used in the risk of habitat loss analysis ………………………………………….……. 96iv
  • 6. FIGURES1. A comparison of two landsat images taken seven years apart ………………………….. 172. Priority conservation sites in Palawan corridor …………………………………………………. 523. Risk of habitat loss analysis utilizing ……………………………………………………………….. 94 Econometric methods of predicting impacts of human activities on forest cover4. Mantalingahan forests under risk …………………………………………………………….……… 975. Risk of habitat loss by forest type (%) ………………………………………………….………….. 97 v
  • 7. Executive SummaryThe entire island of Palawan is adesignated Man and BiosphereReserve, with two internationally-recognized World Heritage Sites, anEndemic Bird Area, and a PhilippinePriority Area for biodiversityconservation.Over 1,700 species of flowering plantsand about 41% of the more than 1,100species of terrestrial vertebrates thatare known in the Philippine Archipelagoare found in the province. Its marineecosystem boasts of an astonishingassemblage of marine life that sits atopthe famed Coral Triangle.The International Union forConservation of Nature has identified atleast 82 terrestrial and marine speciesthat are found in Palawan to be among 2the list of globally important species,their classification having been Demographic Profile in weak governance mechanisms anddetermined as either endangered or processes, and are competing withthreatened. In terms of human population, growth more powerful resource users. rate in Palawan (3.36%) is very high in comparison with the national Conservation PoliciesThreats growth rate (2.3%). PopulationConsidered the most significant threat increase reflects the combined Several conservation policies andto Palawan’s biodiversity, specifically contribution of in-migration (35%) and programs are in place because of theon the terrestrial realm, is the loss of natural increase (65%). High putative environmental fragility ofhabitat brought about by the wanton population growth rate is attributed to Palawan. There are policies that defineconversion of forest areas to other land high in-migration rate because of the the rights, roles, responsibilities anduses such as agriculture and road perceived opportunity for agriculture obligations of user groups (such asdevelopment. The unabated practice of (available land) and tourism. This is a indigenous cultural communities),illegal logging is perpetrated in historical trend that developed in the government (such enforcementdisparate scales but accounting to 1950s and reached its peak in the agencies) and non-governmentmajor proportions as they occur 1980s and 1990s. As much as 60% institutions.wherever there are good forests and of migration comes from circulating The present legal framework iswhenever enforcement efforts are migrants (movements within illustrated by the provision of tenure tosorely lacking. Palawan). local communities, expansion of theOn the coastal and marine side, Facilities and services for education social options of resource dependentoverfishing and destruction of habitat and health are limited. Literacy, communities and identification ofand spawning areas pose as threats. participation and completion rate (for conservation zones. This provides theThe trend in fish catch and the limited elementary and secondary school basis for an effective province-widesurvey of reef areas and mangroves levels) are below the national conservation strategy by widening thesupport these observations. standard. Schools, classrooms, stakeholder base participation inThese threats are inevitably linked to teachers are not sufficient. A third to a conservation, providing land andthe high population growth rate and little less than half of the province’s resource use framework, andpoverty. Studies on net incomes, population have poor access to identifying the particular governmentespecially from fishing, indicate that, health services (fewer health centers, instrumentality in charge of a specificindeed, net income from hook-and-line personnel, insufficient sources of safe conservation activity.fishing – a benign fishing method, is water). However, despite the existingway below the net income that can be Ethnic minorities are in increasingly conservation policies and regulatoryobtained from more efficient methods, degraded lands and waters, their mechanisms, mounting threats againstillegal fishing and illegal quarrying. resource access rights undermined biodiversity conservation continue. by state laws, have marginalized role Existing institutional set-up for vi
  • 8. conservation is still complex, encouraged to engage in and removing the barriers to effectivesectoralized, at times confusing, and conservation works, program conservation initiatives. To achievefragmented notwithstanding the various planners and implementers need to this, the following investment prioritiesMemorandum of Agreements passed set clear conservation targets defined should be undertaken: a) increasingto harmonize PCSD and DENR fundamentally by the direct causes of incentives for conservation, 2)functions, law enforcement biodiversity loss, to be complemented increasing disincentives for destructiveresponsibilities and unify protected or supported by activities that address activities and c) strengthening local andarea zones. Weak coordination, the indirect causes. Hence, priority national institutions.inflexibility in approaches to resource actions for each of these priority sites Conservation barrier removaluse, centralized management, lack of have been prescribed by key strategies should be able to addressmaterial resources and lack of stakeholders. the drivers for illegal practices,competent and well-motivated staff are The general prescriptions for coupled with more effectivekey problems that result from this Palawan biodiversity corridor enforcement to increase the deterrentsituation and limit the ability of include establishment and for illegal activities. Creatinggovernment agencies to effectively management of a network of protected areas, whether marine andcarry out their functions. protected areas or key biodiversity forests, and wildlife reserves may notPolicy processes, and the direction that areas; strengthening of law work if the incentives for conservationthe policy per se is taking has seen enforcement; information are lower than the disincentive forprogressive evolution in the past generation; advocacy works; illegal activities.decade. With all the gains and expansion of community-based Conservation programs must addresssuccesses, these policies are still by no resource management efforts; natural resource utilization patternsmeans perfect. They can never be monitoring and evaluation of which are unsustainable. At theperfect for as long as values change, resource management plans. same time, development thrusts ofpolitical contingencies vary and Incipient conservation activities are local government units and othereconomic arrangements evolve. The gradually taking shape in the agencies must be imbued withkey for these imperfect policies to work province. The challenge now is to conservation framework based onis to capitalize on the opportunities they bind these small and scattered science. This will require technical,present and challenge the real and initiatives to form a tight conservation material and capital inputs to addresspotential threats that they may pose corridor that allows for wider people’s food security and social reproductionwith the positive outlook of changing participation, active government needs, tenurial security, policythem for the better. support and sustainable technical and harmonization and enforcement for financial support. This entails better protection and enrichment ofConservation Strategies improving community and the remaining natural resources. bureaucratic capacities, implementingThrough the extensive participation ofstakeholders, 26 priority areascomprised of 9 marine blocks and 17terrestrial blocks that are critical forresearch and conservation effortshave been identified. The top marinepriority areas are the CalamianesIsland Group, El Nido-Taytay, GreenIsland Bay-Honda Bay, TubbatahaReefs and Cagayancillo, BalabacIsland Group, and Kalayaan IslandGroup. The top terrestrial priority areas are theCalamianes Island Group, El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource ProtectedAreas, Lake Manguao, San Vicente-Taytay-Roxas Forest, Victoria-Anepahan Mountain Range,Mantalingajan Mountain Range, andthe Balabac Island Group.Considering the diversity of types ofactions that can be pursued, and thevariety of actors that can be 3 vii
  • 9. 1
  • 10. 1.0 The Status of Biological Diversity in the Palawan Corridor by ARVIN DIESMOS and NADIA PALOMAR (with contributions from Sabine Schoppe & Joie Matillano for freshwater fishes)The biological diversity of the fauna. At present, a total of 82Palawan Corridor is rich and species in the Corridor are Criticallyspectacular. Over 1,700 species of Endangered, Endangered, or areflowering plants and about 41% of Vulnerable, but this number willthe more than 1,100 species of certainly rise dramatically after theterrestrial vertebrates that are known conservation status of many otherin the Philippine Archipelago are species have been assessed.found in the region. Its marineecosystem boasts of an astonishing The enforcement of measuresassemblage of marine life and is one against destructive activities on 1of the richest and most biologically habitats and species has proven to Calamian hog deer (Axis calamianensis).important in the world. be a colossal task attributed to the With an estimated population of only 900 shortage of capability and skills of animals, it has been classified asAlthough the Palawan chain of natural resources managers, the Endangered by the IUCN .islands has long been considered as recurrent lack of personnel andbiogeographically part of the Sundaic infrastructure, a complexregion, the Palawan Corridor contains overlapping of environmental lawsa considerable level of endemicity in and policies, and perhaps the mostfauna and flora with numerous important of all, the lack of politicalunique species that are found will to implement biodiversity lawsnowhere else in the Philippines or in on the part of decision makers andthe Sundaic region. Further results of the authorities. The effectiverecent systematic studies utilizing management and protection of itsmolecular techniques demonstrate biodiversity call for direct “The biological diversitythat the level of endemism of faunal intervention and protection ofvertebrates in the Corridor is truly specific and manageable key of the Palawan corridorhigher than presently known. conservation sites, habitats, and threatened species.In recognition of its importance to is rich and spectacular .global biodiversity the entire island of At present, the Protected Areas in Over 1,700 species ofPalawan was declared a Biosphere the Corridor cover some 384,227Reserve with two World Heritage hectares or about 26% of the total flowering plants andSites, an Endemic Bird Area, and a land area of the region. In contrast, about 41% of the morePhilippine Priority Area for mining claims encompass 1.64% ofbiodiversity conservation. In spite of the region’s land area. than 1,100 species ofall these, the recent decades saw anescalation of threats to its Overall, the knowledge on the terrestrial vertebratesbiodiversity: habitat loss and biodiversity of the Palawan Corridor that are known in theconversion through illegal and legal still remains insufficient. Updatedlogging, the clearing of natural information on species and Philippine Archipelagovegetation for agriculture expansion, important habitats, especially thosefish farming, and resort-building; that are under great threat, arelarge-scale mining for heavy metals, sorely lacking. This, in part, is aquarrying, over-harvesting, blast reflection of the shortage offishing, cyanide fishing, and the resident biodiversity specialists inrampant illegal trade of flora and the Corridor. The need to address THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR :: 1
  • 11. cr itic al gap s in biod ive r sity harvested by locals as a source of knowledge is vital in order to agar (or carageenan) or are used as complement current conservation feed for livestock. Roughly a third of efforts in the Corridor. Most all seaweed species are considered importantly, the new information commercially important. The will serve as the basis of distribution of seaweed records in the conservation interventions on target Corridor is very similar to seagrasses. species, habitats, ecosystems, and priority areas. Mangroves Species Diversity, Distribution An estimated 44,500 hectares of and Conservation Status mangrove forest is still found in the Corridor or roughly 40% of all that Seagrasses and seaweeds remains in the entire country (PCSD 1998, Madulid 2002). In addition, 31 A total of 13 species of seagrasses of the 34 mangrove species known in have been recorded in Palawan. the Philippines have been recorded This diversity is among the highest here. This situation makes the in the Philippines and accounts for Palawan Corridor the single most about 81% (or 13 of 16 species) of important region in the Philippines for the total number of sea grass mangrove forest diversity and species known in the country. conservation. Among the biologically significant seagrasses in the region are the Not surprisingly, the province’s1 tropical eelgrass (Enhalus mangrove forests are highly acoroides), one of the largest sea threatened through clearance and Mangrove forest found in Puerto Princesa conversion (for example, to give way Subterranean River National Park grass species, Thalassia hemprichii, and species of Halophila and to fish or prawn farms, resorts) and Halodule. These latter species are are heavily exploited (harvested for important food items of the dugong charcoal production, tan-barking or (Dugong dugon), which exclusively dye extraction). Among the species feeds on seagrasses, and are also that is most seriously affected by the important for marine turtles. Sea latter activity is Ceriops tagal. grass beds have a critical function in the reproductive and foraging Information on species richness and biology of numerous marine life, distribution are available only from especially fishes, shrimps, the northern and central regions of molluscs, and crustaceans (Fortes the Corridor, information is lacking in Ong et al. 2002). for a greater part of the southern coasts. Seagrass beds are almost uniformly distributed but the greatest Elasmobranchs and whale sharks diversity and abundance are generally located at the Information on the elasmobranchs of northeastern and northwestern the Palawan Corridor is very limited. areas of the province. Only seven species of sharks are documented in Palawan waters but There are about 320 species of this is certainly an underestimate and8 seaweeds recorded in the province is reflective of the shortage of studies composed of 133 rhodophytes, 127 an d un av ailability of reliable Lush bed of seagrass (Thalassia chlorophytes and 60 phaeophytes. information. A total of 168 species of hemprichi). Thirteen species of seagrass or This number represents about 32% chondrichthyan fishes have been ‘lusay’ are found in Palawan waters. (338 of 1,062 species) of the total found all over the Philippines. This seaweed species now known in the ranks the Corridor as the second Philippines (Fortes in Ong et al. most diverse area in the world in 2002). As in many parts of the terms of diversity of this group (Alava Philippines, seaweeds are in Ong et al. 2002). 2 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 12. Sharks are commercially important species richness and distribution ofand are widely harvested across the corals. The lack of data is attributedCorridor. Of the seven species known, mainly to a difficulty in identifyingthe most important and widely corals in the field and thecelebrated is the whale shark propensity of field studies toward(Rhincodon typus). The whale shark estimation of coral cover andis a threatened species (listed as abundance rather than on theirVulnerable) and is a CITES species. In taxonomy.the Corridor, this species has beenreported off the Calamianes region in Molluscsnorthern Palawan and in Honda Bay(Alava in Ong et al. 2002). The A total of 716 species in 96 familiesBalabac Strait in particular has been have so far been recorded inreported to be an important migration Palawan. This includes four speciesroute for whale sharks from the Bohol of giant clams that are globallySea to Vietnam (Eckert et al. 2002). threatened: Tridacna derasa, T. gigas, Hippopus hippopus, and H. CORAL REEFCorals porcellanus; all four species are also listed under Appendix II ofWorldwide, the Philippine Archipelago CITES. Many species in this group,is presently known to have the most especially octopus, the giant 10highest diversity of zooxanthellate clams, and ornamental shells are Branching corals serve as importantscleractinian corals. Of the regions in highly sought after commercially habitats for some fish species such as thethe country, the Palawan Corridor has (harvested for the shell craft reticulated damselfish (Dascyllusthe most number of coral species, industry) and for subsistenceharboring roughly 82% (or 379 (examples are H. hippopus, T. gigas, reticulatus)species) of the 462 species known in and T. squamosa). Stocks of thesethe Philippines (Veron and Fenner in species are seriously depleted inWerner and Allen 2000). In addition, areas where they were recordedthere are 21 possible new species (Wells in Werner and Allen 2000).that were discovered recently fromthe Calamianes Group of Islands Available data in the Corridor is(Veron 2000), a possible new species scarce and is limited to theof Leptoseris from the Kalayaan Calamianes region, El Nido,Island Group (Licuanan and Capili in Cagayancillo and Tubbataha Reef.Ong et al. 2002), and 39 species of The Rapid Assessment Programcorals in the Corridor are considered (RAP) marine survey of theas rare (Nemenzo 1986). Calamianes (Werner and Allen 2000) is the primary source ofAn assessment of the state of information that is presentlyPhilippine coral reefs conducted in available on this group. In general,1991 showed Palawan as having field inventories of molluscs are17% of its coral reef cover in poor lacking largely due to a shortage ofcondition, 41% in fair condition, 32% resident experts.in good condition, and only 10% inexcellent condition (Gomez et al. Reef fishes1994). Although results have notbeen published, the recent increase The Palawan Corridor harbors a veryin assessment activities of live coral high proportion (about 89%) of thecover in the Corridor over the last total number of reef fish speciesdecade could change these figures recorded in the country. Thus far, 9considerably. 1,158 species of fish have been recorded in its waters and nearly School of black-spotted snapper (LutjanusIn general, information on the corals 300 of these species are considered ehrenbergi) locally known as ‘maya-came mainly from Calamianes, El commercially important species maya’. Palawan contributes about 40% ofNido, Taytay and Tubbataha. Up to (Tables 1). Among the largest reef the total fishery production in the nation.now, vast areas in the Corridor lack fish assemblages in the Corridor areeven the basic information on found in the Kalayaan Islands and THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR :: 3
  • 13. Tubbataha Reef. In the Calamianes occur there. All four species are region, 736 to 888 species can be threatened with extinction; found (Allen in Werner and Allen Eretmochelys imbricata is Critically 2000) although the larger species Endangered while Caretta caretta, apparently are showing declines in Chelonia mydas, and Lepidochelys population because of over- olivacea all have an Endangered exploitation. Current information status (Hilton-Taylor 2000). All supports the claim of Aliño and species are listed under Appendix I of Gomez (1995) that the highest CITES. diversity of reef fish in the Philippine marine biogeographic Information is available only from the zones is found in the waters of Sulu eastern coast of the Corridor and Sea and South China Sea, which from the El Nido-Taytay and encompass the Corridor. Calamianes areas in the north. The Calamianes, Cuyo, and El Nido areas In view of the broad dispersal are critical developmental areas for capabilities via the pelagic larval the green and hawksbill turtles; this stage of most reef fishes, minimal was the basis for establishing El Nido endemism can be expected. In as a marine turtle sanctuary in the Palawan however, at least four late 1980s by virtue of DENR species have thus far only been Administrative Order 14. The eastern recorded in the Calamianes and coast is also an important nesting3 Cuyo Island Groups. These are the site for the green, hawksbill, and wrasse Labracinus atrofasciatus, olive ridley turtles. Dugong (Dugong dugon) populations are an undescribed damselfish of the susceptible to decline because they are Moreover, the Balabac Island Group genus Pseudochromis, the usually found in coastal areas– the same is a critical route of marine turtles damselfishes Altrichthys curatus area where human activity is the greatest. into the Sulu Sea from Guam and the and Altrichthys azurelineatus, the blenny Ecsenius kurti, another Andaman Sea (Cummings 2002). undescribed blenny of the genus There is no recent information on Ecsenius, and the rare blenny marine turtles from Balabac Island Istiblennius colei (Allen in Werner Group and from the entire west coast and Allen 2000). of the Corridor. Information is generally complete Dolphins, whales and dugong for Palawan reef fish save for the western coast of central and Of the 22 to 25 species of marine southern Palawan. mammals reported in the Philippines (Heaney et al. 1998, Aragones in Ong Marine Turtles et al. 2002), 15 species have so far been found in the waters of the Four of the five species of marine Corridor. These are composed of turtles that are known in the dolphins (10 species), a rorqual (1 country have been found in the species), sperm whales (2 species), Corridor, namely, the loggerhead porpoise (1 species), and a dugong (1 sea turtle (Caretta caretta), green species). Many of these marine3 sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), mammals are threatened with hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys extinction in varying degrees; two are Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) digging imbricata) and olive ridley sea turtle globally threatened and nine are a nest (Lepidochelys olivacea). All species listed under CITES. are members of the family Cheloniidae. The fifth species that The celebrated dugong (Dugong can be found in the Philippines but dugon), which has been recorded in has not yet been recorded in the the Corridor as early as the 1980s Corridor is the giant leatherback (DENR-PAWB and Toba Aquarium sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea; 1995), has recently been sighted f amily Dermoche lyidae); th is from several areas in the northern species, however, may certainly region. The dugong is listed as an 4 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 14. Endangered species (Hilton-Taylor Mosses mainland Palawan. Another two2000) and a globally protected species (Bosthrycus expatria andspecies. Yet the dugong continues to The most recent study of the moss Dermatogynis palawanenis) whichbe killed for its meat in some parts of flora of the Corridor estimated that are freshwater obligates but arethe Corridor. 192 species in 88 genera are found marine in origin are also endemic to here (Tan 1996), a diversity that is the Corridor. Both PuntiusIn the Philippines, the Irrawaddy relatively depauperate compared to manguaoensis and Bosthrycusdolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is other regions in the Philippines. expatria are threatened speciesknown thus far from the Malampaya This poorness in species is having a status of Vulnerable (IUCNSound, making this region a critical attributed to the dry, semi- 2002).area for its conservation. Recent field deciduous state of its forestsurveys have estimated that about ecosystem. Major threats to the native and77 individuals of this globally endemic freshwater fish fauna areimportant species are found in the Interestingly, mosses on the the introduction of exotic speciesarea. The complex of fish pens and eastern slopes of the central (such as the African tilapiafishery activities in the area pose a mountain ranges of mainland Oreochromis and Tilapia) and thepotential threat to the species. P a law an ( e . g . , V ic to r ia an d continuing conversion of their Mantalingajan mountain ranges) habitat.Available information on marine have higher species diversitiesmammals is centered at the eastern compared with those from the Most of the major explorations donecoast near Puerto Princesa City with a western slopes of these same on the freshwater fishes of Palawanfew documented records from the mountain ranges. date back to the early 1900s centurynorth and Tubbataha. Virtually no and were all conducted by foreigninformation is available from the Unlike most of the terrestrial scientists. It was only in the last fiveentire western coast of the Corridor vertebrates, the affinity of the years that resident field researchersdown to Balabac. mosses of the Corridor is not with enhanced the study of this its closest neighboring island of insufficiently known group. As aFlowering plants Borneo but with the rest of the result of this renewed interest, at Philippines, Java, and the Lesser least three new species of Palawan-Current estimates of the total number Sundas or West Malesia. A similar endemic freshwater fishes have beenof flowering plants in the Corridor pattern has been recorded for the discovered, indicating that therange from 1,700 to 3,500 species Palawan stream frogs, which freshwater fish fauna of the Corridor(Madulid 2002, Regalado, unpubl. apparently are more closely related remains to be described.data) while an unpublished to those from nearby Mindoroannotated checklist (Soejarto et al. Island than with the Bornean Amphibians1995) gives 2,738 species in 919 stream frogs (Brown and Guttmangenera. Although Palawan has been 2002). At present, 26 species of amphibiansexplored by more botanists than are known composed of 25 speciesvertebrate biologists (for a brief Freshwater fishes of frogs and one species of anaccount, see Madulid 2002), the endemic caecilian. The fauna alsoflora of Palawan remains A total of 18 species of true includes an alien invasive speciesinsufficiently known as indicated by freshwater fishes have thus far (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), a nativethe significant number of discoveries been found in the Corridor, half of of mainland Asia, which has certainlyof new species and species range these are endemic to Palawan. Two been introduced recently. There areextensions in the last two decades. species are restricted to the only nine endemic species (35%) butAmong the important discoveries Borneo-Palawan biogeographic eight of these are confined to theinclude species of Amorphophallus region, one endemic species occurs Corridor region.(Araceae), Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae), on both Mindanao and Palawanseveral species of Badusa and while six species are found The Palawan herpetofaunal regionFagerlindia (Rubiaceae), and throughout the Philippines and in shares about 15 species of frogs withnutmegs (Myristicaceae) (e.g., neighboring Southeast Asian Borneo and other islands within theSoejarto et al. 1995, Madulid 2002). countries. Sunda Shelf. Among the herpetofaunal provinces in theAt least 55 species are listed in Two of the Palawan endemics Philippines, the Palawan regionvarious threatened categories: 4 are (Puntius bantolanensis and P. places fourth in terms ofCritically Endangered, 8 are manguaoensis) are exclusively herpetofaunal diversity. However,Endangered, and 38 are Vulnerable. found in Lake Manguao in Taytay, since many areas in the Corridor have the only known freshwater lake on not been completely surveyed of its THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR :: 5
  • 15. amphibian fauna, it is expected that Nine species are listed in various species are shared with the Sundaicthe levels of diversity and endemicity categories of CITES. Given the region of Malaysia and Indonesia butwill markedly increase after present state of habitat are not found in other regions of theconcentrated field collection efforts disturbance in the Corridor, it is Philippines (Dickinson et al. 1991).have been conducted and the expected that these numbers maytaxonomy of many species have been i n c re a se af t e r a maj o r r e- Currently, there are 11 threatenedre-assessed. assessment of the conservation species (Mallari et al. 2001) and 23 status of species has been done. species listed under CITES. TheTwo of the most important endemic Palawan Corridor is also aamphibians are the Palawan Excluding the crocodiles, majority stronghold of the Philippinecaecilian (Caudacaecilia weberi) and of the reptiles especially the C o c k a t o o ( C a c a t u athe Philippine flat-headed frog indigenous and endemic species haematuropygia), the most(Barbourula busuangensis). The lack basic information on natural threatened species of cockatoo inPalawan caecilian is a very rare history. The status of many species the world and where the largestlowland species and was last remains unknown since they have Philippine population of the speciesrecorded by field herpetologists in not been observed again in the is found (Lambert 1994, PCCP1961. The Philippine flat-headed frog field by herpetologists since they 2000, 2001 unpublished data).is among the most primitive species were first discovered; among these About 34% of the avian fauna areof frog known in the world and is one are the Palawan bent-toed gecko migratory species making the regionof only two species of Barbourula, the (Cyrtodactylus redimiculus), a vital flyway for migratory birds inother being found on Borneo. Three Palawan flap-legged gecko the Philippines and in Southeastspecies of frogs in the Corridor are (Luperosaurus palawanensis), Asia. Its numerous coralline islets,threatened, having a status of Palawan reed snake (Calamaria especially the Tubbataha Reef andVulnerable (Hilton-Taylor 2000). The palavanensis) and Culion kukri Ursula, still harbor colonies of seamost recent amphibian assessments, snake (Oligodon perkinsi). Other birds.however, did not identify any notable species include thethreatened species in the Corridor Philippine endemic genus of dwarf Arresting the documented declinesbut placed most of the endemic forest lizard Parvoscincus of sea bird population andspecies to a Near threatened status palawanensis, which is anthropogenic impacts on the fragile(Global Amphibian Assessment 2002, represented in the Corridor by one populations are among the majorunpublished data). endemic species. The Critically goals of ongoing conservation efforts Endangered forest turtle Heosemys (Manamtam 1996, Mallari et al.Reptiles leytensis (Hilton-Taylor 2000) was 2001). also recently re-discovered in someAbout 69 species are found in the are as o f main land Palawan Terrestrial mammalsCorridor, comprised of crocodiles (1 (Diesmos et al. unpubl. data).or 2 species), snakes (37 species), The fauna of Palawan was partlylizards (25 species), and freshwater Birds made famous because of theturtles (5 species). This number uniqueness of its terrestrialdoes not include the sea snakes and At least 279 bird species have thus mammals. At least 58 species havesea kraits because information on far been recorded in the Palawan been recorded from the region andthis group is almost unavailable. Corridor, a number that will still new distribution records continue toOnly 20 endemic species (29%) are considerably increase as ongoing be documented. Around 19 speciesknown, a level of endemicity that is field survey efforts continue to add (33%) of the fauna are endemicone of the lowest in the Philippines. new distribution records of species while 16 of these species areOf the 20 endemics, at least 16 are to the region. Ample field studies restricted to the Corridor, examplesrestricted to the Corridor and are of the bird fauna have been include the Palawan Tree shrewcomposed mainly of lizards and conducted compared with other (Tupaia palawanensis), Palawansnakes. Eleven species are shared terrestrial vertebrates yet the Flying Fox (Acerodon leucotis),with some islands in the Sunda Shelf possibility of discovering species Palawan Pangolin (Manisand are not found in other regions of that are new to science remains culionensis), and Palawan Soft-the Philippines, except in the Sulu significantly high considering that furred Mountain Rat (PalawanomysArchipelago, where the herpetofauna many mountains and small islands furvus).of Palawan exhibits some degree of have yet to be explored. At least 16relationship. At present, three species are confined to the On the other hand, eight species arespecies are threatened, two of these Corridor. Endemicity at 10% is very shared with other islands within theare Critically Endangered and one is low relative to other regions in the Sundaic region and are not found inEndangered (Hilton-Taylor 2000). Philippines. However, at least 23 other regions in the Philippines;6 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 16. among these are the celebrated Gaps in BiodiversityBinturong or Bearcat (Arctictis Knowledge Basebinturong), Oriental Small-clawedOtter (Amblonyx cinereus), and Although the unique and richShort-tailed Mongoose (Herpestes biodiversity of Palawan is muchbrachyurus). A total of 10 species celebrated, knowledge of itsare threatened and seven species biodiversity is limited and outdated,are under CITES (Hilton-Taylor the ecology of many species is2000). unknown, and many of its ecosystems remain biologically unexplored. ExceptThe mammalian fauna of Palawan for a few studies (e.g., Werner andexhibits one of the most intriguing Allen 2000), we estimate that thedistribution patterns in the information for most of the taxonomicPhilippines. For instance, a species groups was generated from major fieldof deer is not found on Palawan studies dating back from 10 to overIsland whereas in the Calamianes 80 years ago. 2group north of the mainland, the Palawan porcupine (Hystrix pumila), aCalamianes Hog-deer (Axis Updated information on the locally common to uncommon speciescalamianensis) exists. Other distribution, ecology, and systematics found in primary and secondary forest inexamples include the Busuanga is seriously lacking for many species in mountains and in the lowlandsTree Squirrel (Sundasciurus most taxonomic groups. In terms ofhoogstrali) and Culion Tree inventories of terrestrial ecosystems,Squirrel (S. moellendorffi), all of efforts need to thoroughly sample highwhich are also restricted to the elevation forest habitats (montanenorthern regions. and mossy forests), wetlands and swamps, ultrabasic and limestoneOn the other hand, the Lesser forests, the Mantalingajan mountainMouse-deer or pilandok (Tragulus range, the Balabac island group, andnapu) is found only on three small the various forested small islands ofislands, namely, Balabac, Bugsuk, the Corridor. For the marineand Ramos, off southern Palawan. ecosystem, information is largely(This species has been introduced lacking from the Culion island group,into Calauit Island near Busuanga Dumaran, the western coast offor captive breeding purposes.) A mainland Palawan, the southernrecent taxonomic study, however, regions especially the Balabac group,indicates that Tragulus napu may and the Kalayaan island group.be a distinct Palawan species (asTragulus nigricans; Meijaard and Field guides or identification manualsGroves, 2004), a finding which to species and ecosystems are lackinghas tremendous conservation while only a few of those that areimplications. For one, this would currently available are of good quality.suggest that the Palawan mouse These publications are essential indeer is possibly the most educating the general public regardingthreatened species of terrestrial the status of their own biodiversity.mammal in the Corridor. Its highly More so, these will greatly benefitrestricted natural geographic resource managers, park wardens,distribution (islands of Balabac, and local authorities to effectivelyBugsuk, and Ramos have a total monitor ecosystems, threatened 2land area of about 46,799 species, and the illegal trade. Palawan bearcat (Arctictis binturong), ishectares, which is around half the one of the biggest land mammals insize of Laguna de Bay on Luzon Finally, and perhaps most importantly, mainland Palawan. It is a nocturnalIsland) and the continued there is a glaring shortage of resident animal that feeds on fruit and meat.destruction of its habitat on biodiversity specialists in the Corridor.Balabac (the largest of the three This needs to be addressed withislands) necessitate an immediate utmost importance if the knowledgeconservation intervention for this and proper management of itsmouse-deer. biodiversity are to be attained. THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR :: 7
  • 17. 1
  • 18. 2.0 Social Profile of Palawan Stakeholders by DR. ROWENA BOQUIREN Overview health and economic status of the population relative to theirThe paper presents an assessment resource base.of the push and pull factors inmigration as an aspect of In order to explain the relationshippopulation growth trends in the between socio-demographicPalawan corridor. It also factors and threats to biodiversity,characterizes the types of the study analyzed the followingsettlements within the province variables:based on socio-demographic, Socio-demographic characteristics Population size and settlements: total population, number of households, urban-rural distribution 2 Population density Focus group discussions with indigenous groups like the Tagbanuas are essential to Population composition: gain inputs for resource management ethnicity, settlement type, age, literacy and level of educational attainment concerns Health status: birth, death, infant mortality, maternal mortality, nutritional status, contraceptive prevalence rate Population growth trends: natural growth (fertility rate, maternal/neo-natal death rate) and migration trends “Palawan’s population (in-migration, out-migration, circulation) growth rate (3.36%) is very high in comparison Status of Social Infrastructure and Support Services with the national growth Facilities and services for education rate (2.3%). Population Health services and facilities: growth has been personnel to population ratio, family planning program coverage dramatic: from 56,360 Power utilities: persons in 1948 to number of households by Energy use for lighting and cooking 102,540 in 1960 and Water utilities: access to potable water 400,323 in 1990.” Access to information sources: family planning, natural resource management technologies SOCIAL PROFILE OF PALAWAN STAKEHOLDERS :: 9
  • 19. Socio Demographic These include: Characteristics and Issues Busuanga (Barangays San Status of Social Infrastructure Rafael, Salvacion, Sagrada, and Support Services Cheey); Coron (Turda, Tagumpay, There is rapid population San Jose, Lajala, Decabobo, growth, and high urbanization Cabugao, Banuang Daan); Facilities and services for rate based on expansion of Linapacan (Pical, New education and health are limited. settlements, with 65% from Culaylayan, Maroyogroyog); natural growth and 35% from Taytay (Paly Island, Casian); Literacy, participation and net in-migration, into areas Aborlan (Poblacion), Narra completion rate (for elementary with neither established nor (Ipilan, Burirao); PPC and secondary school levels) are sufficiently effective land use (Tiniguiban, Tanglaw, Seaside, below the national standards. or management zones. San Pedro, San Manuel, Schools, classrooms, and Princesa, Pagkakaisa, Milagrosa, teachers are not sufficient. Palawan’s population growth Maunlad, Matahimik, Masipag, rate (3.36%) is very high in Masikap, Masigla, Mandaragat, A third to a little less than half of comparison with the national Mabuhay, Liwanag, Brgy. the corridor’s population have growth rate (2.3%). Population Mangingisda, Bancao-bancao, poor access to health services growth has been dramatic: Bagong Sikat, Bagong Pag-Asa); (fewer health centers, personnel, from 56,360 persons in 1948 to Brookes Point (Poblacion I), insufficient sources of safe 102,540 in 1960 to 400,323 in Quezon (Maasin); Agutaya (Diit, water). 1990 and 755,412 in 2000 Concepcion); Cagayancillo (Table 1). (Wahig, Talaga, Nusa, Mampio, Community Types Lipot North, Bantayan); and Rapid growth may be expected in Cuyo (Catadman, Bangcal, The Urban-rural classification the future. Balading, Emilod). shows 105 urban and 319 rural barangays. Palawan is still relatively a Population increase reflects low density area, based on the combined contribution of in- Central Mainland, island national standards set at less migration (35%) and natural municipalities, Southern Palawan, than 15000 persons/sqkm for increase (65%). and Calamianes have a higher an area to be classified as proportion of barangays that are having low density. The High population growth rate is classified as urban (25% to 35%). increases over the years have attributed to high in-migration nevertheless been rapid. Density rate because of the perceived Settlements are also formed increased from 25 persons/sq. opportunity for agriculture based on ethnic differentiation km. in 1980 to 36 in 1990 (available land) and tourism. and migration status relative to (NCSO 1990). This is a historical trend that resource access and use. developed in the 1950s and Today, average national density reached its peak in the 1980s In upland, interior areas, or along is 246 persons/sq. km., while and 1990s. the banks of rivers and coasts, in Palawan Province has 51 small clusters composed of a few persons/square kilometer. Yet, As much as 60% of migration houses are: 7 major indigenous except for Araceli, all the island comes from circulating migrants cultural communities: Tagbanwa; municipalities have densities (movements within Palawan). Batak; Pal’awan and Tau‘t higher than the national average Bato;Molbog and Mele-buganon; (Table 2). This may explain why The corridor area has a large Sama/AA Sama, Jama Mapun, outmigration is an increasing young population whose future Sama Laut, Sama Deya, Sama/ trend in those areas. demic trends may be a source of Bajaw, Samal, Balangigi, stress on the biodiversity status Pangutaran, Pullon, Mapun; Viewed from the perspective of of the Park. The high growth Cuyonen; Agutaynen. conservation, land is limited for rate, however, is not associated A&D land uses. Several areas with fertility rates as a result of In the lowlands, along major roads which seem to have low official this large young population, are compact settlements: settler densities actually no longer have because marrying age is not communities: Tagalog, Ilonggo, low people-land ratios (Table 3). young. Waray, Cebuano, Bicolano, Ilocano, and others.10 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 20. Table 1. Population distribution, according to households and urban-rural classification, Year 2000. Province, City, 2000 % of total No of No. of No. of Total Municipality Total provincial House- Urban Rural Number and Barangay Popula- popula- holds Baran- Baran- of Bara- tion tion gays* gays* gays* PALAWAN 755,412 100.00 150,983 105 319 423 Calamianes Group 72,030 14,114 13 39 BUSUANGA 16,287 2.16 3,047 6 10 16 CORON 32,243 4.27 6,264 6 18 24 CULION * 14,302 1.89 3,082 1 1 1 LINAPACAN 9,198 1.22 1,721 0 10 10 Northern Mainland 166,198 32,016 17 90 DUMARAN 16,616 2.20 3,133 2 15 17 EL NIDO 27,029 3.58 5,191 4 14 18 ROXAS 47,242 6.25 9,435 7 24 31 SAN VICENTE 21,654 2.87 4,174 3 7 10 TAYTAY 53,657 7.10 10,083 1 30 31 Central Mainland 269,554 54,786 49 78 ABORLAN 25,540 3.38 5,236 2 17 19 NARRA 56,845 7.53 11,521 4 18 22 PUERTO PRINCESA 161,912 21.43 33,306 37 29 66 Southern Mainland 190,601 39,140 8 66 BATARAZA 41,458 5.49 8,658 2 20 22 BROOKE’S POINT 48,928 6.48 9,634 2 16 18 S. ESPAÑOLA 26,801 3.55 5,479 0 9 9 QUEZON 41,669 5.52 8,453 2 12 14 RIZAL 31,745 4.20 6,916 2 9 11 BALABAC 25,257 3.34 4,723 6 14 20 Island Municipalities 57,029 10,927 18 46 AGUTAYA 10,422 1.38 2,040 3 7 10 ARACELI 10,894 1.44 2,050 1 12 13 CAGAYANCILLO 6,348 0.84 947 7 5 12 CUYO 18,257 2.42 3,609 7 10 17 KALAYAAN 223 0.03 12 0 1 1 MAGSAYSAY 10,885 1.44 2,269 0 11 11 Sources : NSO Census 2000; DILG classification of barangays.Ii Most recent count of barangays (as to total 430) may differ on account of the unavailable updated listing of barangays and their classifica-tion into rural or urban since the creation of Culion and Espaňola into municipalities under Republic Act RA No. 7193 (September 12, 1992)and Republic Act (RA) No. 7679 (May 22, 1994). users. include dependence on agriculture Ethnic minorities are in For instance, the Tagbanua and and NTFP gathering/ trading,increasingly degraded lands and Batak settlements have higher underutilized labor (female),waters, their resource access fertility rates, higher child and considerable contribution torights undermined by state laws, maternal mortality rates, lower household income (at least 20%) byhave marginalized role in weak literacy level and educational the young population,governance mechanisms and attainment. u n s u s t a in ab l e N T F P g a t h e r in gprocesses, and are competing practices historically associatedwith more powerful resource Other features of the communities with settlers (since the 1970s). SOCIAL PROFILE OF PALAWAN STAKEHOLDERS :: 11
  • 21. Table 2. Population Density by Municipality, 2000. Province, Municipality, City Population Total Land Area Density (Projection 2000) (sqkm) (persons/sq.km) Palawan 755412 14896.43 51 Calamianes Group 56074 1134.88 49 BUSUANGA 16287 395.90 41 CORON 32243 1026.50 31 CULION * 14302 187.88 76 LINAPACAN 9198 155.20 59 Northern Mainland 166198 4353.30 38 DUMARAN 16616 435.00 38 EL NIDO 27029 465.10 58 ROXAS 47242 1220.20 39 SAN VICENTE 21654 842.50 26 TAYTAY 53657 1390.50 39 Central Mainland 244297 3715.50 66 ABORLAN 25540 908.80 28 NARRA 56845 700.00 81 PUERTO PRINCESA 161912 2106.70 77 Southern Mainland 190621 4170.20 46 BATARAZA 41458 957.00 43 BROOKES POINT 48928 850.60 58 S. ESPAÑOLA 26801 449.80 60 QUEZON 41689 935.50 45 RIZAL 31745 977.30 32 BALABAC 25257 581.60 43 Island Municipalities 57029 310.35 184 AGUTAYA 10422 32.90 317 ARACELI 10894 176.80 62 CAGAYANCILLO 6348 15.40 412 CUYO 18257 57.30 319 KALAYAAN 223 0.25 892 MAGSAYSAY 10885 27.70 393 Source : NSO Census 2000 Population (based on projections) Recommendations better regulated. With circulation personnel, skills upgrading, (movement within Palawan) an important entrepreneurship, and the like.Population growth and settlement phenomenon, government policies andexpansion need to be planned so that these programs must be better coordinated to Conservation programs must addressare kept at levels that can be sustained by cope with problems in internal migration – natural/biological resource utilizationlocal resources within their regenerating as to distinguish where to encourage patterns which are unsustainable. At thecapacity. These concerns must be included people to remain or move into certain same time, development thrusts of LGUsin conservation planning. The local areas, or where to discourage migrants and other agencies must be imbued withgovernment units need to invest in resource from critical habitats. conservation framework based on science.assessment, valuation, as well as carrying This will require technical, material andcapacity studies to ascertain their capacities The population growth rate needs to be capital inputs to address food security andand opportunities, as well as constraints. reduced – through improved social social reproduction needs; tenurial security; infrastructure and support services, i.e., and policy harmonization and enforcementThe rate of migration coming from other reproductive health, child/maternal care, for better protection and enrichmentareas needs to be monitored, and land uses health and educational facilities and12 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 22. SOCIAL PROFILE OF PALAWAN STAKEHOLDERS :: 13
  • 23. 14 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY 1
  • 24. 3.0 Issues, Threats and Opportunities 3.1 Profile of Threats to Biodiversity by NOELA LASMARIASLong-term maintenance of stakeholders to ensure thatbiodiversity requires the protection of identified strategies are not onlylarge areas to maintain viable scientifically justified but alsoecosystems, evolutionary processes, socially acceptable.and populations of specificEndangered species (Soule & Wilcox, Threats to biodiversity in Palawan1980; Szaro & Johnston, 1996). It were identified by a technical 1also requires that conservation working group composed ofstrategies look beyond individual partners from governmentprotected areas and identify a matrix institutions and non-government Above: Mangrove destruction in Balabacof biodiversity-friendly land uses that organizations who have extensive caused by tanbarking. The Ceriops tagalprovide biological connectivity across experience working with biodiversity species is particularly sought after for theenvironmental gradients at the and socio-economic researches as tanbark industry due to its high tanninregional level (Harris, 1984; well as with communities in various content.Saunders et al., 1992 and Noss, parts of the province. Ten major1996). threats were identified and ranked Left: The effect of slash-and-burn activities according to the following criteria: in CulionThe conservation “corridor” approachwas developed by Conservation Spatial extent of the threat –International (CI) as a way of rates the threat based on howimplementing conservation strategies spatially prevalent it isthat reflect these biological findings. throughout the province;Conservation corridor is a matrix of Magnitude of the biodiversitypristine habitats and biodiversity- impact – rates the threat basedfriendly land uses, which maximize on observed or potential impactthe survival of the species, found in a on biodiversity or integrity of “The major threats toregion (CI, 1999; CABS/CI, 2000). A species habitats; andstrong focus on protecting large Ease of analysis – Palawan biodiversity areareas is maintained, but designing rates the threat based on how mangrove destruction,conservation strategies at the easily analysis can be donecorridor scale ensures thatconservation resources have the given current availability of data legal and illegal fishing, and accessibility of the areasgreatest effect while maximizing the for primary data collection quarrying, agriculture,net economic benefits to the local during the duration of thepeople and national governments. project. InfrastructureConservation corridor can be built inmany ways but each option has development, large scale Based on these criteria, the tendifferent implications for society. major threats are ranked as follows mining and logging, (1-lowest score, 10-highest score): tourism,A corridor may consist of blocks ofprotected areas connected by certain Mangrove destruction– (1)management units that ensure Legal and illegal fishing– (3) fuelwood gatheringconnectivity between these blocks Quarrying– (3)and therefore allowing genetic Agriculture (slash & burn)– (3)exchange. CI uses biological, social, Infrastructure development- (5.5)economic and policy information, Large scale mining– (5.5)through extensive participation of PROFILE OF THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY :: 15
  • 25. Large scale logging– (7.5) However, in terms of annual average Tourism– (7.5) volume of confiscated timber from Fuelwood gathering– (9) 1989-1993 and 1994-2002, only Wildlife hunting– (10) Taytay-El Nido and Roxas showed a decline of 9.7% and 17%, These threats are regrouped into respectively. Quezon-Rizal district forest destruction related threats had the highest percentage increase ( lo g g in g / i lle g a l t r e e c ut t in g , in confiscated volume. These agriculture and fuelwood information could either indicate real extraction), marine and coastal increase or decrease in illegal logging fishery related threats (illegal activities, or they may indicate fishing and mangrove destruction), relative effectiveness of infrastructure development, mining enforcement, hence, areas with more and quarrying, and wildlife hunting. effective enforcement have greater In-depth analyses on forest number of timber volume destruction and fisheries are done confiscated. Since an enforcement separately from the general threats was not part of the overall study, it profile to emphasize their could not be ascertained what factors importance relative to the other influenced most the increase or threats as ranked by the technical decrease in the volume of logs working group. confiscated during the period.6 Forest Destruction Marine Fishery Chinese fishermen caught poaching in Satellite images in 1987 (Spot), The fishing grounds in Palawan are Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park in 1992 (Landsat through DENR- considered the most productive in 2002. Oftentimes, environmental crimes JAFTA) and 1998 (Landsat through the country. Hence, they have become matters of politics rather than PCSD) indicate very large increases attracted domestic and foreign conservation and justice. in old growth forest beyond what commercial fishing fleets, as well as might be biologically possible for migrants from the Visayas and Luzon. dipterocarp species in 5 to 10 Commercial fishery in the province is years. The possible source of error very much influenced by technologies may be the differences in satellite developed in Metro Manila, the image interpretation, i.e., difference spread pattern being from Metro in control points used. PCSDS (per. Manila to Luzon, Visayas and finally com.) thinks that there is indeed to Palawan. It is thus in Palawan that increase in total forest cover fishing fleets congregate when the although not in the magnitude fishing grounds in other areas are indicated by the images. almost depleted. It is not surprising that about 90% of the fish catch in Setting aside the land cover the province is consumed and interpretation problem, the volume marketed elsewhere in the country of confiscated timber products and and abroad. total volume of timber product indicate that there is a significant From 1980-2000, the volume of decrease in both during the commercial fishery production in implementation of the SEP Law Palawan has steadily declined. from 1994 to 2002. From 1989- Municipal fishery production has 1993, of the 791,520 cubic meters increased although the catch-per-unit of timber, Roxas (42%), Taytay-El effort has decreased indicating that The live reef food fish trade targets only a Nido (16%) and Quezon-Rizal (35%) the catch per fisher has declined and few species that are highly prized in the districts had the largest shares due the amount of time it takes to catch a international market. When the demand is to the timber licenses agreements certain volume of fish, say 1 high, prices for live fish in Hongkong can (TLAs) existing in these areas. The kilogram, has increased. This is an reach up to $100 per kg. Overharvesting percentage of illegal timber from indication that most municipal and sustainability are key issues in this total has also significantly fishing grounds in the province are industry. decreased. biologically overfished due to too many fishers, use of more efficient 16 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 26. 1987 Quarry Site 1994Figure 1.A comparison of two Landsat images taken seven yearsapart shows a dramatic reduction in forest cover in a miningarea in southern Palawan PROFILE OF THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY :: 17
  • 27. fishing gears, and use of approved. Within and around the destructive gears. current quarry sites, the satellite images show that majority of the In the Calamianes, hookah and forests have been converted to cyanide fishing became prevalent brushlands (16% of MPSA) and with the rise in the live reef food settlement (9.7% of the current fish trade driven by high prices and quarry site). The pending mining international demand mostly in claims throughout the mainland also Hong Kong, China and Singapore. lie on primary forests and could Based on a 2001 survey conducted potentially destroy these tracts of by CI, it was estimated that around forests if approved. 7% of those who are engaged in the live fish trade uses cyanide. This Quarrying for sand and gravel in practice has reportedly spread in rivers and beaches is considered a other fishing areas in the province bigger problem because illegal due to the dwindling stocks in the activities are more difficult to track Calamianes because the income and are done by poor communities. incentive from live fish to small The volume of illegally extracted municipal fisher is very high mixed sand and gravel is about compared to hook-and-line fishing. 6,070 cubic meters annually from4 The net income can reach 100 1993 to 2002, and the highest Open pit mining in Rio Tuba, Bataraza, a times more than hook-and-line per volume of apprehended volume was question of unbridled resource extraction fishing trip. For poor fishing in 1998-1999. versus conservation. household with few alternatives or supplemental income sources, the The income incentive from quarrying use of cyanide in catching seems to be high based on the price groupers live is very lucrative per cubic meter of mixed sand and indeed, especially when the gravel. The price ranged from deterrent that law enforcement PhP100 to PhP400 per cubic meter poses is very low. or an average of PhP189 per cubic meter. Assuming that one cubic Other forms of illegal fishing meter can be extracted in 4 hours of activities within municipal waters labor time, this is relatively higher include superlights (use of bright than the approximately PhP172 to halogen lamps), muro-ami, pa- PhP1,653 per trip of 12 hours to 2 aling, hulbot-hulbot (Danish seine), days for hook-and-line fishing during and trawl. Dynamite fishing is also the NE monsoon and SW monsoon very widespread in the province. seasons, respectively. Mining and Quarrying Road Development There are only two large-scale Studies in Thailand, Brazil and commercial mining in the province Belize on the impact of road although positive reserves of development on deforestation show chromite, copper, manganese, that the density of road network had4 molybdenum and mercury exist. a negative impact on the forest, i.e., The existing mines are Rio Tuba the greater the road density the Mine tailings pond in Rio Tuba, Bataraza nickel mines in Bataraza (southern higher is the deforestation rate. Palawan) and the silica mines in Roxas and Dumaran (northern In Palawan, the 1998 land cover Palawan). shows that within 500 meters to 1.5 kilometers of a road, the major land The nickel mines pose a threat to cover is already 30% to 31% the forests in the south, especially brushland and slightly decreases if its expanded mining claim, which farther from the road. The same sits on a large track of old growth trend is observed with built-up area, forests (2,483 hectares or 46% of cropland and paddy fields. Old the total area) in Mt. Bulanjao, is growth forest, however, increases 18 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 28. farther from each side of the road. does not indicate where theseThe trend indicates that forest species were collected. Second,conversion is indeed positively there is little information on thecorrelated with road development. population of the hunted wildlife species; hence, there is also littleThe provincial medium term that can be said on the effect ofdevelopment plan for 2000-2004 hunting on the speciesi n d ic a t e d a n um b e r o f r o ad population, except for those thatdevelopment and airstrips. In the are already in the IUCN red list.northern mainland, the plannedroads traverse forests, declared Assuming that the volumeprotected areas, and along the confiscated is only a portion ofriverbanks. In southern mainland, the total illegal hunting, thenone planned road traverses old intuitively wildlife populations aregrowth forest and passes through a at risk if hunting cannot belarge mining claim. Following the controlled.trend indicated by the existing roadnetwork, it is expected that some Conclusionsforest conversion to other land uses,in particular into agriculture and Existing data to date indicates 1settlement may be possible. The that the greatest threat to Reclamation site in Coronextent of this conversion may Palawan’s terrestrial biodiversitydepend on the suitability of the area is the loss of habitat broughtto agriculture. about by forest conversion to other land uses, such as Wildlife Hunting agriculture, road development, and illegal logging. On the coastalThere is paucity of data with and marine side, both overfishingrespect to wildlife hunting. and destruction of habitat andApprehension data from 1999- spawning areas pose as threats.2002, however, indicate that a The trend in fish catch and thelarge number of hunted wildlife are limited survey of reef areas andbirds, particularly talking mynahs, mangroves support the findings.wild quail and blue-naped parrots,which are favorite household pets. The main drivers seem to be theTalking mynahs are also high population growth rate,considered as “good luck” charms mainly through high net inin some ethnic Filipino migration, and poverty. Studiescommunities, which may partly on net incomes, especially fromexplain their popularity. For plants, fishing, indicate that, indeed, netwild orchids topped the list of income from hook-and-linenumber of apprehensions. Illegal fishing– a benign fishing method,collection of insects seem to be for is way below the net income thatresearch purposes based on the can be obtained from moreaffiliations of those apprehended. efficient methods, illegal fishing 5A few of the confiscated wildlife and illegal quarrying. Blue-naped parrot (Tanygnathusspecies include Endangered lucionensis) nestlings confiscatedendemic species such as the Conservation barrier removal strategies should be able to from wildlife traffickers. WildlifePalawan hornbill, leopard cat, hunting is a major threat toPalawan peacock pheasant, and address these drivers coupled with more effective enforcement biodiversity driven by local andred jungle fowl. international commercial demands. to increase the deterrent forThere are at least two difficulties illegal activities. Creatingin interpreting the data with protected areas, whether marinerespect to wildlife hunting impact and forests, and wildlife reserveson the wildlife population in may not work if the incentives forPalawan. First, confiscation data conservation are lower than the disincentive for illegal activities. PROFILE OF THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY :: 19
  • 29. 3.2 Threats to Forest Resource Conservation By ELVIRA ORBETA Illegal logging and conversion of and Provincial Environment and Natural forestland to other uses such as shifting Resources Offices (PENROs) to award cultivation, permanent agricultural crops wood recovery permits easing the and industrial tree plantations were demand for lumber in Palawan. identified as the major causes of forest degradation in Palawan and remain a Although the reports indicate a declining threat to its forest resource. trend in the incidence and magnitude of illegal logging, it is estimated that a very Trend in Illegal Logging significant portion of the wood requirements of Palawan has been Palawan is identified as one of the supplied through illegal sources since illegal logging hotspots in the the reported volume from the legal Philippines. It is being undertaken by sources represents a very insignificant both small and big-time illegal loggers in share of the estimated requirement of response to the increasing demand for households alone. In 2001, the wood wood. The Department of Environment requirement of households alone was and Natural Resources (DENR) reports estimated at 42,732 cubic meters of5 indicate a declining trend in the roundwood, 18,807 cubic meters of incidence and magnitude of illegal lumber, 400,171 cubic meters of Slash-and-burn farming methods continue logging activities. From its highest level fuelwood and 299,301 cubic meters of to threaten Palawan’s forest despite laws of 7,667 cubic meters in 1993, the charcoal. prohibiting the practice volume of timber confiscated dropped to 66 cubic meters in 1999, declining at With the logging ban, the legal sources the rate of 20% annually. The volume consist of retrievable wood materials per incident had allegedly been specified under DAO 2000-78, decreasing. plantation species timber from Community-based Forest Management “Illegal logging and Illegal logging is reported in all the (CBFM) areas, and timber from private conversion of forestland critical catchments, particularly in areas lands recovered or harvested with the where commercial logging operations appropriate permits or documentation. to other uses such as once existed. As of 2002, the illegal The Palawan Council for Sustainable shifting cultivation, logging hotspots include the Development (PCSD) estimated a municipalities, Balabac, Aborlan, potential supply of 30,000 cubic meter permanent agricultural Quezon, Roxas, Taytay and Puerto per year of saw logs from the lowland Princesa City. The species commonly natural forests that can be made crops and industrial felled/extracted are the valuable available through salvage logging and tree plantations were species such as Apitong and Ipil, approval of Certificate of Ancestral particularly in Balabac and Puerto Domain Claim (CADC) and CBFM. identified as the major Princesa City. However, with the logging ban this causes of forest quantity is not available. Existing The decline in illegal logging was plantations was projected to supply degradation in Palawan attributed to the creation of the Balabac about 20,600 cubic meters per year of and remain a threat to DENR-Sub-Office and the support of the sawlogs. To meet the projected demand, Philippine Coast Guard, the Philippine tree plantations will have to be its forest resource.” Marines, and local government units established at the rate of 1,500 (LGUs) in the forest protection and law hectares per year. Wooded alienable enforcement campaign and the and disposable (A&D) lands and issuance of Department Administrative brushland were projected to supply Order (DAO) 2000-78 which authorized about 0.5 cubic meter per hectare per the Community Environment and year of fuelwood. Natural Resources Offices (CENROs) 20 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 30. The approval of resource use plans The traditional fire lines such as those from livestock accounting for the largest(RUPs) and wood recovery permits established by the Palaw’ans were not share (43%) followed by income from(WRPs) was suspended for an indefinite sufficient to control the spread of corn (25%) and other crops includingperiod because of alleged misuse and wildfires. The most devastating forest fruit trees (17.2%). Farm wagesabuse of these permits. The absence of fires in the summer of 1998 that contributed about 5% while theany legal means to meet the increasing destroyed about 10,000 hectares of production of handicrafts shared aboutdemand for wood coupled with poor forestlands in Quezon was attributed 4%. Gathering of non-timber forestenforcement of environmental laws due to the intensive kaingin activities and products such as rattan, almaciga resinto the lack of manpower and budgetary aggravated by the long dry season and honey was reported as a majorconstraints creates an incentive for known as the El Niño phenomenon. source of income of households in theillegal logging to continue. The other critical catchments. Illegal logging wasfactors that create an incentive for The productivity in the uplands is low also resorted as a source of income forillegal logging to continue include low and declining. For upland rice, the some households.probability of being caught or charged average yield was 1.97 metric tons perfor violation and accessibility of the hectare compared with 3.12 metric Economic policies that favor agriculturalforests with the existence of old logging tons for rainfed and 4.5 metric tons for intensification, poor enforcement ofroads and the opening of new roads. irrigated lands in 2000. For Southern forestry laws and the very low probability Palawan, which has the largest area of being charged and accessibility of the Trend in Conversion of Forestlands devoted to upland rice production, forests led to the conversion of to Other uses average productivity had declined by forestlands for agricultural purposes 13% within the 1980-2000 period. while the low farm gate prices for The share of upland rice decreased almaciga resin and rattan led toShifting cultivation from 15% to about 1% of the total rice unsustainable gathering/collection production in Palawan. Palawan is still practices. On the other hand, economicShifting cultivation or kaingin is still sufficient in rice. However, with the policies that promote agriculturalprevalent in Palawan. There is no firm increasing population, a rice shortage intensification such as irrigationestimate of the actual area utilized for is projected by 2007 unless more development and the implementation ofshifting cultivation. The 1987 land use lands are devoted to rice production appropriate programs and projects thatdata indicated about 390,000 hectares complemented with improved rice provide tenurial security and increasedor 27% of Palawan’s total land area. For technology. the welfare of indigenous peoples (IPs)1998, the scale and distribution of this and other people living in the uplandsactivity maybe inferred from the The continuous cultivation of corn in released pressure on the forests. Thebrushland/grassland cover indicated in the uplands without soil conservation declining quality of available land in thethe LANDSAT imagery since brushland is measures was identified as a more forest also reduced incentives for foresta result of shifting cultivation. serious cause of soil erosion than clearing. kaingin. In 2001, about 11,133However, information from 10 criticalcatchments indicates that kaingin hectares mainly in Brooke’s Point and Permanent agriculture or tree Quezon was planted to corn with a plantationsactivities are widespread in these areas total production of 24,716 metricand are not limited in the brushland but tons. In the uplands, the average corn Permanent crops include fruit trees andextend into the residual forests. Based parcel ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 hectare industrial crops such as coconut,on the DENR inventory of forest with an average yield ranging from cashew, cacao and coffee. Lands underoccupants in 1998, about 25,219 549 to 1,102 kilogram per hectare. As permanent crops covered an aggregatehectares were occupied by 3,700 with rice, the share of upland corn area of 118,987 hectares in 1991households, 98% of which were titled. If produced in kaingin areas is increasing at the rate of 87% betweenthe area devoted to upland rice presumed to be negligible relative to census years 1980-1991. About 2,759cultivation were taken as an indicator, the total. hectares of the area planted wasthe magnitude of kaingin activities haddecreased, contracting by an average covered with forest growth in 1991, Most of the households in the uplands representing a 90% reduction from itsrate of 5% per year from 7,482 hectares live in extreme poverty with average 1980 level. A total of 91% of thesein 1980 to 371 hectares in 2000. i n c o m e r an g i n g f r o m b e l o w areas were located in sevenBased on the CENRO reports, a total PhP10,000 to PhP20,000, way below municipalities, including Narra, Coron,area of 5,810 hectares of forestland the poverty threshold of PhP83,000 in Rizal, Quezon, Roxas, Aborlan andwere subjected to kaingin between 2000. Based on a 1995 survey in the Puerto Princesa City. The average size of1991 and 1999. south covering upland households farms within these areas ranged from primarily Palaw’ans and Tagbanuas, 1.9 to 14.2 hectares.Forest fires were mostly attributed to the the average household income waspractice of forest clearing by burning. about PhP6,700 per year with income Of the permanent crops, coconut was THREATS TO FOREST RESOURCE CONSERVATION :: 21
  • 31. the most popular followed by cashew, were provided. hectares concentrated in Agusan del Surbanana, and mango. Coconut covered and Sultan Kudarat. The largest is thean aggregate of 57,441 hectares and a A higher production level and cash Filipinas Palmoil Industries, Inc. whichtotal copra production of 82,448 metric income was indicated by those who began developing its 8,000 hectarestons in 2000. Southern Palawan, adopted conservation measures– an plantation in Agusan del Sur in 1981.particularly Brooke’s Point is the major average of 644 kilograms per hectare The Agusan Plantations Inc. and thecoconut producer in Palawan. Cashew compared with 583 kilograms per Kenram Philippines are the otherand mango were planted in several hectare for rice and an average players in the industry. Each has amunicipalities in 1991 with an household income of PhP11,739 per milling plant with a capacity rangingaggregate area of 14,831 hectares and year compared with PhP6,766 per from 20 to 36 metric tons per hr fresh1,128 hectares, respectively. year for upland households who were fruit bunches. The existing capacities not involved in the Program. are underutilized based on their currentBy 2001, cashew production average yields of 24.5 metric tons ofconcentrated in a few municipalities- A total of 493 industrial tree fresh fruits per hectare.Magsaysay, Coron, Araceli, Taytay, San plantations with a total area of 2,178Vicente and Narra. Bataraza and the hectares existed as of 1998. These A major issue related to palm oilcashew-producing municipalities except were located mainly in Puerto Princesa plantations that the government has toTaytay also produced mango. The City, and in the municipalities of Roxas deal with is the possible conversion ofaverage production for cashew was 1.2 and San Vicente. The species tropical rainforests to palm oil as ismetric ton per hectare during the peak commonly planted include Gmelina being experienced by Indonesia, one ofseason and about half during the lean arborea, Acacia mangium, the two major producing countries. Toseason. For mango, the average yield Paraserianthes falcataria, and prevent this, the World Wildlife Fund iswas 3.7 metric tons per hectare and 0.6 mahogany. These plantations were enjoining the European countries whometric ton per hectare, respectively. projected to supply part of the wood are the major buyers and investors toCashew and mangoes from Coron requirements of Palawan within a switch to ecologically-sound palm oil orcommand a higher price. For banana, a period of 13 years (1998-2010) and palm oil coming from ecologically-total of 3,369 hectares with an average ease the pressure on the natural friendly palm oil plantations. This limitssize of 2.82 hectares per farm were forests. The projected volume from the establishment of palm oilplanted in 1991. The major producers these plantations was about 20,600 plantations in areas that are not recentlyincluded the municipalities of Narra, cubic meters per year over a period of deforested and requires the inclusion ofSan Vicente, Brooke’s Point and Taytay. 13 years, that is, from 1998-2010. To measures to secure wildlife and forestThe average production was 8.8 metric meet the projected wood requirement corridors.tons per hectare. of Palawan, an average of 1,500 hectares per year of forest plantations The incentives for the development ofAgro-forestry projects with a total area of needs to be established. agro-forestry and industrial tree291 hectares were established in the plantations are many. The medium-termdifferent CENRO districts in 1989, 1992 An ordinance was passed recently agriculture development plan promotesand 1995, the largest of which was in seeking for the establishment of the the diversification of farming systems,Brooke’s Point covering 112 hectares. Palawan Council for Palm Oil Industry rural livelihood, and employmentThe Upland Stabilization Program, a Development, the approval of which towards high-valued productioncomponent of the Asian Development will usher the development and including tropical fruits such as mango,Bank-funded Palawan Integrated Area institutionalization of the palm oil banana, mango and pineapple.Development Project in three industry in Palawan.municipalities, also promoted agro- The government also providesforestry systems as a soil conservation Palm oil is known to be the most incentives for industrial tree plantation,technique for upland farming systems in productive oil crop yielding about 5 to tree farm and agro-forestry farms in theupland areas in Aborlan, Quezon and 10 times those of any commercially form of exemptions from administrativeBrooke’s Point between 1982 and grown oil crop like coconut. It is used fees and relevant taxes, reduced forest1990. The agro-fruit-tree orchard that in a wide range of application charges, and technical and creditinvolved planting of fruit trees in including those in the food assistance, among others as thoseLeucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia manufacturing and in the chemical, provided for in Presidential Decreesepium or napier grass hedgerows cosmetic and pharmaceutical 1559, DAOs 95-19 and 200-63. Policiescosting about PhP8,990 per hectare industries. to increase prices of perennial crops vis-was most popular among the upland à-vis annual crops also encouragefarmers because of its simplicity and low The first palm oil plantation was planting of perennial crops such aslabor requirement. Technical assistance established in 1969 in Basilan. To mango in the hillside or marginal areas.and production inputs such as planting date, there are four existingmaterials, fertilizer and money for labor plantations with a total area of 14,400 On the other hand, poor or substandard22 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 32. infrastructure such as roads, bridges, protecting CBFM areas is estimated at recommendations of the PCSDand port facilities and the lack of long- roughly PhP84 per hectare (1998 wood supply and demand studyterm credit, the lack of provisions for an prices). with respect to the utilization of theaccelerated depreciation for capital potential supply from the lowlandequipment and machinery in the tax Opportunities for Conservation natural forest;code, and the inadequate net operatingloss carry over create disincentives for To sustain the environmental the provision of the necessaryplantation development as in the case services provided by the forest technical, infrastructure andof palm oil plantations in Mindanao. ecosystem, all possible ways to solve financial support and other the wood supply problem should be incentives be given priority by all the Community-based Forest exhausted while those who supply agencies concerned to encourage Management (CBFM) the environmental services (that is, local and foreign investments on the upland poor communities) the establishment of new industrialThe CBFM was established under should be given alternative tree plantations; andExecutive Order 263 (1995) as a economic activities or incentivesnational strategy to ensure the that are more attractive than forest forest charges imposed on timbersustainability of the country’s forest clearing for crop cultivation or tree from CBFM areas be reviewedresources. plantations or illegal logging. taking into account the market Disincentives for illegal logging and price of species harvested, theThere are 28 existing CBFM projects other destructive activities should be production cost, and a margin forwith a total land area of about 112,000 increased. profit and risk.hectares and benefiting over 2,000households in Palawan as of March Supporting programs and projects In support of efforts to reduce incentives2003. CBFM areas range from 60 to intended to improve the welfare of for illegal logging and destructiveover 22,000 hectares and are upland households/communities activities, it is recommended that:concentrated in Coron, Rizal and Puerto while at the same time stimulatingPrincesa City. Utilization of the RUPs and the development of stable and the suspension of the reward tothe WRPs had been very low (8 to 18%) productive ecosystems by reducing informants as per DAO 98-69 beand declining at the rate of 18% per their reliance on the forest resource reconsidered; andyear. The volume harvested ranged particularly in the critical catchmentsfrom 15 to 23 cubic meters through offer opportunities for conservation. a review of the procedures thatWRPs and 30 to 59 cubic meters Payment schemes to sustain the lead to the filing of a criminal casethrough RUPs. The total volume environmental services provided by against illegal loggers be made withincreased from 85 cubic meters in 1999 the forest ecosystem such as the end in view of making theto 123 cubic meters in 2002 with an conservation concessions, system efficient.estimated value of PhP85,240 and PhP biodiversity conservation, conversion71,085 based on average domestic concessions, and carbon storage To increase the incentives for those whoprices for the species harvested. and sequestration may also be supply the environmental services, it is explored. recommended that:A PhP10 per cubic meter forest chargeis imposed on firewood, branches and Recommendations programs and projects intended toother recoverable wood wastes of improve the welfare of uplandtimber. For timber species harvested To address the wood supply problem, households/communities while atfrom CBFMA areas, forest charges it is recommended that: the same time stimulating theimposed ranged from PhP785 per cubic development of stable andmeter for nato to PhP1,008 per cubic the DENR institute measures that productive ecosystems by reducingmeter for apitong. Assuming the timber will ensure the flow from their reliance on the forest resourceharvested is sold in the local market, the alternative wood sources pending particularly in the criticalaverage domestic price received for the results of the review and catchments be supported; andthese species is just enough to pay the assessment of the problem withforest charges. respect to the issuance of WRPs payment schemes to sustain the and RUPs; environmental services provided byAn average annual budget of PhP9.38 the forest ecosystem such asmillion is required to implement the the PCSD prioritize the review of conservation concessions,Medium-Term Action Plan of the CBFM the wood supply and demand bio diversi ty conservation,Program for the period 1998-2008. situation in Palawan and of conversion concessions, andBased on the existing area of CBFM finding solutions to the problem carbon storage and sequestrationprojects, the cost of managing and including reconsidering the be explored. THREATS TO FOREST RESOURCE CONSERVATION :: 23
  • 33. 3.3 Threats to Palawan Fishery: An Economic Analysis by RODGER VALIENTES The Palawan group of islands hosts the absence of any regulatory rich ecosystems, considered as measures to restrain open access. one of the most productive and biologically affluent both in the With the increase in the number of country and conceivably in the industry players and the declining world. It is often regarded as the catch, fishers were forced to country’s last ecological frontier as substitute traditional “passive” many of its natural resources are gears such as the hook-and-line1 relatively intact in a comparatively method to highly active and efficient well-maintained environment. ones like the “hulbot hulbot” or Danish seine, “hookah” or Live fish being loaded into an air carrier for The marine environment of the compressor fishing, and trawl among transport to Manila. Based on PCSDS province is by far one of its largest others, and increase investment in data, nearly 200,000kg of live fish were assets. With its narrow-strip fishing fleets to be able to cover a transported out of the Calamianes region geologic formation, it has wider range of fishing grounds. It for the live reef food fish trade in 2001. numerous coves, bays, passages, also prompted for the use of harmful and islets sustaining approximately fishing methods such as “super 9,800 square kilometers of coral lights”, muro-ami, “pa-aling”, fine reefs and sea grasses (excluding mesh nets, dynamite fishing, and Tubbataha and Kalayaan,) and use of poisonous substances among some 46,455 square kilometers of others whose damage cost to both “The extensive and rich mangrove forest (JAFTA, 1992). integrity and sustainability of the These make the marine resource far outweighs private fishing grounds of environment of the province a benefits. premier fishing area; most notable Palawan have attracted are the western Palawan waters, The emergence of alternatives to the a significant proportion Cuyo Pass, Honda Bay, Sulu Sea, traditional fishing sector such as the and Malampaya Sound among live reef fish trade (LRFT) and pearl of its population to others. Total output from Palawan culture in the Calamianes, seaweeds fishing grounds account for nearly production in the island settle along the coastal 40 percent of the total fishery municipalities and southern production of the Philippines. mainland, and tourism in the areas. The relative northern and central mainland could The extensive and rich fishing provide a big break or “resource productivity of its grounds of Palawan have by and regeneration period” to the large attracted a significant overexploited fish stock of Palawan. marine areas has also proportion of its population to Alternatives were noted to have very attracted migrant settle along the coastal areas. In promising income and employment 1995, approximately 60 % of the potentials but sustainability of settlers and fishers total population resided in the marine resource and future income coastal zone and have depended streams are always being put into from nearby provinces on it for income and employment. uncertainty as some methods and Similarly, the relative productivity practices in these alternatives have in the absence of any of Palawan marine areas has also severe ecological repercussions. regulatory measures to attracted migrant settlers and fishers from nearby provinces in 24 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 34. Palawan Fishery: exert more effort, explore and high value reef fishes in the Resource Under Pressure richer fishing grounds, and Calamianes group of islands use efficient or active gear. (Ingles in Werner and AllenThe sustainability and integrity of 2000) were indications ofPalawan’s marine fishery Many coastal villages are ecosystem overfishing.resources are in no way different settling over critical coastalfrom any other fishing areas in domains, contributing much to Proliferation of differentthe country. They are marine degradation due to types of efficient and activethreatened, if not, already their direct discharge of fishing gears, some using moreexperiencing moderate to severe wastes, pollution, and clearing than 2 types of gear and thestress and pressure from the of marine habitats. changing fleet size and capacitycombined impacts and signifies over investment in theconsequences of (i) population Resource Issues activity.and socioeconomic, (ii) resource,(iii) technological, and (iv) Total fishing effort being The use of destructiveinstitutional issues and concerns. exerted, in addition to the fishing methods amid strong changing fleet size and resolve of the Provincial Population and capacity, has been increasing government to reduce if not Socio-economic Issues by about 20 percent annually, eliminate it continues to resulting to annual increase in beleaguer the marine fisheries the total catch by industry. Different types of Population growth (natural destructive fishing practicegrowth and in-migration) has approximately 3 percent per annum. were documented in thethe potential to create an different fishing grounds ofenormous exploitation and Palawan (muro-ami, pa-aling,consumption pressure on Crude estimate of the current provincial fisher blast fishing, use of potassiumcritical marine and fishery and sodium cyanide, trawlresources. With the increase in density shows about 33 fishers per kilometer density. fishing, fine mesh net fishing,the population, pollution encroachment of commercial-problems are becoming This estimate effectively classifies Palawan as fishers to municipal waters,apparent and significantly affect increasing by-catch).biological oxygen demand moderately exploited fishinglevels and decreases the area though these density is lower with respect to other Economic gains in mangrovecarrying capacities of critical areas provided an incentive forcoastal resources. areas in the country. further exploitation and Biological overfishing clearing. Mangrove High port, harbor, and concentrations in the centralmaritime activities in the indicators are already posing an alarming threat to mainland are being heavilynorthern and central Palawan exploited for firewood, clearedendanger known passageway sustainability and integrity of the marine resource. Growth for human settlements, andand spawning areas of tanbarking. Portions ofEndangered species and and recruitment overfishing can now be observed in mangrove areas have beencommercially important stocks c on v e rt ed f or a qu ac ul t u re(e.g. Cuyo Pass, Bacuit, Honda, central mainland fishing grounds (Lachica-Aliño et al. purposes under fishpond leaseand Puerto Princesa Bay). agreements (FLA), in addition (2001) and in the Calamianes (Ingles in Werner and Allen to pearl farms and seaweed Rapid increase of coastal cultivation areas.population and the lack of 2000) for dominant demersalalternative livelihood and fish stocks. Palawan coral reefs areemployment opportunities result under threat from a multitude ofto over dependence on coastal The increase of cephalopods (squids and issues, ranging fromand marine resources, even in development activities,the face of declining fish catch cuttlefish) noted by Lachica- Aliño et al. 2001 in the central pollution, tourism, andand income. High overfishing. The studyunemployment and dependency mainland fishing grounds and the dominance of low-valued conducted by the UP-MSI inrate provide an inducement to 1981 reported thatengage in longer fishing hours, and lesser known fish stocks due to decimation of demersal approximately 41 percent was THREATS TO PALAWAN FISHERIES: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS :: 25
  • 35. “fair” and 12 percent was in (0.010 mg/l) while mercury management, research and“poor” condition categories. (Hg) was detected at 0.001 development activities in theThe PSCDS coral reef mg/l. province (Fellizar, Bernardo, andevaluation in Busuanga, Coron, Sandalo, 2001).and Culion and RSA in Honda Technological IssuesBay, and Puerto Princesa Bay There exists an apparentof the FRMP revealed that coral Historical review on the use of weakness in the strategicreefs are generally in “poor” to fishing gears in the Calamianes institutional alliance of different“fair” condition and citing region conducted by Ingles (in organizations in Palawan. Insteadanthropogenic activities as the Werner and Allen 2000) shows of isolated research, conservationpremier cause of destruction. that there is an obvious shift from and management efforts, strongSeagrass communities are also the use of passive (e.g. hook and functional linkages andsuffering from heavy siltation line) to the active gears (e.g. partnerships are imperative andand sedimentation. Danish seine, purse seine, trawl). should be sought by the different sectors working in Palawan. Benthic soft bottom Fishing vessels are increasingcommunities are being in capacity and average gross Maritime law enforcementdamaged by the use of mobile tonnage. In 1988, average gross personnel in Palawan seemand active gears such as trawl tonnage of commercial fleet was ineffective in controlling illegalnets and seines that drag gears about 8 – 9 gross metric ton to as fishing activities in the province.along the sea floor, sweeping high as 11 – 15 gross metric ton Despite overwhelming efforts toeverything in its path. by 2000. decimate destructive fishing methods, illegal fishers are The threat on marine Post-harvest technologies for reportedly active and are stillresources is also rooted to the marine products are limited to operating in major fishing groundsdestructive activities in the fish drying. Not much has been of the province.upland. Unsustainable farming achieved in value-addingpractices such as kaingin lead processes. These technologies Very little has been achieved into heavy siltation and are imperative not only in terms terms of using economicsedimentation in the coastal of adding market value to marine instruments for conservation andareas are being blamed on the products but also in preventing management of marine resources.expansion of agricultural areas spoilage of catch given that fish The closest thing to economicby converting forestlands into handling facilities are inadequate tools being implemented inopen areas for upland farming. and virtually absent in some key Palawan resource management landing areas. and conservation is non- DENR and UNEP (1997) compliance charges, fines, orreported that Palawan has the The ports of Puerto Princesa, penalties for illegal fishingmost highly threatened L i m i na ng c on g , T a y t ay, a n d activities (earlier reported to haveecosystem from the Poblacion Coron were relatively very negligible effects). Economicconstruction of roads and other the most adequately equipped tools are imperative in coming toinfrastructures (both existing landing sites in Palawan (with terms with common resource useand proposed). Road and other fish preservation facilities), while issues such as the property rights,infrastructure constructions are the rest are generally in poor externalities, and subsidies.expected to increase condition and lacking supply ofsedimentation and siltation rate, fresh water. Current efforts in Palawan toin addition to providing easy protect and develop the resourcesaccess to the threatened of terrestrial and marine areas areecosystems. Institutional Issues fragmented and tend to be area- bounded or focused on a particular Coliform levels in all Palawan has consistently resource alone. In the landscapesampling stations conducted by attracted many national and approach to conservation andValmonte-Santos et. al. (2001) international donors and research resource management, thein Puerto Princesa Bay institutions from both the public integration of intervention activitiesexceeded the allowable level. and private sector. However, no from the watershed down to theConcentration of cadmium (Cd) single agency in Palawan is commercial fishing areas isat 0.030 mg/l to 0.140 mg/l has responsible for coordinating or at imperative.exceeded the permissible level least documenting all resource26 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 36. Conservation Opportunity: sufficient knowledge and Potential of an Integrated understanding of MPA. The role of effective information and education Network of Protected Areas becomes essential. When the objectives of the project are clearlyA conservation corridor for marine stated and known by the userecosystems would be a network of groups and other stakeholders,marine protected and priority areas they tend to manage the resources(MPAs) maintained through better.community-based sustainable-resource use mechanisms. The provision of supplementalInstitutional arrangements should be income generating opportunities todirected towards carefully selected resource users makes theand consensus-based conservation management of MPAs relativelyoutcomes (Mayo-Anda and easier.Dalabajan, 2003), which have thepotential to maximize the survival of Sustained support from keythe species and improve overall players such as the LGU, nationalresource integrity. government, NGOs, and people’s organizations.The potential of MPAs in the Palawancorridor was viewed and evaluated Willingness of LGU to commit Squatters living along coastal areasvis-à-vis the experiences and lessons inputs during the planning and pollute surrounding waters with theirlearned from different MPAs in the implementation phase of the MPA; domestic wastePhilippines. MPAs are one of many visits by government authoritiesfishery management options that are uplift the pride of the communityconsidered as “most efficient” for and thus realize their efforts haveoverexploited and threatened fishery been noticed. Presence ofresources. “Spill-over” and economic incentives and“replenishment” effects directly and disincentives for MPAindirectly benefit fishery populations establishment and enforcementand other coastal and marine pave the way towards appreciationresources. Essentially, the immediate o f t he pro te c ted are a anddependents on these resources, i.e. discourage resource exploitation.coastal communities, will benefit aswell. Presence of legal and policy support (e.g. Constitution, FisheryBased from success stories of Code of 1998, NIPAS Act, andseveral MPAs in the Philippines, the municipal and barangayfollowing success factors were ordinances). MPA establishmentidentified and can be duplicated in and management must bethe corridor strategy for the potential accompanied by legal measuresnetwork of MPAs in Palawan: together with ”vigorous, fair and sustained law enforcement”. Existence of state-of-the-art andregularly updated environmental and Specification and enforcementsocio-economic profile of the of property rights - The importancecommunity/resource users. of property/user rights is 1 established in resource ownership Dependence of community on and management. One major threat to Palawan mangroves iscoastal and marine resources, with a its conversion to fishponds. Presidentialmanageable population size. The These are useful in indicating which Proclamation 2152 of 1981 considerspopulation in general or the coastal factors to concentrate on or which Palawan province a mangrove swampcommunity to be specific should have phase of the project to give priority forest reserve and prohibits cutting anda perceived crisis in terms of the to or which among diverse conversion of mangroves.factors affecting fishery resources. stakeholders to consider in duplicating the effort in the overall Community should have corridor strategy. THREATS TO PALAWAN FISHERIES: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS :: 27
  • 37. 3.4 Assessment of Conservation Policies as Applied in Palawan by ATTY. GRIZELDA MAYO-ANDA and DANTE DALABAJAN Background multipartite body called the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Conservation policies take the form of (PCSD), tasked to provide appropriate laws, development plans or other policy guidance to achieve sustainable positions taken and executed by the development. It devised a zoning bureaucracy. There are policies that scheme called the Environmentally define the rights, roles, Critical Areas Network (ECAN), which is responsibilities and obligations of designed to protect critical ecosystems user groups (such as indigenous and habitats while allowing sustainable cultural communities), government economic development to take place. (such as enforcement agencies) and ECAN is a “…graded system of non-government institutions. protection and development control over the whole of Palawan, including its2 As degradation of remaining tribal lands, forest mines, agriculture Lush forest of Puerto Princesa resources proceeds at an ever- areas, sea grass beds and surrounding Subterranean River National Park, one of increasing phase, there have been sea” called the Environmentally Critical two UNESCO World Heritage sites in unremitting efforts to rethink and Areas Network (ECAN). 1 ECAN Palawan reconsider the existing policy prescribes specific uses for each paradigms in order to evolve a more designated zone. The terrestrial zone workable conservation policy. covers mountains, ecologically Emerging global trends such as the important low hills and lowland areas primacy of sustainable development, in the province. The coastal zone decentralization and devolution of covers foreshore areas, mangrove “We think that we can many conservation functions, public areas, coral reefs and fishing grounds. participation, recognition of Tribal land zones are areas traditionally preserve nature on little community-based property rights claimed by indigenous communities as have, to an enormous degree, shaped their ancestral territories. islands scattered in an the manner by which the state and its ocean of human apparatuses view the problems and Forestry Conservation dominion. It won’t work. actors in resources conservation. Whereas before the policy as regards It’s not enough.” SEP as the Blueprint Plan for the use and management of Conservation of Palawan forestlands was that of restriction and the decision-making process on how David Quammen Resources they are to be allocated was in Archipelago Earth centralized, there have been several Palawan has an overarching efforts to diffuse the manner by which published in Time Magazine 1997 conservation policy framework known forest resources are to be used and as the Strategic Environmental Plan allocated. Forest dwellers, once (SEP) for Palawan or the Republic Act considered as grave threats to the No. 7611. SEP is a “comprehensive forest, are now considered as active framework for the sustainable partners in its development and development of Palawan compatible management. with protecting and enhancing the natural resources and Endangered One of the earlier attempts to have a environment of the province”. SEP l e g a l a r r an g e m e n t w i t h l o c a l mandates the creation of a 28 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 38. communities is Letter of Instruction No. Based Forest Management Republic Act No. 7586, where1260 (1982), which provides for Agreements (CBFMAs) awarded to 18 threatened species in Palawan areIntegrated Social Forestry (ISF). Under claimant communities. Moreover, the found. Such designation shall be madeLetter of Instruction No. 12602, government has awarded a measly on the basis of the best scientific databonafide families and individuals could 62,640 hectares of ancestral lands taking into consideration specieshave Certificate of Stewardship and ancestral domain claims to the endemicity and/or richness, presenceContracts (CSCs) with an average area indigenous communities of Palawan of man-made pressures/threats to theof 2.5 hectares, in exchange for until the closure of the PSTFAD in survival of wildlife living in the area,rehabilitating the forest. While ISF was 1998. No additional CADCs were among others.”6 Where needed, theunderway, there was also an attempt to issued since the jurisdiction of PCSD is given powers to acquire byrehabilitate the forests by contracting processing of ancestral domain purchase, donation or expropriation ofout reforestation activities. This was claims was transferred to the lands and establishment of easementsthe Contract Reforestation Program National Commission on Indigenous which will be critical to the survival ofand its later version, the Forest Land Peoples (NCIP) as a result of the the habitats and the threatenedManagement Agreement. passage of the Indigenous Peoples species therein. The Wildlife Act alsoParenthetically, the DENR was severely Rights Act (IPRA). To date, a total of gives power to the LGU to initiatehobbled in achieving the targets set by 368,849 hectares of land and water, conservation of endemic species inthese respective programs.3 There are which have already been validated as their areas.7two fundamental and interconnected early as 1999, await resolution of theloopholes in the implementation of NCIP. Protected Areasearly ISF projects. One is that, sincethere was a weak institutional Wildlife Protection Several laws have been passedframework within the DENR, the ISF recognizing the unique biophysicalproject essentially was Vulnerable to In 1995, Executive Order 247 was features of the particular locales inabuse and misuse. One such passed to ensure the integrity of the Palawan and mandating specificwidespread practice is the selling of country’s natural resources while at government agencies to undertakestewardship contrac ts by the the same time protecting the conservation measures. Examples ofawardees. And due to this weak indigenous knowledge, systems and these are Presidential Proclamationinstitutional mechanism, wealthy and practices. The law establishes the 219.8 In 1992, The National Integratedwell-entrenched individuals were able framework to regulate the Protected Area System (NIPAS) or RAto secure stewardships in direct prospecting on biological and genetic 7586 was passed providing a nationalcontradiction with its very reason for resources for commercial and framework for the conservation ofbeing—that of assigning tenure to scientific purposes. EO 247 tasks an Philippine biodiversity. The law is also aforest dependent communities. A Inter-Agency Committee on Biological process legislation in that it defines alisting of CSCs would show that and Genetic Resources to oversee its mechanism by which the national parkawardees are mostly non-residents and implementation. Under EO 247, system will be governed morewell-off families. prospecting of biological and genetic realistically, using biodiversity resources shall only be allowed only principles, site-specific managementOne change in approach is the after securing the required permits strategies and public participation. TheCommunity Based Forest Management from the government. If specimens law gives Congress the responsibility ofProgram (CBFMP), which allows are to be gathered from territories of constituting the final act, which willorganized communities to be “granted indigenous cultural communities, establish an initial component as aaccess to forestland resources under prior informed consent of the protected area. The NIPAS Law vestslong-term tenurial arrangements, concerned local communities will the site specific Protected Areaprovided they employ environment- have to be secured, in accordance Management Board (PAMB) to, amongfriendly, ecologically-sustainable and with the customary laws of the others, “decide matters relating tolabor intensive harvesting methods.” concerned communities. 5 The planning, resource protection andThere have also been efforts to provisions for bioprospecting permits, general ad ministr atio n…of theencourage the participation of clearances and the need to have protected area.”9indigenous communities on prior informed consent is echoed byconservation activities by conferring Republic Act No. 9147, known as the Since its implementation, there havepreferential rights on extraction, law on Conservation and Protection been various areas in Palawan thatexploitation, management and of Wildlife Resources and their were included in the coverage of NIPASprotection of a delineated ancestral Habitats, or the Wildlife Act. and are now in various stages ofterritory.4 implementation. Currently, the push is The Wildlife Act also provides that the from the NGOs (e.g., Kabang KalikasanAt present, there is an approximate PCSD will “designate critical habitats ng Pilipinas or KKP) as in the case oftotal of 38,000 hectares of Community outside protected areas under proposed protected area (PA) bills ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION POLICIES AS APPLIED IN PALAWAN :: 29
  • 39. currently pending before the Senate, access; adoption of integrated assigned to the LGUs. The SEP lawnamely: (i) Senate Bill 1693 – m a n a g e m en t f r a m e wo r k a n d gives the LGUs the responsibility toMalampaya Sound Protected provision of support mechanisms for implement the ECAN strategy in theirLandscape and Seascape Act; (ii) community participation; respective areas through theirSenate Bill 2100 – El Nido-Taytay management of the ECAN boards orManaged Resource Protected Area Act provision for a stronger law similar bodies.of 2002; and (iii) Senate Bill 2574 – enforcement component andTubbataha Reef National Marine Park augmenting prosecutorial efforts on Moreover, all national governmentAct of 2003. fishery-related cases; and agencies, government owned and controlled corporations are to consult Conservation of Coastal and restoration of line functions of the with LGUs, “…in the planning and Marine Resources BFAR to assist local governments in implementation of any project or MSY, TAC and local licensing program that may cause pollution,Republic Act 8550, the Philippine climatic change, depletion of non-Fisheries Code of 1998, repealed the To ensure people’s participation on renewable resources, loss of cropland,old Fisheries Decree of 1975 issues related to fishery activities, the rangeland or forest cover and(Presidential Decree 704) and several Fisheries Code reiterates the creation extinction of animal or plant species.”12other laws on fishery and aquatic of barangay and municipal Fisheries The LGC also elicits the participation ofresources. Previous laws and and Aquatic Resources Management the private sector and civil societyissuances on fisheries were founded Councils, and defining its broad groups by assigning seats for them inon export-oriented, extraction intensive powers as enforcement, consultative the provincial and municipal planningprinciples. Veering away from this, RA and recommendatory bodies.10 and development councils (MPDC) and8550 identifies national food security local special bodies.as the overriding consideration in the Conservation and Localutilization, management, development, Governance Moreover, the LGUs have as muchconservation and protection of fishery NRM functions under RA 7160 inresources. Even without the bureaucratic forestry sector. At the municipal level constraints, the burden of providing this includes the “...implementation ofThe Fisheries Code introduces new solutions to the environmental community-based forestry projectsconcepts such as maximum problems is simply too great for the which include social forestry projects,sustainable yield (MSY) and total national government to carry alone.11 and similar projects; management andallowable catch (TAC) to ensure the The passage of Republic Act 7160, control of communal forests with ansustainable management of coastal the Local Government Code in 1992, area not exceeding fifty (50) squareand marine resources. It also effectively expanded the base of kilometers; establishments of treebuttresses the provisions of the Local natural resources management to parks, greenbelt and similar forestGovernment Code by devolving some include local government development projects.” 13 At theresource management interventions to instrumentalities. A structural system provincial level, the devolved forestry-the local government, functions that of decentralizing the functions of related functions include “…were otherwise perfo rmed by environmental protection proceeded enforcement of forestry laws, pollutionDepartment of Agriculture-Bureau of whereby local government units (from control law, small-scale mining law, andFisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA- provincial and municipal to the other laws on the protection of theBFAR). Specifically, the Fisheries Law barangay level) were given more environment; and mini-hydroelectrichas the following features: powers, authorities, responsibilities, projects for local purposes.”14 and independent revenue generation affirmation of “working” resources functions to support its local natural Prospects for Palawan-widemanagement models (i.e., closed resources management initiatives. Corridor Strategyseason, sanctuaries and reserves and Such powers include: land and waterlicensing); use planning, forest management, The present legal framework and fisheries management, pollution institutional arrangements, as the resolution of conflicts between control and biodiversity conservation. preceding discussions show, providesexisting fisheries laws and the Local O t h e r s ub s e q u e n t la y e r s o f the enabling environment that wouldGovernment Code by assigning the conservation measures bolster the lay down the basis for ajurisdiction of municipal governments LGC. For example, under the new comprehensive, long-term, province-over waters fifteen (15) kilometers Philippine Fisheries Code, the primary wide corridor strategies. The followingfrom the shoreline; mandate for managing municipal points illustrate this: waters at a distance of 15 kilometers introduction of concepts for limiting from the shoreline has been largely30 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 40. a. P r o v i d i n g t e n u r e t o l o c a l products and thereby decrease their initiatives present enormous communities dependence on the resource base. challenges and opportunities. The SEP, Fisheries Code, DAO No. 96-The current conservation laws amply 29 (IRR of CBFMP) and the Local d. Defined legal and institutionalrecognize the rights of upland and Government Code have built-in jurisdictions and mandatescoastal communities, people’s mechanisms that rationalize theorgan iz atio ns (POs) and non- e x t e n s i o n o f s o c i o - ec o n om i c Bureaucratic and operationalgovernment organizations (NGOs) to assistance to communities. In fact, processes and procedures have beenparticipate in conservation and natural several livelihood projects have been expressly laid down under existingresource management. The SEP law, started as a result of government policies to guide conservation effortsLocal Government Code, Fisheries special programs: community-based and ensure compliance thereto. ForCode and NIPAS Law all emphasize the ecotourism in Coron Island, Puerto instance, the guidelines implementingimportance of people’s participation in Princesa Subterranean River National the SEP and NIPAS provide for thepolicy formulation, resource Park, Ulugan Bay and Honda Bay; establishment of zones, managementmanagement planning and trading of non-timber forest product bodies as well as sanctions for non-implementation and law enforcement. in CBFM and CADC areas, and a host compliance. The effect of this is that of small scale enterprise programs on functions, such as policy-making, inIPRA not only allows the indigenous protected areas. situ conservation activities andcommunities to secure their tenure and enforcement, are clearly delineated.conserve the natural resources over c. Identified conservation zonestheir territories but also allow them to On the ground, there may bemake use of their time tested cultural There are more than enough policies institutional overlaps but it is importantpractices as expressed in their designating specific conservation to indicate that the mandates andancestral domain management plan. areas almost to the point of jurisdictions of various institutions haveMigrant and other upland communities complexity and confusion. For already been laid out by existingcan also apply for CBFMA which allows example, most of the protected areas policies.them to formulate a comprehensive in Palawan have different sets ofmanagement plan. Tenure, as has parameters in zoning; and so does The foregoing variables provide thebeen established by a wide array of SEP (ECAN zoning). Most basis for an effective province-wideliterature, will increase the incentive of municipalities have completed the conservation strategy by: widening thedirect users to counteract the threats process of Comprehensive Land and stakeholder base participation into natural resources. Water Use Plan (CLWUP) preparation, conservation; providing land and which were based on the respective resource use framework; andThere is an important caveat here. ECAN zoning of municipalities. identifying the particular governmentExperience shows that there can Specific management zones have instrumentality in charge of a specificsometimes be a very wide chasm been identified in these CLWUPs such conservation activity.between what resources management as communal forest, watershedplans profess to implement and what areas, marine reserves and Legal and Institutional Barriers toactually takes place on the ground. sanctuaries, among others. ConservationThere have been quite a number ofreported cases of usurpation of the More importantly, recent LGU and Despite the aforementioned existingpowers granted under the CBFMA and national government initiatives have conservation policies and regulatoryCADC such as extraction of timber and already started laying the foundation mechanisms, mounting threats againstnon-timber products beyond the annual for a province-wide corridor strategy. biodiversity conservation continue.allowable quota, cutting on areas not Some of these are as follows: Existing institutional set-up forallowed for such activity or simply Calamianes-wide integrated coastal conservation is still complex,cutting of fresh wood. management; El Nido and Taytay sectoralized, at times confusing, and protected areas; Puerto Princesa fragmented notwithstanding theb. Expanding the social options Subterranean River National Park various Memorandum of Agreements of resource dependent and Ulugan Bay; South Palawan (MOAs) passed to harmonize PCSD and communities Planning Area and the proposed DENR functions, law enforcement Balabac Seascape. In addition, there responsibilities and unify protectedThere exist government modalities for are several CBFM, CADC, CSCs, area zones.communities directly dependent on proposed LGU-managed communalnatural resources to be given the forests and other small-scale Weak coordination, inflexibility inneeded assistance in order that they community-based sanctuaries and a p p r o a c h e s t o r e so ur c e u s e ,can have additional value to their reserves. Taken together, these centralized management, lack of present and planned conservation ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION POLICIES AS APPLIED IN PALAWAN :: 31
  • 41. material resources and lack of Investment Priorities for protection plan, and annual workcompetent and well-motivated staff are Palawan-wide Conservation plans) must also be supported so thatkey problems that result from this resource extraction targets will be donesituation and limit the ability of Corridor within the bounds of ‘sustainable use”.government agencies to effectivelycarry out their functions. Arguably, incipient conservation In addition, logistical and technical activities are gradually taking shape. assistance (such as on participatoryFGDs and KIIs show telling experiences The challenge now is to bind these research, monitoring and evaluationof the failure of past and present small and scattered initiatives to form and capacity building) must bemanagement efforts to arrest the a tight conservation corridor that extended to the claimant communitiesgrowing threat of wildlife smuggling, allows for wider people’s to enable them to make full use of theirmangrove destruction, illegal logging, participation, active government community-based conservationillegal fishing and illegal quarrying. support and sustainable technical initiatives. Small-scale researchersAmong those barriers that were and financial support. This entails that would identify best practices willidentified during FGDs and KIs are as improving community and be needed too for replication in otherfollows: bureaucratic capacities, areas. Another concern that needs to implementing and removing the be resolved is the excessive forest Overlapping jurisdictional mandates barriers to effective conservation charges which most communities andhave derailed the finalization of initiatives. To achieve this, the peoples’ organizations (POs) cannotprotected area management plans following investment priorities should afford.(e.g., PPSRNP) and suspended be undertaken: a) increasing incentives for conservation, 2)previous harmonization initiatives (e.g., b. Formulation of a Palawan-specificprotected area zones); increasing disincentives for destructive activities and c) CBFM Framework Changing political personalities in strengthening local and national institutions. Conservation circles are still deeplythe PCSD and LGUs, particularly, in the divided as to the efficacy of the CBFMprovincial, municipal and barangay framework as a strategy. The morelevels, caused the stoppage or 1. Increasing Incentives for optimistic observers believe thatreduction of support to conservation Conservation violations occurring within CBFM areasinitiatives (e.g., law enforcement); are exceptions and can be straightened 1.1 Establishing Conservation- by stricter compliance system and Conflicting perspectives on oriented Tenurial Options putting in place a functional monitoringconservation among various players, and evaluation mechanism. The moreboth government and non-government a. Recognition of CADC and CBFMA cautious observers however contend(e.g., conflicts between IP leaders and that infractions on the limited rights toPASU in Malampaya Sound Seascape Many forest-dependent communities cut logs are systemic and come fromand Landscape); have evolved a sustainable pattern of the view that CBFM is, in fact, forest resource use based on their cultural utilization and not a conservation Lack of orientation on conservation and socioeconomic interest. An strategy, which offers a perverse kindand resource management, inadequate investment priority in this area of incentive. Such kind of strategyknowledge and coordinative capability therefore is the identification and cannot persist in an already fragileof government personnel charged with legal recognition of valid applications state of the Palawan forests. But it isimplementation of conservation; for CBFMA and CADC. This entails the conceded too that there is lack of awarding of ancestral domain claims alternative tenure options for forest Particular to PCSD, there is still the and applications for CBFMAs to dependent communities. It has beentendency to issue environmental rightful claimants and where needed, established by a wide array of literatureclearances for development projects lending of technical support that tenure is an important incentivearbitrarily, despite the existence of (mapping, registration of claims, seed for peoples’ participation in forestapproved technical criteria for the fund for livelihood/enterprise project, conservation. An investmentissuance of clearances. It is notable etc.) to potential claimants. opportunity along this line is thethat in the case of some mining and A good start is at the NCIP where a formulation of a Palawan-specifictourism development projects, the total area of 306,209 hectares of CBFM framework which is more suitedtechnical recommendations of the land and water claims have been to the social, economic and political,PCSD Staff were not given weight and found by DENR-PSTFAD to be valid as demands of the environment.had to give way to political expediency. early as 1998 but are still awaiting resolutions. Parallel to this, planning The formulation of a Palawan-specific sessions (such as ancestral domain CBFM framework and implementing sustainable development and guidelines shall consider the following:32 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 42. the total commercial logging ban 1.2 Expanding Livelihood as in the case of CBFMAs and CADCs,policy under the SEP law and DENR Support Mechanisms make it difficult for communities toDAO 45, Series of 1992; generate income to enable them to Livelihood projects deserve a short perform their responsibilities of the results of evaluation and discussion here at the risk of development, rehabilitation andassessment of current CBFMAs in digressing from policy analysis. protection. The DENR levies forestPalawan; History of development assistance, charges to CBFMAs, CADCs and other not only in Palawan but also in the community forestry projects based on focus on offering economic rest of Philippines, is replete with the Revised Forestry Code (PD 705).incentives that are not based on timber failures of well intentioned, carefully RA 7161 (October 10, 1991)extraction but on non-timber forest designed and not to mention heavily incorporated certain sections of theproducts production, skills funded “alternative” livelihood National Internal Revenue Code ofdevelopment for cottage industries, e x te n s i o n p r o j e c t s. A c lo se 1977 (EO 273) into the Revisedmarketing and access to credit facility; examination of many communities Forestry Code and increased forest that have been recipient of these charges on timber and other forest the technical working group on projects would suggest that products. DENR DAO 2000-63 almostCBFM currently composed by various “alternative” livelihood without doubled the forest charges.15government and non-government sustained training and financialagencies including the provincial sustainability mechanisms is likely to Besides the payment of forestgovernment, DENR and PCSDS must fail. In not a few cases, alternative charges, the CBFM community istake the lead in formulating these livelihood projects tend to supplant compelled to generate revenue in asguidelines; economic activities, which have likely much as the CBFM strategy requires evolved based on, but often not the recipient community to reforest as regards the reduction or necessarily harmful to, natural the area. The cost of reforestation isexemption from forest charges, a resources available in an area. to be charged to the reforestationproposal must be made for this fund that represents a percentage ofpurpose by the technical working group a. Market Support revenue that communities get fromwith the support of the PCSDS and and Access to Credit the sale of forest products. It must beconcerned government agencies and underscored that revenue generationsubmitted to Congress. It is notable An investment priority in the area of activities are subject to the conditionthat there is a pending bill on the livelihood is the provision of pre and set by the CBFM policy which is forSustainable Forest Management Act post market support, technical the community to “employwhich seeks to remove forest charges (training) and funding assistance to environment-friendly, ecologically-from CBFMA and CADC areas. The add value to their products. An sustainable and labor intensivetechnical working group can work with example of this is the live food and harvesting methods; and that thethe congressional committee involved aquarium fishes, a much-maligned said harvesting methods shall bein this pending bill. economic activity for which much of mentioned under a site-specific coral destruction is attributed to. management plan of each recipientc. Strict Enforcement of CBFM Anecdotal and empirical evidences community and duly approved by the and CADC Management Plans show that, given the right market DENR.” In the case of Palawan, there incentives such as competitive is the total commercial logging banIdeally, forest utilization, especially pricing, training and market support provided under the SEP law, which islogging, on areas where there are mechanism, live fish collectors will why no revenue generation could betenure instruments (CBFM, CADC, etc..) opt to use hook-and-line method. By had from commercial logging.must be based on a properly doing so, communities are placed inf o r m u la t ed m an a ge men t p lan . a better position to pursue the twin Not a few observers give correlationOstensibly, logging must be banned on goals of livelihood improvement and between illegal activities and theareas where there are no statutory natural resources protection. To a economic pressures brought about byinstruments. In many cases, however, large extent, this argument is the exorbitant DENR levies. To somemanagement papers are seen merely applicable to the gathering of forest extent, this may seem plausible.as part of the compliance procedure, at products by upland indigenous Thus, one way to avert such illegalbest, and a license to exploit forestry communities. practices as illegal logging andresources, at worst. Monitoring the excessive harvesting of NTFPs is toformulation of and compliance to forest heed the clamor of CBFMA and CADC b. Better Financing Arrangementsmanagement plans should be an holders to freeze the levying of forest with Tenurial Instrument Holders charges so that enough funds couldinvestment priority if genuinecommunity-based forest management be raised for reforestation and other Some observers believe that resource enhancement activities.is to take place. policies on tenurial arrangements, ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION POLICIES AS APPLIED IN PALAWAN :: 33
  • 43. c. Skills Enhancement destructive to natural resources. and NRM efforts through the An investment priority therefore is process of participatory and regularWhere they are viable, livelihood the conduct of conflict monitoring and evaluation. Suchactivities that ease the tension to management exercises to settle certification process can amongfragile resources must also be disputes based on mutual others, catalyze LGUs and its non-supported but within the broader consent, co-management AND government partners in planningcontext of skill-base, absorption sharing of benefits. and monitoring conservation andcapacity and organizational maturity of NRM investments, mobilization ofa potential recipient community and 1.4 Promotion or Enhancemen of local, national and internationalmore importantly, on the development Workable Conservation and support for conservation and NRMthrust of the national and local Resource Management initiatives, provide publicgovernment. There are already Bodies or Partnerships recognition of conservation andexamples of best practices in this NRM best practices, establishparticular area that can be replicated. The conservation partnership systematic monitoring system forFor example, fisherfolk dependent on between the Provincial LGU, NGOs planning purposes and reinforcecoastal areas of Honda Bay organized and DENR in the management of LGU-NGO-community partnerships.themselves and operated a community- the Tubbataha Reef Nationalbased tourism project. So did the Marine Park (TRNMP) has worked This is similar to the intent of theTagbanua community of Coron Island. since 2000. The PAMB and its DENR’s Coastal Resource Executive Committee meets Management Program (CRMP)1.3 Conflict-Management Exercises regularly. Likewise, joint where the CRM certification (CRMC)and Consensus Building conservation initiatives of LGUs, provides a framework for NGOs, local communities and the benchmarking LGU performance inRecognizing private community- DENR in the municipalities of the delivery of CRM as a basicbased property rights may not be Busuanga (ECAN Board), Narra service as well as a roadmap foreasy considering the various formal (management of Rasa Island) and planning future directions andand informal arrangements that Puerto Princesa (law enforcement, initiatives. 1 6 Like the CRMhave hitherto occurred. For sanctuary management, park Certification, the CNRMC can beexample, traditional fishing areas of management), were noted to be done annually and in a voluntaryTagbanua (in Calamianes) and effectual arrangements. These manner through participatoryMolbog (Bugsuk, Balabac) are now initiatives must be documented, monitoring and evaluation. LGUs,occupied by pearl farm disseminated, strengthened partner community groups andconcessions, with full consent of through education/training and NGOs who go through the processlocal governments. This problem integrated as part of the of an annual monitoring andresonates in upland areas development planning processes evaluation can be motivated tomanifesting as they often did in provided under the law. Logistical achieve higher levels of certificationgovernment projects, non-timber and technical assistance must be over time.forest concessions, mining claims provided in the area of planningand other so-called development and implementation. From a broad corridor perspective,activities. Documentation must be done in a workable partnership for the context of participatory conservation in Palawan must haveLegally, the rights of these monitoring and evaluation to the following ingredients:concessionaires are garbed with ensure that each municipality or“non- infringement” constitutional locality has an institutional strong LGU initiative andinsulation provided that they were memory from which future plans support for conservation in the formentered into without vitiated can be developed. of local policy formulation, budgetconsent (i.e., error, violence, allocation, personnel andintimidation, undue influence and A complementary initiative should involvement of key officials in majorfraud) imposed upon the be the development of a activities;indigenous communities. The Conservation and Naturalconflict however arises when Resource Management pro-active NGO particiption bycommunities are prevented from Certification (CNRMC) Framework way of technical and fundingengaging on legitimate livelihood and a mechanism for the assistance, as in the case of theand cultural activities. It is this implementation of such PAMBs of Tubbataha Reef Nationalproblem that makes communities certification process. The CNRM Marine Park and Puerto Princesacommit to “poverty-driven certification would help sustain Subterranean River National Park;choices”—choices that are often LGU and community conservation and34 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 44. technical assistance from tenure (CBFM and CADC) have their logging activities which is contrary togovernment agencies such as the own zones as reflected in their the SEP law. Proclamation 219PCSDS and DENR. management plans. If not (1967) declares, with some integrated, this situation would exceptions, the whole of province of1.5 Capacitating LGUs to Undertake result in a complex, confusing, and Palawan as a bird sanctuary and theConservation and Resource fragmented institutional set-up. small islands as national reserves.Management as a Basic Service Such muddled set up engenders Under the mining act, areas such as weak coordination, inflexibility in game reserve and wildlife sanctuaryCurrent policies are replete with approaches to resource use and are closed to mining. 1 8 Totalopportunities for LGUs to undertake disorganized management. Clearly, commercial mining therefore is notconservation and resource there must be an interface of all as much a matter of legal debate asmanagement as a basic service. these management zones so they it is a matter of enforcement. WithUnfortunately, most local officials still can serve the fundamental purpose hundreds of hectares of forest laid toneed to be imbued with a broader for which they have been identified. waste mining, and more areas inperspective and equipped with the Espanola and Brooke’s Point to beknowledge on how to translate such PCSD must urgently consider an devastated, it is high time that lawsperspective into concrete barangay- institutional review to ensure that it prohibiting mining in Palawan belevel or municipality-wide plans, can implement its mandate on the implemented.programs or ordinances. For ECAN implementation. Ideally,instance, the effort towards PCSD should reinforce instead of c. Delineation, Demarcation andcompleting, finalizing and compete or complicate current Popularization of Managementinstitutionalizing the CLWUP as a conservation and resource Areasparticipatory process is severely m a n ag e m e n t s t r u c t ur e s a n dlacking in most municipalities. While programs. For these management zones to besome CLWUPs are pending before the effective, they must specifically beS anggun iang Panlalaw igan for DENR-Palawan, given its continuing identified, delineated and thenapproval, it is notable that local lack of manpower and resources, demarcated. Buoy markers must becommunities are not aware of such must consider focusing its efforts installed on fish reserves, refugesplans. The CBFMA and CADC areas on strengthening the Palawan SEP and sanctuaries. Monuments mustwere not integrated into the CLWUPs. framework and LGC be placed to indicate the boundaries implementation. of watershed areas, communalContinuing orientation and trainings forests and other forestof LGUs on conservation and A good example to follow is the management zones. An extensiveresource management must be initiative being undertaken by the information education campaignconsidered an investment area.17 Tubbataha PAMB in proposing a must be conducted on the specificThese can be in the form of exchange Protected Area Bill to crystallize its objectives and prohibitions of thesevisits, exposure activities and case current PAMB structure and zones.study presentations during integrate management strategies ofconferences/workshops. various stakeholders. The bill d. S u p p o r t t o I n t e r - L G U seeks to integrate existing zones Collaborative Conservation and1.6 Strengthening Local Institutions identified by the NIPAS and SEP. Resource Managementand Conservation Frameworks Initiatives (SPPA, Calamianes b. Implementation of a Ban on Large Scale Commercial Mining Integrated CRM) a. Harmonization of Management Bodies/Units as well as Zones in Palawan Corridor Strategy is essentially connecting patches of conservationThere have been quite a number of It is difficult to imagine how initiatives to pave the way forinstitutional arrangements as a result corridor-wide conservation interlinked province-wideof the numerous policies, all of them initiatives can have meaningful conservation plans and outcomes.aimed at making conservation and impacts in the face of current and Collaborative partnerships betweenresource management more proposed commercial mining LGUs are therefore significant stepssystematic. Protected Area activities that cancel out its gains. towards this direction. The LocalManagement Board (PAMB) have Large scale commercial mining is G o v er n m en t C o de p ro v i d e s aidentified their own management anachronistic in an environmentally conducive policy for such inter-LGUzones and PCSD has its ECAN zones critical area and contravenes cooperation as it enables variouswhich was also the basis of CLWUPs. existing policies. Large scale LGUs to pool and share resourcesSpecific statutory instruments of commercial mining has entailed and integrate policy initiatives. ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION POLICIES AS APPLIED IN PALAWAN :: 35
  • 45. At the moment, municipalities DENR, under the Wildlife Act; business tax, real property tax, feescovering SPPA are still grappling with and charges) depend largely on thethe legal route to take in establishing establishment of habitat efficiency of its local collection.their Upland Management Areas, protective measures together with Externally sourced finances include:because legally LGUs have very limited PCSDS and the DENR that would share in the collection of the Bureau ofrights as far as forest conservation is regulate the issuance of licenses or Internal Revenue (this is where IRAconcerned. Forest protection is permits on forest products as well as comes from), share in proceeds fromprimarily the domain of the DENR. development projects (such as national wealth (taxes, royalties,Under the Local Government Code, roads, tourism, plantations). forestry and fishery charges), revenuethe LGU mandate on forest protection from government-owned and controlledcovers only the “...implementation of These zones must be included in the corporations, loans and grants.20community-based forestry projects CLWUP of every municipality coveredwhich include social forestry projects, by Mt. Mantalingahan. Likewise, IRA of an LGU depends on theand similar projects; management such policy initiatives must integrate population, land area and equaland control of communal forests with CBFMA and CADC instruments, and sharing, and the availability of funds ofan area not exceeding fifty (50) in the process consider that most of the national government (e.g., such assquare kilometers; establishments of the upland, forestal areas are being when it has a huge public sectortree parks, greenbelt and similar claimed by indigenous communities deficit). Moreover, IRA is also subjectforest development projects.”19 As far as ancestral domains. to executive discretion by theas the legal basis is concerned, the President. LGUs should have a goodLGUs law-making function is only In the case of Calamianes, an “wish list” of conservation prioritieslimited to the passage of ordinance, investment priority could be the that they can make a strong case outwhich in theory can be supplanted by adoption of a Calamianes-wide of. The next legal step is to seek thean executive issuance or statute fisheries ordinance providing for recommendation of Department of(otherwise called republic acts passed common municipal water boundaries Finance (DOF), Department of Interiorby Congress). The LGC route also has and a uniform set of penalties. This and Local Government (DILG) anda practical disadvantage. Local laws direction can likewise expand into a Department of Budget and(such as ordinances and resolutions) coastal resource management Management (DBM) that such an IRA iscan easily be reversed by a political program where the municipalities necessary and financially feasible.administration that has a different set involved can set up Technicalof priorities. Working Groups or an inter-LGU 2. Increasing Disincentives for interim body that would formulate Destructive ActivitiesWhat can be done is to have an the direction, facilitate consultativeinstitutional arrangement whereby the processes, identify the possible 2.1 Reforming Local Administrativemanagement unit would be the LGUs mechanisms and the strategies. Systemswhile the statutory instrument wouldbe governed by the processes laid 1.7 Call for LGUs to Invest Reforming the justice system, whiledown by the NIPAS Law such as in the on Conservation Initiatives may be desirable is too arduous as it iscase of PPSRNP. Since the legislative protracted. What may be doable at thisroute takes time, local ordinances or In recent memory, conservation juncture is to try to make sense of theresolutions, whichever may be initiatives have largely been driven by opportunities afforded by existingapplicable, can be passed providing bilateral and multilateral institutions. policies such as the Local Governmentfor any or a combination of the Many of these initiatives fold up after Code and the Fisheries Code,following: the duration of the projects because specifically the provision that allows for there is usually an absence of administrative adjudication. This can establishment of greenbelt parks mechanism whereby local be interfaced with other efforts onwithin the municipality, whenever stakeholders such as the LGU could areas where mutual interests of LGUsapplicable, as provided under Local commit financial (and even technical) converge. Examples of these are Mt.Government Code; resources to sustain them. On the Mantalingahan range which abuts five other hand, even if LGUs want to (5) municipalities in the south and the identification and establishment of invest on the said conservation Calamianes Group of Islands whichcore zones and buffer zones within the project, their annual budgetary covers four (4) municipalities. SeriousMangtalingahan range, pursuant to allocation preclude them from doing efforts must be done to bring the localthe ECAN criteria; so. policy making bodies on the table to come up with a negotiated agreement identification and establishment of LGUs have internally and externally on how best to manage their sharedwildlife habitat zones and flagship generated financial sources. Locally resources. Financial support should bespecies, together with PCSDS and generated financial sources (such as granted on the implementation of36 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 46. whatever plans they think have to beimplemented. For effective End Notescompliance, these LGUs must come up 1Section 7, RA 7611 Agriculture and Natural Resources (underscoringwith uniform penalties for violations of supplied).mutually agreed restrictions. 2Signed in July 28, 1982, Presidential Letter of 9DENR Administrative Order No. 92-25, Sec. 18 (a) Instruction No. 1260 or the Integrated Social2.2 Revitalizing Law Enforcement Forestry Project tasks the Ministry of Natural (implementing rules and regulation of NIPAS Law) Functions and Broadening the Resources and other concerned agencies to 10FARMC creation has already been a policy as Base of Law Enforcement establish a program that included a leasehold early as 1996 when President Fidel Ramos signed component for all citizens who resided within Executive Order 240. Joint DA-DILG-DENR-DOJ public forest on or before December 31, 1981. Administrative Order No. 2, Series of 1996 definesIt is inconceivable how lawenforcement can meet the present 3The specifically the functions of FARMC from the legal basis for Contract Reforestationchallenges to the resources without Program is DENR Administrative Order No. 88- Barangay, municiplal to the national level.additional manpower, logistical 31, while that of Forest Land Management 11Ragragio, Conchita. Sustainable Development,support, updated equipment (such as Agreement is DENR Administrative Order No. 90- Environmental Planning and People’s Initiatives.GPS, patrol boats for coastal areas, 71. Asian Development Bank largely funded both Kasarinlan, Volume 9, No. 1, 3rd Quarter 1993.AUVs for forested areas, etc), and of these programs. Third World Study Center, University of theincrease in budget for the conduct of 4One Philippines. (pp. 47) of the earlier policies that recognized thepatrol activities. On areas where there rights of indigenous peoples over their ancestralare no public prosecutors, training of domains is DENR Administrative Order No. 1993- 12Book I, Section 26, RA 7160police officers on litigation procedures 02. A subsequent order, DAO 1996-34 confers 13Section 17, RA 7160must be supported. Another area of the rights to the indigenous peoples to map outinvestment is the systematization of strategies to manage their respective ancestral 14ibid.gathering information on cases of domains. In 1997, the Philippine Congressviolations, building capacity of law passed the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act or 15As Republic Act 8371 affirming among others the provided in the Forestry Code, the charges areenforcement agencies to manage as follows: for timber cut in forestland—on eachinformation database and possibly private, community-based property rights of the indigenous communities over their ancestral cubic meter of timber, 25% of the actual Freight oncomputerization of helpful pieces of domains and creating the National Commission Board (FOB) market price based on species andinformation. Information database is for Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) as the body to grading; provided that in case of pulpwood andessential in monitoring the nature of oversee the implementation of IPRA including the matchwood cut in forestland, forest charges onviolations, the areas where they occur processing the application for ancestral domain each cubic meter shall be 10% of the actual FOBand the particular types of group who market price; for firewood, branches & other titles. recoverable wood wastes of timber ---- when usedcommit them. 5Section 2 (a) and (b), EO 247 as raw materials for the manufacture of finished products, ten pesos (P10) on each cubic meter; forBut even with the most advanced tools, rattan, gums and resins, beeswax, guta-percha, 6Section 25, RA 9147. It must be noted thatlaw enforcement will unlikely succeed almaciga resin and bamboo (other minor forest Section 4 of the same law confers to the PCSDwithout the support of the citizenry. products are exempted) -------- 10% of the actual the jurisdiction over the following habitats andPrivate citizens are valuable source of species therein: all terrestrial plant and animal FOB market price.information because they know a great species, all turtles and tortoises and wetland 16DENR, DA-BFAR, DA, DILG. 2001. Philippinedeal on the nature of violations, who species, including but not limited to crocodiles,commits them, and where specifically waterbirds and all amphibians and dugong; all Coastal Management Guidebook Series No. 8: Coastal Law Enforcement. CRMP of the DENR,these violations occur. declared aquatic critical habitats, all aquatic resources including but not limited to all fishes, Cebu City, PhilippinesIn recent years, there is a growing aquatic plants, invertebrates and all marine 17This mammals, except dugong. Elsewhere in the was a need identified during thephenomenon of organized stakeholders workshop on policy held last February country, these jurisdictions are conferred to thecommunities who take the initiative to 26, 2003. DENR and the DA, respectively.arrest alleged violators. This must beencouraged especially in the light of 7Section 35, RA 9147 18Section 19 (f), Republic Act 7942the low ratio of enforcement agents to 19Section 17, RA 7160the areas covered. An area of 8Presidential Proclamation No. 219 in 1967. Theinvestment to make this work is the Proclamation declared the whole of the province 20The allocation formula for IRA is as follows:conduct of law enforcement or as National Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary and the small islands off Palawan as National provinces (23%), cities (23%), municipalities (34%)paralegal trainings to organized and Barangay (20%). An IRA of a province/city/communities and community-based Reserves closed to exploitation and settlement, putting these areas under the administration of municipality is determined by its population (50%),institutions (such as FARMCs and land area (25%); equal sharing (25%). Parks and Wildlife Office of the Department ofBarangay Bantay Gubat/Dagat),procurement of needed equipment(boat), logistical support (fuel), etc. ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION POLICIES AS APPLIED IN PALAWAN :: 37
  • 47. 3.5 Issues in Conservation Initiatives by DR. ROWENA BOQUIREN Palawan holds a unique position in were confined to 1-2 year the conservation community as commitments in fewer sites. having experienced more than a decade of initiatives under a policy That there are municipalities within the framework favorable for reversing the corridor which have been the constant trends in biodiversity loss. To identify beneficiary of major donors is an strategic directions from which the indication of the high level of CEPF visioning project may benefit, commitment of the respective Local an assessment of a sample of these Government Units and local community efforts was undertaken based on organizations in partnering with the information made available to the external agencies, with the LGUs Team by implementing agencies of providing even counterpart resources major conservation programs, (personnel and other resources from supplemented by interviews with the local development fund).1 local groups in case study areas. Representatives from different sectors It is also important to cite the during the biological priority-setting With the Strategic Environmental Plan contribution of international non- workshop for the Palawan Corridor (SEP) Act (Republic Act 7611 of governmental organizations which work Strategy Development Project 1992), what have been achieved in with their local counterparts to assist the corridor? grassroots organizations in advancing community development. The Number of Conservation particular role of civil society groups in Initiatives organizing, training, and the advocacy of indigenous peoples rights in the last Over 35 major programs involving 10 to 15 years has resulted in the local multiple project components have people’s readiness to participate in conservation projects, as well as the “Palawan holds a unique been implemented in the corridor generation of a healthy setting for within the last 5 to 10 years by position in the numerous institutional players from critical collaboration in the both the public and private sector conservation efforts. conservation community (Table 4). More than 20 external as having experienced agencies can be classified major Geographic Spread more than a decade of donors since they have either constituted the only sources of Mainland municipalities have been initiatives under a policy substantial conservation investments benefited the most by the major in the locality. A small number have conservation initiatives (Table 5). framework favorable influenced the choice of conservation Based on available information, Roxas, for reversing the domains in the corridor, as their San Vicente, and Taytay in the north, initiatives were part of national Narra and Puerto Princesa in the trends in biodiversity programs: the World Bank, USAID, central mainland, and almost all of the loss.” ADB, and the EU. These donors southern mainland municipalities are pursued their conservation programs the sites with all their barangays in larger areas that are municipal in reached by the assessed programs. scope or covering entire protected Major donors simultaneously operated areas, in engagements that usually in several locations, although the sites went beyond 2 years. The rest were which have been most advantaged are engaged in more limited projects that largely coastal than terrestrial areas. 38 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 48. Table 4. Listing of funding sources for conservation-related projects, Province of Palawan (1990-2002) ISSUES IN CONSERVATION INITIATIVES :: 39
  • 49. Table 5. Distribution of Major Conservation Projects, Province of Palawan (as of 2002)*40 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 50. Evaluation of Conservation Initiatives Conservation ObjectivesContrasting the degree of attention that addition, capacity strengthening and the World Bank, USAID, the Europeanhas been given to addressing direct capability building among institutional Commission and the UNDP that mainlyand indirect causes of biodiversity loss, players (from the LGU, DENR and assisted these types of initiatives,the assessment reveals that the level PCSD staff) are crucial preparations accomplishments of smaller and short-of accomplishment of most for improved conservation term undertakings of minorconservation projects is in research management. However, because international NGOs through the localand management planning, not the there are neither direct or short-term civil society groups (NGOs and peoplesactual improvement of biodiversity results that can demonstrate the organizations) are significant andstatus through enrichment, protection effect of systematic planning and important in the area of socialor even the maintenance of habitats training, the preponderance of these preparation – organizationaland species. As an indirect driver in types of investment creates a development of community groups,biodiversity loss, this domain pertains disincentive to multi-stakeholder training, pilot livelihood projects, andto the provision of a favorable climate involvement in conservation, since advocacy. Where the majorfor conservation to be institutionally the resulting perception is that conservation programs had built fromsupported and sustained. Concrete communities do not derive any the earlier efforts in social preparationgains have been the completed benefits although their participation by the NGOs, local participation hasbenchmarks and planning studies is always (and repeatedly) sought. been sustained and brought to higherwhich provide the basis for subsequent levels of engagement such asinitiatives to proceed in a more Vis-à-vis the major support coming enforcement and enrichment (as in thesystematic and integrated manner. In from big international agencies like NIPAP and CRMP project sites).Table 6. Assessment of Conservation Objectives. Trend Responses Assessment 1. Aversion of habitat destruction Most reviewed The realization of such objective is still distant, since most initiatives have prioritized is the over-riding objective in most initiatives planning and benchmarking studies, and training. of the reviewed projects 2. Actual habitat protection and NRMP-CRM This objective is still weak, addressed only so far in terms of the following enrichment as components. UNDP-SISDP - mangrove rehabilitation/enrichment NRMP-FRM - mangrove rehabilitation/enrichment PTFPP - CBFM; fruit trees propagation - Nursery establishment for almaciga, fruit trees 3. Species protection is pursued NRMP-CRM and Capability-building among resource users from the community is the common strategy through improved natural NRMP-FRM used. resources management for With assistance to LGU (PNP) and DENR structures, private sector participation is terrestrial and marine ecosystems. OXFAM-UK mobilized in monitoring and confiscation 4. Species conservation is as yet a Only 5 projects at the species level in the entire province (including the Pawikan limited conservation domain. Conservation Program, Irrawady dolphin in northern Palawan, PCCP, CFI, and the Calauit Island Game Reserve – these projects with funding constraints for sustainability. 5. Strategies tested : • social fencing UNDP-GEF-SGP Capability building and support activities for communities in critical areas RRMP (WB), NRMP- Capacity and capability building of key agency staff (LGU, DENR, PCSD) CRM/FRMP NIPAP PTFPP • provision of tenurial security BCN Social mobilization for areas targeted for CADC application; not sustained beyond social NIPAP mobilization phase Social mobilization up to actual application for CADC in project sites • Alternative/supplemental PTFPP Short-term, stand alone demonstration projects with weak links made with conservation livelihood NIPAP agenda COMPACT ISSUES IN CONSERVATION INITIATIVES :: 41
  • 51. In general, though, there is as yet very livelihood interventions (such as duck protection with enforcement andlittle that has been done in the area of raising, handicrafts, broom making, enrichment; with (iii) stakeholderlivelihood assistance or even honey collection, vegetable participation through strategicenforcement. Such gap is more gardening), as reported by the partnerships that are formed throughprogrammatic than a bias, inasmuch Mission, have economic impact effective advocacy and information; (iv)as capability building, next to the focused on the individual level and toward institutionalization throughresearch and planning exercises, assessed to be not sustainable if established and sustainable structuresusually came as second priority in how profit made is too negligible and processes made possible by athe project interests evolved. Relative compared to the amount and effort favorable milieu of good governance.to tangible benefits that local spent in producing and marketing the These are not mutually exclusive orcommunities expect, livelihood products. stand-alone components of an integratedassistance has been limited to one- approach that conservation actionshot experiments through pilot projects Management Approaches requires. A number of major initiativesor limited assistance in the form of were assessed according to how thetraining and meager capital inputs. Conservation should ideally use an components were conceived and integrated approach that (i) iteratively implemented to complement each other.The PTFPP provided livelihood uses science-based research forinterventions so as to decrease the planning, monitoring and evaluation; (ii) In terms of project components, thedependency of the upland groups on conservation action that links assessed conservation efforts performedthe forest resources. However, these more in terms of addressing indirect Table 7. Assessment of Management Approaches in Conservation.42 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 52. Table 7 continued...causes of biodiversity loss and as stand- EU-PTFPP, although its short-termedalone components, as one-shot, short- extensivecoverage constrained the Initial work in BCN, although this wasdurationed projects (Table 8). integrated implementation of the not sustained as to have the plans program components as to have realizedAttempts at comprehensive, integrated, demonstrable impacts These are initiatives with clear-adaptive management were UNDP-UNESCO initiative in Ulugan tangible results or healthy prospects fordemonstrated in the following: Bay which is continuing success which need to be sustained or Complementation in UNDP-GEF- replicated. CRMP pilot in San Vicente SGP in Roxas, which was nonetheless ISSUES IN CONSERVATION INITIATIVES :: 43
  • 53. Sustainability : inadequate knowledge and NIPAP, UNDP-GEF-SGP. Institutionalization, Capability coordinative capability of government Building, Policy Harmonization personnel implementing conservation programs Conclusions and RecommendationsCoordination, networking and alliance arbitrary issuance of permits and Achievements during the pastbuilding, key advocacies, policyharmonization, capacity building, and at environmental clearance decade of conservation initiativesleast the first phase of corridor-wide demonstrate the critical importanceplanning and zoning are in progress. of an integrated and holistic Social Mobilization : approach to addressing both theThere are positive results from the Stakeholder Participation, direct and indirect causes of Advocacy and Networking biodiversity loss where projectPCSD initiatives as supported by EU- components and activitiesPTFPP : ECAN zoning, use of same as complement or support each other.input to CLUP preparation as well as the Despite the recency of the Neither proximate nor indirectcatchment area management plans; conservation agenda in the corridor, factors can stand alone astraining of staff, environmental education the initiatives have demonstrated conservation objective. Consideringand advocacy. The USAID project in positive results. Many stakeholders the diversity of types of actions thatGovernance for Local Democracy which are willing to be involved – LGUs, can be pursued, and the variety ofhad two components to provide local communities, NGOs, actors that can be encouraged tocapacity on quality servicing at the academic institutions, local engage in these, program plannersprovincial level was similarly evaluated business groups, international and implementers need to set clearto have good results. However, there conservation community. That their conservation targets or desiredare institutional problems in the periodic full participation has not been given outcomes that are definedchange in LGU leadership and the maximum opportunity is the result fundamentally by the direct causesclientelism in political institutions in the more of project design, given the of biodiversity loss, to becountry. priority assigned to institutional complemented or supported by capacity building, baseline activities that address the indirectInstitutional barriers to the realization of research, and planning. causes.the conservation agenda continue tochallenge the conservation community One weakness in the previous No clear cut models for suchparticularly in the city. Among these period is that most of the major complementation and strategicbarriers are the following: initiatives involved the local direction-setting has been tested. As stakeholders only during the indicated in the analytical framework overlapping jurisdictional mandates consultative processes for research for the assessment, however, it is(e.g., PPSRNP) despite the existence and planning. Local participation in important to stress the elements ofof MOAs the implementation and monitoring the recommended integrated of the project components for approach to conservation in order to instability in key actors because of livelihood, capability building, actual advance the biodiversity agenda: (i)constant changes in political enrichment and protection has been iterative use of science-basedconfigurations, reflected in changing weak. In the NRMP-FRM research for planning, monitoringleadership at LGU level and the experience, for instance, many and evaluation; (ii) pursuit ofattendant formations that provide the training and planning sessions were conservation action that linkssupport system necessary in local held, but benefits seemed not to protection with enforcement andgovernance have been felt/ accessed by the enrichment, to address direct drivers community. One observation on the of biodiversity loss, balanced with powerful negative influences of the TABC Project is that it has not programs and services that addresslocal political culture that affected the been so effective in community indirect causes; (iii) developingprospects for good governance. participation and acceptability, as it stakeholder participation through had some problems in public strategic partnerships that are conflicting perspectives on advocacy and implementation. formed through effective advocacyconservation, among implementers, and information; (iv) aiming forstakeholders Nonethe les s, a nu mber of institutionalization through conservation programs were able to established and sustainable weak level of appreciation of have strong citizen participation, to structures and processes madeconservation and resource the extent that enforcement and possible by a favorable milieu ofmanagement enrichment have proceeded with good governance. active local involvements : CRMP,44 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 54. Table 8. Summary Assessment of Components in Major Conservation Initiatives. Advocacy Research Local stake- Enforcement NRM en- Specific Projects Staff Train- and social and plan holders (protection, richment Livelihood ing mobiliza- formulation training regulation) tion RRMP-MEC (WB) 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 UNDP-GEF-SGP (PILOT SITE) 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 UNDP-UNESCO (Ulugan Bay) 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 UNDP-UNF COMPACT 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 Sustainable Utilization (NTFP) 3 1 3 1 1 0 1 Advocacy Specific Projects Research Local stake- Enforcement NRM en- Staff Train- and social and plan holders (protection, richment Livelihood ing mobiliza- formulation training regulation) tion USAID-NRM-FRM 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 USAID-NRM-CRM 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 EU-PTFPP 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 PCPP 2 2 1 1 2 3 0 BCN-CBCEP 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 CFI 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 Legend : 0 None 1 Low 2 Medium 3 HighISSUES IN CONSERVATION INITIATIVES :: 45
  • 55. 46 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY 6
  • 56. 4.0 Palawan Corridor Outcomes and Strategies are Threatened with “a high4.1 Outcomes Definition1 probability of extinction in the medium-term future.An emerging trend across theconservation community is the Site outcomes are physically and/orrealization that biological diversity socio-economically discrete areascannot be saved by ad hoc actions. of land that need to be protected toThreats to biodiversity are simply too conserve the target species. Sitesevere to allow scarce conservation outcomes are also referred to asresources to be invested in poorly Key Biodiversity Areas.targeted projects, or programs withno baselines for monitoring. This Most threatened species are besttrend has led to the development of a conserved through the protection of 1focus on conservation outcomes: the the sites in which they occur. Sitestargets against which the success of are scale-independent – they can Palawan peacock pheasant (Polyplectroninvestments can be measured. be very small or very large. The emphanum) defining characteristic of a site isConservation outcomes can be that it is an area that is managed Left: Tubbataha Reef National Marineidentified at three scales – species, as a homogeneous unit. Sites can Park, one of the richest areas for marinesites, and corridors – which reflect be national parks or any other biodiversity in the country and arguably ther e c o g n iz a b le un i t s al o n g t h e category of protected area, other world.ecological continuum. These governmental lands such asoutcomes are “Extinctions Avoided”, indigenous reserves, community“Areas Protected” and “Corridors lands, or private farms or ranches.Created”. In some cases, sites could be areas delimited physically rather thanConservation outcomes represent the socio-economically such as anquantifiable set of species, areas and island, a mountaintop, or a patch ofcorridors that we must target to forest.ensure that we attain our vision of “Conservation outcomesthe long-term persistence of all Protected area status is not abiodiversity globally. criterion for the identification of Key represent theSpecies outcomes are all species Biodiversity Area. The main criteria quantifiable set of for site-level outcomes is that theythat are globally threatened must be based on the distribution species, areas and(Vulnerable, Endangered, CriticallyEndangered) according to the IUCN of species of conservation interest. corridors that we must These criteria include:Red List. • Presence of a globally target to ensure thatDefining species outcomes requires threatened (Vulnerable, we attain our vision of Endangered, Criticallyknowledge of the conservation status Endangered) species. the long-termof individual species. This knowledgehas been accumulating in the Red • Presence of a restricted-range persistence of all species. (Restricted-range forLists produced by IUCN and partners. birds means extent of biodiversi y globally.” tThe Red Lists are based onquantitative, globally applicable occurrence is less than 50,000criteria under which the probability of km2; defining restricted-rangeextinction is estimated for each criteria for other taxonomicspecies. All species on the Red List groups is currently underway.) 1 Conservation International /Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, 2004 PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 47
  • 57. Island-endemic species in the that need to be conserved in order minimum-area requirements of wide- Philippines should most likely be to allow the persistence of ranging species, of ecological and picked by IUCN criteria on area of biodiversity. The definition of evolutionary gradients, of bio- occupancy as species occurring “Corridors Created” outcomes is the geographic pattern, and of resilience in an area of less than 2000 most complicated of the three to climate change and anthropogenic square kilometers and with levels of conservation outcomes. development scenarios. While strict fragmented populations, small Clearly, the conservation of criteria have yet to be developed to numbers of individuals, and landscapes necessary to allow the encapsulate these characteristics, projected declines would merit a persistence of biodiversity must be numerous conservation corridors and Vulnerable status. anchored on core protected areas, landscapes have already been• Presence of globally significant embedded in a matrix of other defined qualitatively (i.e. the Palawan (>1%) concentrations of natural habitat and of biodiversity corridor, Sierra Madre individuals of a single species, at anthropogenic land uses. The corridor), and provide an effective any time of the year. delineation of conservation starting point for the definition of corridors should require “Corridors Created” outcomes.Corridor Outcomes are landscapes consideration of migration and4.2 Species OutcomesTable 9. Key terrestrial and marine species of Palawan: threatened and restricted-range species2 AMPHIBIANS Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Caudacaecilia weberi Palawan Caecilian Restricted-range; Palawan only Riverine forest Barbourula busuangensis Philippine Discoglossid Frog IUCN: Vulnerable Riverine forest Megophrys ligayae Palawan Horned Frog Restricted-range; Palawan only Lowland forest Pelophryne albotaeniata Palawan Toadlet IUCN: Vulnerable Montane forest Ingerana mariae Mary Inger’s Frog IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland-lower montane forests Limnonectes acanthi Busuanga Wart Frog IUCN: Vulnerable Forest, river, streams REPTILES Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Caretta caretta Loggerhead Turtle IUCN: Endangered Marine Chelonia mydas Green Turtle IUCN: Endangered Marine Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle IUCN: Critical Marine Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley IUCN: Endangered Marine Dermochelys coriacea Leatherback Turtle IUCN: Critical Marine Heosemys leytensis Philippine Forest Turtle IUCN: Critical Riverine forest, wetlands Pelochelys cantorii Cantor’s Giant Softshell IUCN: Endangered Wetlands Crocodylus mindorensis Philippine Crocodile IUCN: Critical Riverine wetlands Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile CITES App. I; persecuted Riverine, wetlands, coasts2 Conservation status based on Heaney et al. (1998), Mallari et al. (2001), IUCN (2002/2003, online version), CITES (2003, online version).48 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 58. Table 9 continued…. BIRDS Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Egretta eulophotes Chinese Egret IUCN: Vulnerable Wetlands Gorsachius goisagi Japanese Night-heron IUCN: Endangered Forest Anas luzonica Philippine Duck IUCN: Vulnerable Wetlands, riverine forest Polyplectron emphanum Palawan Peacock-pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Tringa guttifer Nordmann’s Greenshank IUCN: Endangered Wetlands Ducula pickeringii Grey Imperial Pigeon IUCN: Vulnerable Forest, second growth Cacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves, second growth Prioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Otus mantananensis Mantanani Scops-Owl Restricted-range Forest, second growth Otus fuliginosus Palawan Scops-Owl Restricted-range Lowland forest Spizaetus philippensis Philippine Hawk-eagle IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Collocalia palawanensis Palawan Swiftlet Restricted-range Open areas, second growth Anthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest, second growth Chloropsis palawanensis Yellow-throated Leafbird Restricted-range Forest, second growth Hypsipetes palawanensis Sulphur-bellied Bulbul Restricted-range Forest, second growth Copsychus niger White-vented Shama Restricted-range Forest, second growth Parus amabilis Palawan Tit Restricted-range Lowland forest Trichastoma cinereiceps Ashy-headed Babbler Restricted-range Lowland forest Malacopteron palawanense Melodious Babbler Restricted-range Lowland forest Ptilocichla falcata Falcated Wren-babbler IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Stachyris hypogrammica Palawan Striped-babbler Restricted-range Montane forest Ficedula platenae Palawan Flycatcher IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Cyornis lemprieri Palawan Blue-flycatcher Restricted-range Lowland forest Terpsiphone cyanescens Blue Paradise-flycatcher Restricted-range Lowland forest Prionochilus plateni Palawan Flowerpecker Restricted-range Second growth, lowland forest PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 49
  • 59. Table 9 continued….. MAMMALS Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Crocidura palawanensis Palawan Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Tupaia palawanensis Palawan Tree Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES App II Forest, second growth Acerodon leucotis Palawan Fruit Bat IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES App II Mangroves, second growth Sundasciurus juvencus Northern Palawan Tree Squirrel IUCN: Endangered Forest, second growth Sundasciurus rabori Palawan Montane Squirrel IUCN: Vulnerable Forest, second growth Palawan Soft-furred Mountain Palawanomys furvus IUCN: Endangered Forest Rat Oriental Small-clawed Amblonyx cinereus CITES: Appendix II Riverine forest, mangroves Otter Mydaus marchei Palawan Stink Badger IUCN: Vulnerable Riverine forest, mangroves Arctictis binturong whitei Palawan Binturong IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Sus barbatus ahoenobarbus Palawan Bearded Pig IUCN: Vulnerable Forest, second growth Tragulus napu nigricans Balabac Chevrotain IUCN: Endangered; CITES App II; Forest, second growth, scrub Axis calamianensis Calamaian Hog Deer IUCN: Endangered Second growth, grasslands Balaenoptera physalus Fin Whale IUCN: Endangered Marine Dugong dugon Dugong IUCN: Vulnerable Marine Physeter macrocephalus Sperm Whale IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES App I Marine Orcaella brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin Philippine Red List: Critical Marine Stenella longirostris Spinner dolphin CITES Appendix 2 Marine Tursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphin CITES Appendix 2 Marine Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser’s dolphin CITES Appendix 2 Marine Globicephala macrorhynchus Short-finned pilot whale CITES Appendix 2 Marine CLAMS Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Tridacna derasa Southern Giant Clam CITES Appendix II Marine Tridacna gigas Giant Clam CITES Appendix II Marine Hippopus hippopus Bear’s Paw Clam CITES Appendix II Marine Hippopus porcelanus China Clam CITES: Appendix II Marine MARINE FISH Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Epinephelus lanceolatus Giant Grouper IUCN: Vulnerable Marine Rhincodon typus Whaleshark IUCN: Vulnerable Marine Cheilinus undulatus Humphead Wrasse IUCN: Vulnerable Marine Nebrius ferrugineus Tawny Nurse Shark IUCN: Vulnerable Marine Rhynchobatus djiddensis White-spot Giant Guitarfish IUCN: Vulnerable Marine Stegostoma fasciatum Leopard Shark IUCN: Vulnerable Marine50 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 60. Table 9 continued….. FRESHWATER FISH Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat IUCN: Vulnerable; Puntius manguaoensis Lake Manguao Barb Wetlands Lake Manguao only FLOWERING PLANTS Common Names Status and Remarks Main Habitat Adenanthera intermedia “Malatanglin” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Alangium longiflorum “Malatapai” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Antidesma obliquinervium IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Antidesma subolivaceum IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Aphanamixis cumingiana IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Ardisia squamulosa “Tagpo” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Arthrophyllum pulgarense IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Canarium luzonicum IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Cryptocarya palawanensis “Parena” IUCN: Endangered Lowland forest Dasymaschalon scandens IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Dillenia luzoniensis “Malakatmon” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Dipterocarpus gracilis Panau IUCN: Critical Lowland forest Dipterocarpus grandiflorus “Apitong” IUCN: Critical Lowland forest Dipterocarpus hasseltii Hasselt Panau IUCN: Critical Lowland forest Dysoxylum palawanensis IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Embolanthera spicata IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Glyptopetalum palawanense IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Guioa palawanica IUCN: Critical Lowland forest Intsia bijuga “Ipil” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Knema latericia ssp. latericia IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Macaranga cogostiflora IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Mitrephora fragrans IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Mitrephora lanota “Lanutan” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Palaquium bataanense IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Polyalthia elmeri IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Protium connarifolium IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Pterocarpus indicus IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Sandoricum vidalii IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Schefflera curranii IUCN: Endangered Lowland forest Schefflera palawanensis IUCN: Endangered Lowland forest Semecarpus paucinervius IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Vatica mangachapoi IUCN: Endangered Lowland forest Vatica maritima “Molave” IUCN: Endangered Lowland forest Vitex parviflora “Molave” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Xanthostemon verdugonianus “Mankono” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Xylosma palawanense “Porsanbagyo” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Ziziphus talanai “Balakat” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 51
  • 61. 4.3 Site Outcomes52 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 62. Figure 2. Priority conservation sites in Palawan corridor The Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Environment have identified 12 terrestrial discussions, conservation-related issues Priority Setting Project initiated by the and 8 marine priority sites in Palawan (Ong, were identified. These were validated in in a Department of Environment and Natural et al., 2002). In 2003, these initial sites forum of stakeholders from the national Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife were reviewed by biodiversity experts and government agencies, local government Bureau, Conservation International local stakeholders, increasing the number units, non-government organizations and the Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation of priorities to 17 terrestrial and 9 marine civil society groups. Strategies and priority Program-University of the Philippines sites. actions to address the current conservation Center for Integrative and Development Through a combination of case studies, key issues in each of the priority sites were Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine informant interviews, focus group formulated by the key stakeholders.PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 53
  • 63. 4.3.1 Terrestrial SitesCoron IslandThe island is declared as an ancestraldomain, proposed as a protectedarea and identified as a tribalancestral zone by virtue of its beingpart of the environmentally criticalareas network.However, the weak coordinationbetween the local government andthe Tagbanua Foundation hasresulted to misconception by the LGUregarding ancestral domain claims.Moreover, the high population growthrate in Cabugao (6.17) and BanuangDaan (3.58) is seen as a potentialthreat to the site. Kaingin is still theprimary farming practice.Key species COMMON STATUS AND TAXON HABITAT NAME REMARKS BIRDS Anthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growth forest Cacatua haematuropygia Philippine cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growth forest Ducula pickeringii Grey imperial pigeon IUCN: Vulnerable Second growth forest Egretta eulophotes Chinese egret IUCN: Vulnerable Wetlands Prioniturus platenae Blue-headed racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest PLANTS Xanthostemon verdugonianus “mankono” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestTourism is a growing industry in STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONCoron, but, the lack of facilities toprevent pollution in the lakes andinadequate management scheme to Harmonize national and local • Improve coordination between IPs and othercope with expanding tourism require policies/management zones stakeholdersimmediate attention. • Adopt the ADMP of the TFCI as a municipal ordinance to enhance the management systemKey stakeholders of Coron Island• Local Government Unit • Install a Tagbanua representative in the munici-• Tagbanua Foundation of Coron pal council Island• Environmental Legal Assistance Center• Conservation International54 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 64. Cuyo Island GroupThis island group is a priorityconservation area for endemicbutterflies. Historical data on thepresence of endemic butterflies needto be verified. In the absence of hardreferences, more stringent measureson butterfly collection in the island isrequired.Based on limited data, the area ratesas low conservation priority for allother groups.Key stakeholders• Local Government Unit• PCSDS• DENR-CENRO STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Prepare research agenda for financial and • Study on endemic butterflies technical support from donor agencies • Inventory and status of other flora and fauna Enforce bioprospecting law • Advocacy on bioprospecting law and wildlife act Trogonoptera trojana Troides plateni Pachliopta atrophos Graphium megaera Graphium stratocles PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 55
  • 65. El Nido-Taytay Managed ResourceProtected Area (ENTMRPA)Although the available biologicalinformation in this area is generallylimited, the diversity and endemicityis suspected as very high. There areseveral threatened and endemicspecies in the area. The Philippineendemic Heosemys leytensis, acritically endangered terrestrial turtle,has been recorded from Taytay.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSPolyplectron emphanum Palawan peacock-pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestCollocalia palawanensis Palawan swiftlet Restricted-range Open areas; second growthAnthracoceros marchei Palawan hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growthHypsipetes palawanensis Sulfur-bellied bulbul Restricted-range Forest; second growthChloropsis palawanensis Yellow-throated leafbird Restricted-range Forest, second growthCopsychus niger White-vented shama Restricted range Forest; second growthTerpsiphone cyanescens Blue Paradise-flycatcher Restricted-range Lowland forestPrionochilus plateni Palawan flowerpecker Restricted-range Second growth; lowland forestMAMMALS (unknown)HERPETOFAUNAHeosemys leytensis Philippine forest turtle IUCN: Critical Riverine forest, wetlandsPLANTSZiziphus talanai “balakat” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestSandoricum vidalii IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestSchefflera palawanensis IUCN: Endangered Lowland forestPterocarpus indicus IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestIntsia bijuga “ipil” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestXanthostemon verdugonianus “mankono” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest56 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 66. ENTRMPA is one of the 3 sites in Palawanfunded by the National IntegratedProtected Areas Project. It is among thefirst protected areas in the country thathas operationalized its IntegratedProtected Area Fund (IPAF). Demarcationfor terrestrial boundaries is almostcomplete. Following the steps under theNIPAS Law, a draft Congressional Bill forENTMRPA has been forwarded to theSenate for action.Nevertheless, threats to the existingresources include illegal commerciallogging, small-scale timber extraction,uncontrolled birds’ nest gathering andtourism development.RIGHT: Philippine forest turtle (Heosemysleytensis) 1 STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONPursue completion of NIPAS process for PA Lobby for the passage of the bill for ENTMRPAestablishmentHarmonize ENTMRPA management plan and Create position and appoint MENRO in El Nido.the Comprehensive Land & Water Use Plan for Review CLWUP and ENTMRPA management plan to address threats, deal with IPAF andEl Nido & Taytay other resource management issues Refine management prescriptions in both CLWUP and ENTRMPA management plan Formulate ordinances to back up implementation of agreed plans Demarcate management zonesUndertake research on flora and fauna Conduct survey of plants, birds and mammals, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fishes in Bulalacao forestEnforce and monitor the implementation of Undertake an in-depth study on the trade, biological impacts, environmental economics andbirds’ nest gathering regulation. supply on the birds’ nest gathering issueMonitor compliance of resorts to environmentalrequirementsRehabilitate watershedsImplement intensive IEC Key stakeholders • ENTRMPA Protected Area • PCSDS Management Board • State Polytechnic College • Department of Environment of Palawan and Natural Resources • Kabang Kalikasan ng • Local Government Unit/s Pilipinas PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 57
  • 67. Lake ManguaoSpecies diversity in the surroundingforest of Lake Manguao is high and thepresence of IUCN species have beennoted. Several new species of freshwaterfish that are endemic to the lake hasrecently been discovered. The reportedpresence of the critically endangeredCrocodylus mindorensis warrantsverification.After completing the Protected AreaSuitability Assessment and ResourceInventory by DENR-CFI, SPCP andPCSDS, a draft presidentialproclamation as additional NIPAS sitewas prepared in early 2000.Threats to the ecological integrity of thelake and adjacent areas includepoaching, logging, kaingin, introductionof tilapia in the lake, and pesticide run-offs.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATFISHPontius manguanensis Lake Manguao Barb IUCN: Vulnerable WetlandsREPTILECrocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile CITES: Appendix II River, Wetlands, CoastsHeosemys leytensis Philippine Forest Turtle IUCN: Critical Riverine forest, Wetlands STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONPursue PA establishment for Lake Manguao • Conduct census & studies to identify different zones in the area • Establish “community watershed” through ordinanceUndertake collaborative biophysical researches • Obtain consensus among agencies through dialogues • Conduct intensive survey of the fish faunaImplement IEC on conservationKey stakeholders• Local Government Unit • DENR• PCSDS • State Polytechnic College of Palawan58 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 68. San Vicente-Taytay-Roxas forestThe extent & quality of theremaining habitats & the currentstatus of biodiversity in this priorityarea need to be verified. The areawas proposed for protection by theDENR and local government whichmay result in a finer scale ofprioritization in terms of size afterparts of it have been declared asprotected area. The terrestrial areaof Malampaya Sound ProtectedLandscape and Seascape is withinthis priority site.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSPolyplectron emphanum Palawan Peacock Pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growthMAMMALAmblonyx cinereus Oriental small-clawed otter CITES: App II Riverine forest, mangrovesPLANTPterocarpus indicus IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestDeforestation and illegal logging Taytay between 1987 & 1998.are major threats. Roxas & Development plans of the Other threats include illegal m u n i c i pa l i t i e s n e ed t o b eTaytay are among the current methods on resource extraction,illegal logging hotspots. Roxas harmonized in order to address kaingin, treasure hunting, gold- boundary disputes andholds the largest volume of timber panning, quarrying, management conflicts.confiscation records from 1992 to land/mangrove conversion. The2002. There was significant massive agricultural areas result The high net in-migration rate indeforestation in San Vicente & to pesticide run-offs. Roxas (40%) requires regulatory measures PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 59
  • 69. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Integrate plans of the 3 municipalities • Review the CLWUPs of the 3 municipalities • Establish an integrated database and agree on information shar- ing protocols • Conduct biophysical surveys • Evaluate existing management programs: watershed ordinance and management in Roxas; Environmental Code in Taytay; ex- isting CADCs and CALC management plans • Evaluate proposed management areas/programs: CADT in Ban- banan, Taytay; watershed program in San Vicente Establish barangay watersheds and barangay water • Strengthen the barangay development planning process systems in the 3 municipalities • Delineate old growth forests of the 3 municipalities per baran- gay • Establish nursery for endemic species • Reforest/rehabilitate forests and mangroves where needed (no exotic species per barangay) Pursue completion of NIPAS process for Malampaya • Manage conflicts in Malampaya Sound Sound Protected Landscape and Seascape (MSPLS) • Lobby for the passage of the Congressional Bill for MSPLS Strengthen law enforcement • Clarify management zones • Monitor CBFMA activities Establish permanent cropping area • Delineate forest and agricultural areas per barangay Key Stakeholders • Local Government Units (San Vicente, Taytay, Roxas) • DENR • PCSDS • State Polytechnic College of Palawan • KKP • Bantay Gubat • Task Force Kalikasan1 1 Palawan Peacock pheasant (Polyplectron Palawan hornbill (Anthracoceros marchei) emphanum) 60 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 70. Puerto Princesa SubterraneanRiver National Park (PPSRNP)PPSRNP is one of the declaredprotected areas in the Corridor, aWorld Heritage Site and is amongthe top ecotourism destination inthe Philippines.The interim management plan forthe park prescribes ecosystemsmanagement, law enforcement &protection, community development& public relations, tourismmanagement, research &monitoring.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSEgretta eulophotes Chinese egret IUCN: Vulonerable WetlandsPolyplectron emphanum Palawan Peacock Pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestTringa guttifer Nordmann’s Greenshank IUCN: Endangered WetlandsCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growth forestPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growthPtilocichla falcata Falcated Wren-babbler IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestMAMMALS IUCN: Vulnerable;Acerodon leucotis Palawan Fruit Bat Mangroves; second growth CITES: App IIMydaus marchei Palawan Stink Badger IUCN: Vulnerable Riverine forest; mangrovesArctictis binturong whitei Palawan Binturong IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestSundasciurus rabori Palawan Montane Squirrel IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growthPLANTSDipterocarpus gracilis “panau” IUCN: Critical Lowland forestDipterocarpus grandiflorus “apitong” IUCN: Critical Lowland forestDipterocarpus hasseltii “hasselt panau” IUCN: Critical Lowland forestIntsia bijuga “ipil” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestMitrephora lanota “lanutan” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestVitex parviflora “molave” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 61
  • 71. Current protection efforts of the include mining/quarrying representation/participation in City Government of Puerto applications in Tagabenit, decision-making. Moreover, the Princesa and interventions of uncontrolled tourism and overlapping jurisdictional mandates external donors (e.g., UNDP- commercial development, between the DENR and the City COMPACT Project) ensure a inappropriate land-use, expanding Government have derailed the significant level of success for its rice paddies, incompatible project finalization of the general protection in the future. However, implementations, waste management plans (e.g. PPSRNP) & deforestation around the park, management (particularly in have suspended previous unsustainable harvesting Sabang & Cabayugan), and harmonization initiatives (e.g. PA techniques of rattan & almaciga, population increase. zones). kaingin, wildlife poaching & trading Proposed zoning needs validation on and several other threats remain The PAMB is active in management the ground as well as acceptance by unabated. Other current issues monitoring, however, there is lack the communities within the park. besetting park management o f m u l t i - s e c t o r a l STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONProtect critical habitats and species • Protect montane forests in Cleopatra • Establish harvest quota/requirement for non-timber forest products • Protect remaining swamp forests • Protect Sabang mangroves • Protect turtle nesting sites • Control monitor lizard from raiding turtles and tabon eggs • Protect dugong feeding grounds/areas in Sabang and OdionganManage the ecosystems in the Park and sur- • Harmonize SEP, NIPAS and IPRA lawsrounding areas • Review zoning and the corresponding management schemes • Demarcate zone boundaries • Implement strict protection measures in the forest corridor between Mt. St. Paul and Mt. Bloomfield • Establish marine sanctuary at St. Paul bay • Establish long term biodiversity monitoring program compatible with the Palawan biodiversity corridor conservation strategyPromote and support local community develop- • Establish communal forest in Cabayuganment compatible with conservation • Formulate local tourism development code • Develop/enhance eco-tour sites at PPSRNP (mangrove tours, trails, caving) • Strengthen health-population programs • Encourage other appropriate livelihood projects/activitiesKey Stakeholders• PPSRNP PAMB • DENR • many peoples organizations• City Government of Puerto • Cabayugan CADC holders • tourism development groups Princesa • Kayasan CADC holders62 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 72. Victoria-Anepahan RangeHigh species richness, highendemism, and the presence ofIUCN species and diverseecosystems make this among thetop priority sites in the Corridor.Most of the threatened andrestricted-range birds of thePalawan Endemic Bird Area occurhere. The Palawan striped-babbleris only known from this ImportantBird Area and Mt. Mantalingahan. Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDS TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATEgretta eulophotesBIRDS Chinese Egret IUCN: Vulnerable WetlandsGorsachius goisagiEgretta eulophotes Japanese Night-heron Chinese Egret IUCN: Endangered IUCN: Endangered Forest WetlandsGorsachius goisagiSpizaetus philippensis Japanese Night-heron Philippine Hawk-eagle IUCN: Vulnerable IUCN: Vulnerable Forest Lowland forestSpizaetus philippensis Philippine Hawk-eagle IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestPolyplectron emphanum Palawan Peacock Pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestPolyplectron emphanum Palawan Peacock Pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growth Lowland forest; secondAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable growthPtilocichla falcata Falcated Wren-babbler Falcated Wren-babbler IUCN: Vulnerable IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest Lowland forestFicedula platenae Palawan Flycatcher Restricted-range Lowland forestFicedula platenae Palawan Flycatcher Restricted-range Lowland forestStachyris hypogrammica Palawan Striped-babbler Restricted-range Montane forestStachyris hypogrammica Palawan Striped-babbler Restricted-range Montane forestMAMMALSMAMMALSTupaia palawensis Palawan Tree Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestTupaia palawensis Palawan Tree Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable IUCN: Vulnerable; Lowland forestAcerodon leucotis Palawan Flying Fox Mangroves; second growth CITES: App II IUCN: Vulnerable;Acerodon leucotisSundasciurus juvencus Palawan Fruit Bat Tree Squirrel Northern Palawan IUCN: Endangered Forest; secondsecond growth Mangroves; growth CITES: App IIMydaus marcheiSundasciurus juvencus Palawan Stink Badger Northern Palawan Tree Squirrel IUCN: Vulnerable IUCN: Endangered Riverine forest; mangroves Forest; second growthSundasciurus rabori Palawan Montane Tree Squirrel IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growthMydaus marchei Palawan Stink Badger IUCN: Vulnerable Riverine forest; mangrovesSundasciurus rabori Palawan Montane Squirrel IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growth PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 63
  • 73. TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATTAXONPLANTSCOMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATTAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATDipterocarpus gracilis “panau” IUCN: Critical Lowland forestDipterocarpus grandiflorus “apitong” IUCN: Critical Lowland forestDipterocarpus hasseltii “hasselt panau” IUCN: Critical Lowland forest The area covers an ancestral STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION domain claim by Tagbanuas within the Palawan Flora & Fauna & Harmonize zones • Review CLUPs Watershed Reserve (PFFWR); CBFMAs (7000 ha); CALC in • Validate ECAN zones on the ground Dumanguena, Narra (69 ha) and in • Revise CLUP, if necessary Aporawan, Aborlan (1,700 ha). Resolve existing • Clarify management jurisdictions among the Puerto Princesa & Aborlan are management conflicts holders of tenurial instruments considered illegal logging hotspots • Manage conflicts between the IP occupants and as of 2002. the PFFWR management body Other threats include kaingin and • Clarify management jurisdictions in some farming practices in lower Victoria portions of Iwahig Penal Farm and Sta. Lucia (pesticides); concessions for and Environmental Estate. non-sustainable exploitation of almaciga resin and rattan; Harmonization of • Demarcate boundaries of CALC/CADC and tenurial instruments CBFMAs exploitation of birds; unrehabilitated abandoned mining areas in lower • Review existing management zoning and land-use Victoria-Anepahan range (Olympic and Trident mines); quarrying & Establish multisectoral • Evaluate existing management body (to be logging in PFFWR; squatting; watershed management initiated by DENR/PCSD/LGU) encroachment of migrants using board in Puerto Princesa • Strengthen management capacity access mining road. • Review possibility of providing incentives for Ground validation of ECAN zoning upland farmers on water rights (Puerto Princesa is required in order to harmonize City Water District) with CLUP. Rehabilitate degraded • Rehabilitate and maintain the (20 m) river areas embankment Key Stakeholders • Rehabilitate mining areas • DENR • PCSDS Conduct IEC • Conduct IEC on existing environmental laws • LGU • Conduct IEC on waste management • National Commission on In- digenous Peoples • Department of Justice Strengthen monitoring of resource utilization Provide appropriate livelihood support to forestdependent communities64 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 74. Mantalingahan Mountain RangeMt. Mantalingahan range isamong the poorly surveyed areaand with high levels ofdisturbance. Available yetincomplete information indicateshigh species richness, highendemism, and the presence ofIUCN species and diverseecosystems. Mt. Mantalingahanforms the terrestrial bulk ofSouth Palawan Planning Area, amanagement area declared bythe Provincial Governmentthrough an Executive Order.The Local Government Units offive municipalities abutting theMt. Mantalingahan range(Espanola, Quezon, Rizal, coordinate physical land use CBFMA in Bataraza (3,250 ha);Brooke’s Point and Bataraza) planning and the integration of CALC in Amas, Brookes Pt (725have organized themselves resource management ha); CALC in Tagusao, Quezontogether to form the South programs of the South Palawan (315 ha); CALC in Bulalacao,Palawan Planning Council or Planning Area (SPPA). Existing Batarza (194 ha); CADC inSPPC. The SPPC seeks to tenurial instruments include Campong Ulay, Rizal (9,517 ha);Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSAnas luzonica Philippine Duck IUCN: Vulnerable Wetlands; riverine forestsPolyplectron emphanum Palawan Peacock Pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growthPtilocichla falcata Falcated Wren-babbler IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestFicedula platenae Palawan Flycatcher Restricted-range Lowland forestStachyris hypogrammica Palawan Striped-babbler Restricted-range Montane forestMAMMALSPalawanomys furvus Palawan Soft-furred Mountain Rat IUCN: Endangered ForestSundasciurus rabori Palawan Montane Squirrel IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growthAMPHIBIANSIngerana mariae Mary Inger’s Frog IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland-lower montane forestsLimnonectes acanthi Busuanga’s Wart Frog IUCN: Vulnerable Riverine forestsMegophrys ligayae Palawan Horned Frog Restricted-range; Lowland forest Endemic to PalawanPelophryne albotaenita Palawan Toadlet IUCN: Vulnerable Montane forestPLANTSAntidesma obliquinervium IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestDillenia luzoniensis “malakatmon” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestProtium connarifolium IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 65
  • 75. CADC in Punta-baja, Rizal by prevalent shifting cultivation Key Stakeholders (5,575 ha). in Rizal (largest), Brookes Pt & • South Palawan Planning Council Quezon; overtapping of • LGUs There was significant almaciga in Rizal & Brookes Pt; • Palawan Council for Sustainable deforestation in Brookes Pt & mining; and the prospect for Development Staff Quezon between 1987 to 1998; palm oil plantation. • PNNI Quezon is an illegal logging • Conservation International There is high net in-migration hotspot as of 2002. • DENR rate in Bataraza (50%) & Rizal (80%). The area is further threatened STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONPursue PA establishment for declaration at • Consolidate results of relevant studies.national or local level • Obtain stakeholder consensus and support to PA establishment of appropriate areas within Mt. Mantalingahan. • Prepare workplan towards the establishment of PA in Mt. Mantalingahan. • Seek funding support to implement the plan.Pursue harmonization of land-use and • Refine ECAN zoning to include critical habitats (i.e. lowland forest, swamps,zoning plans in South Palawan Planning wetlands, beach forest, mangrove, forest over limestone & ultramafic soils)Area • Integrate ancestral domain management plans, CBFM framework plans, watershed management plans into the CLWUPs • Identify degraded public land for restoration and rehabilitationIdentify lumber needs of a municipality to identify quota for wood supplies of each municipalitiesProvide assistance in the application for • Uphold preferential rights of IPs on the utilization and marketing of forestCADC and implementation of the productsmanagement plans (ex. IEC, alternative • Conduct relevant education campaign and training (paralegal, enforcement,livelihood, financial support) management, etc.)Conduct feasibility studies to address palm • Utilize GIS to locate appropriate sites for palm oil plantations where nooil issues further deforestation shall take place (marginal lands) • Undertake EIA studies for palm oil establishment • Design benefit sharing schemeSupport and sustain biodiversity studies • Conduct surveys on current status of restricted-range and threatened species • Conduct surveys on habitat quality • Centralize biodiversity information/ database at the South Palawan Planning & Information Center • Design biodiversity monitoring systemRegulate influx of migrants • Register migrants at barangay level66 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 76. Ursula Island Game Refuge andBird Sanctuary (UGRBS)This is an initial component ofNIPAS. The bird populations in thesanctuary are threatened byhunting.Most of the migratory andindigenous species of birds in theisland are also found on Tubbatahaand on mainland Palawan.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSDucula pickeringii Grey Imperial Pigeon IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growthOtus mantananensis Mantanani Scops-owl Restricted-range Forest; second growthMAMMALSAcerdon leucotis Palawan Fruit Bat IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II Mangroves; second growthTupaia palawanensis Palawan Tree Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II Forest; second growthKey Stakeholders STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION• UGRBS Protected Area Management Board• DENR Expand the sanctuary • Consult stakeholders• LGU including the marine area • Prepare relevant documents to support proposal for expansion Establish baseline data • Consolidate socio-economic and biological data from primary & secondary sources Design & implement • Conduct paralegal, enforcement & management training program training among stakeholders THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR :: 67
  • 77. Balabac Island Group Balabac island group is top priority for conservation and research. It is suspected that the region harbors high species richness and high endemism for terrestrial vertebrates but has moderate levels for the flora. Several threatened species are found while the major habitats of these species, the lowland and mangrove forests continue to be destroyed through over-harvesting and illegal logging. Very few biodiversity studies have been conducted in the area. Balabac is also a priority conservation area under the Sulu- Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion of World Wildlife Fund. Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSDucula pickeringii Grey Imperial Pigeon IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growthCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growthPtilocichla falcata Falcated Wren-babler IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestMAMMALSTragulus napu nigricans Balabac Chevrotain CITES: App II Forest; second growth; scrubCrocidura palawensis Palawan Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestTupaia palawanensis Palawan Tree Shrew IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II Forest; second growthAcerodon leucotis Palawan Flying Fox IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II Mangroves; second growthREPTILECrocodylus porosus Estuarine crocodile CITES: App I Riverine, wetlands, coastsPLANTSPolyalthia elmeri IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestDillenia luzoniensis “malakatmon” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestArdisia squamulosa “tagpo” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest68 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 78. Threatening the wildlife are illegallogging and poaching (cockatoo,hornbill, mousedeer, turtle eggs).The proposed Special EconomicZone and the coastalcircumferential road, peace & orderand transboundary issues betweenSabah & Palawan are relevantissues that need to be addressed.At present, the capacity of LGU &key agencies to implement large-scale environmental management& border patrol remains weak.Nevertheless, there are existingmanagement agreements like thePhilippine-Malaysia Joint BorderPatrol agreement and thePhilippine-Malaysia JointCommittee on BilateralCooperation which may provideopportunities. These would includetransboundary collaboration with 2Sabah on wildlife & fishery Palawan mouse deer (Tragulus napu nigricans) is possibly be the most threatened subspeciesmanagement and tourism. of terrestrial mammal in the Corridor. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONHarmonize zoning and management • Harmonize ECAN with proposed municipal development plansmechanisms • Clarify proposal on Special Economic Zone (specifically on the proposed projects) • Delineate management zones • Identify and establish protected areaUndertake relevant research • Conduct study on the population distribution & density of mousedeer • Conduct study on the environmental impacts of proposed SEZ projectsManage human migration through • Set-up sub-office of the Bureau of Immigration and Deportationlegal instruments • Increase & improve border patrolsStrengthen capability of key agencies • Provide training/seminars on implementing large-scale conservation efforts(DENR, LGU, Navy, PNP) on (corridor, ecoregions, hotspots)environmental management • Conduct training on environmental impact assessments • Increase presence of authorities in "hotspots" (monitoring stations in Mangsee & Melville)Formulate conservation policies • Formulate administrative order to protect the Palawan mousedeer/Balabac ChevrotainConduct IEC • Disseminate publications on conservation of IUCN-listed speciesKey Stakeholders • PCSDS • DPWH• LGU/community • Philippine Economic Zone • Naval Station Balabac Command• DENR Authority PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 69
  • 79. Cagayancillo Island Group This is among the least of the priority areas due to the low diversity of its terrestrial flora and fauna, poor habitat diversity, and negligible endemicity. Some islets are currently managed as bird sanctuary under a municipal ordinance. Destruction of bird habitats persists because of agriculture expansion. Hunting and egg collection of tabon b ir d (Me ga pod ius freyc in e t cumingii) is prevalent. Tabon birds are perceived by the community as threat to agricultural crops because of the change in feeding pattern due to scarcity of food. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONDevelop and improve/enhance • Consult local communitymanagement scheme for bird • Design program for restoration of degraded habitat of birdssanctuary • Formulate management plan • Implement management planConduct relevant studies • Undertake an inventory of avian species and other animal groups • Complete experimental study for tabon birds • Conduct study on species spatial and temporal pattern for birds • Undertake research on food plants for tabon • Assess ecotourism potential of the areaIncrease local capability on • Conduct training needs assessment and develop training program for members ofconservation-oriented community- community-based management unitsbased monitoring and evaluation, • Produce and disseminate IEC materials using various mediaresearch and law enforcement • Implement massive IEC on the ecological importance of bird and marine species and the need to protect them Key Stakeholders • LGU • PCSDS • PAMB • local community • DENR • KKP • DA-BFAR • Civil society • Provincial Agriculture Office70 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 80. Tubbataha Reef National MarinePark (Bird Island)It is a declared protected area, aWorld Heritage Site and a Ramsarsite. The current protection statusand conservation effort of varioussectors guarantee a significantdegree of success in the protection ofthis protected area in the future.The Protected Area ManagementBoard under the chairmanship of theProvincial Governor of Palawan isfunctional. Law enforcement havebeen strong, however, the judicialprocess have not fairly dealt withrecent poaching cases.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKSBIRDSEgretta eulophotes Chinese Egret IUCN: VulnerableSula dactylatra Masked Booby CongregatorySula sula Red-footed Booby CongregatorySula leucogaster Brown Booby CongregatoryEgretta sacra Pacific Reef-egret CongregatoryPluvialis squatarola Grey Plover CongregatoryTringa brevipes Grey-tailed Tattler CongregatoryArenaria interpres Ruddy Turnstone CongregatorySterna bergii Great Crested-tern CongregatorySterna fuscata Sooty Tern CongregatoryAnous stolidus Brown Noddy CongregatoryAnous minutus Black Noddy Congregatory STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONImprove environmental law • Institutionalize multisectoral legal pool to handle poaching casesenforcement mechanism • Implement stronger advocacy to strengthen legal and diplomatic stance against poachingUndertake relevant research • Study feasibility of transplanting traditional nesting and breeding grounds of migratory birds. (Euphorbia trees were devastated in 1998.)Key Stakeholders:• PAMB• LGU (Province, municipal, bgy)• KKP PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 71
  • 81. Rasa Island The island secures the highest world population of the critically endangered Philippine Cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia) and is inhabited by several endemic and threatened species of mammals. A considerably large area of the island is surrounded by stands of mangroves. This priority area includes the beach and mangrove habitats that are found across the island (at the mainland) which are critical foraging areas of the Philippine Cockatoo and are important habitats of endemic and threatened mammals. Poaching, mangrove cutting, claims of indigenous peoples, conflict on area through the passage of honey collection and birds’ breeding Resolution Nos. 97-65 and 99-135, season, and possibly, tourism pending national recognition as threaten the area. NIPAS area. Moreover, LGU Ordinance No. 99-41 enforces the The LGU with the help of the total protection and conservation of Philippine Cockatoo Foundation the Philippine Cockatoo and other2 has strongly urged the DENR to wildlife. declare Rasa Island as a protected Philippine cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia) STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Declare the island as critical habitat (RA 9147) • Lobby for PCSD endorsement • Pursue completion of NIPAS process Implement continuing IEC on wildlife conservation to IP communities Undertake continuing research and monitoring Harmonize zones • Incorporate ground-validated zones to CLUP • Recognize IPs claims/actual possession of coconut/cultivated area Strengthen enforcement of conservation policies • Regulate tourism scheme • Develop regulatory measures on honey gathering with identification of alternative livelihood during closed/breeding season Strengthen environmental management capacity of stakeholders Key Stakeholders • Philippine Cockatoo Conserva- • Katala Foundation • DENR tion Project • LGU 72 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 82. Calamianes Island GroupThis priority area includes CalauitGame Preserve and WildlifeSanctuary and Busuanga Island. Thisregion has high species diversity andendemicity for all taxonomic groupswith a significant number of IUCNspecies. The area also coversCBFMA in Coron (2,000 ha) and inBusuanga (900 ha).Calauit Game Preserve & WildlifeSanctuary is managed by PCSDS,however, there is conflict betweenPCSDS and Balik CalauitMovement. The latter has CADTclaim over the area.Threats include kaingin, agriculturalexpansion, collection of forestproducts, illegal wildlife hunting & The lack of zoning results to non- KEY STAKEHOLDERStrade, timber cutting, mangrove compliance with environmental • PCSDScutting for charcoal in Sto. Nino & policies by business/tourism • DENRBintuan (Coron) and Duac (Culion), establishments. • CIand the proposed road by the • ELACDepartment of Tourism. In-migration rate in Coron (33%) • DA and Linapacan (51%) is high. • DOT • NCIP • CBFM holders • Balik Calauit Movement Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSAnthracoceros marchei Palawan Hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest; second growthCacatua haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthPolyplectron emphanum Palawan Pecaock Pheasant IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestDucula pickeringii Grey Imperial Pigeon IUCN: Vulnerable Forest; second growthEgretta eulophotes Chinese Egret IUCN: Vulnerable WetlandsPrioniturus platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestPLANTSXanthostemon verdugonianus “mankono” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 73
  • 83. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONEstablish protected areas • Adopt an ordinance declaring specific areas for terrestrial conservation • Establish communal forest in Coron, Busuanga, Culion • Clarify jurisdiction of the Dept. of Agriculture, the municipalities of Coron and Busuanga over areas within the Yulo King Ranch • Identify protected areas and management schemes in CulionDevelop ecotourism in Calamianes • Adopt Sustainable Environmental Management Plan • Review National Ecotourism Strategy • Build capacity for local ecotourism management bodiesHarmonize national and local policies/ • Adopt ordinances/policies concerning environmental protectionmanagement zones • Encourage the 4 municipalities for the strict implementation of local and national ordinance • Clarify plans for Calauit island • Regulate the use of wood for government project through local legislation • Identify settlement areas for growing population with zoning • Decongest major population areas along the coastline of the town of Coron by providing resettlement areas located inland • Establish sewage and drainage systems in population centers along the coastline of CoronDesign research agenda to back up • Undertake study on carrying capacity or potential settlement areas/zonesmanagement decisions • Study of local taxation, i.e. proper pricing of natural resources and use of revenuesDevelop and implement IEC plan in the 4 • IEC on the effects of kaingin to the environmentmunciipalities • Awareness campaign among school children that carry environmental messages • IEC on the national ecotourism strategy if areas proposed for tourism are feasible • IEC for community awareness regarding the importance of the resources for tourism purposes • IEC targeting the newly arrived migrants on local environmental policies74 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 84. Dumaran/Araceli IslandRecent brief field surveys by thePhilippine Cockatoo ConservationProject have verified the presence ofIUCN species of birds and mammals.Endemic species of arthropods arealso known from this island. Statussurveys of species and habitatsshould elaborate its conservationrequirements.Illegal logging, wildlife trade,poaching and kaingin persist in thearea.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATBIRDSCacatua haematuropygia Philippine cockatoo IUCN: Critical Mangroves; second growthAnthracoceros marchei Palawan hornbill IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forestREPTILEHeosemys leytensis Philippine forest turtle IUCN: Critical Riverine forest, wetlandsPLANTIntsia bijuga “ipil” IUCN: Vulnerable Lowland forest STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONConduct status surveys of species & habitatsEstablish the remaining old growth forests as conservation areas • Delineate remaining forests • Identify and manage barangay watershedsRehabilitate degraded areasDesign and implement IEC • Conduct school-based & community IECUndertake feasibility studies on conservation-based livelihoodKey Stakeholders• LGU • Katala Foundation • Philippine Cockatoo• Haribon • PCSDS Conservation Project• Helvetas PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 75
  • 85. Rizal-Bataraza ForestLocated at the southernmost tip ofmainland Palawan encompassing theBulanjao mountain range, Rizal-Bataraza forest is part of SouthPalawan Planning Area. It alsocovers CBFMA in Bataraza (3,250ha); CALC in Bulalacao, Bataraza(194 ha); CADC in Campong Ulay,Rizal (9,517 ha); and CADC in Punta-baja, Rizal (5,575 ha).Most recent surveys suggest that theforest block, most especially the Rizalarea, holds considerable species andhabitat diversity. It is likely to includemany of the species in Mt.Mantalingahan. Status surveys andfield validation are needed. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONThe area is threatened by illegal Identify and establish • Review ECAN zones (definitions, criteria,logging, overtapping of almaciga, protected area strategies)overharvesting of rattan, mining, riverquarrying, and mangrove conversion • Finalize zoning supported by an official mapto fishpond. Tanbark gatherers have • Establish baseline socio-economic andcleared vast mangrove areas in biophysical informationBarangays Panalingaan andCanipaan in Rizal. The opening of Provide financial, • Uphold IPs’ preferential right to buy,/gatherIraan (Rizal) to Sumbiling (Bataraza) marketing, technical and almacigahighway is expected to result to more monitoring support to IPs • Uphold IPs’ preferential right to buy/gatherdamages. rattan Enforce existing • Enforce existing mining regulationsMoreover, because of the long environmental lawsoverdue CLUP preparation in • Enforce existing regulations on quarryingBataraza, the hydrometallurgical • Enforce regulations on logging and timberprocessing plant was endorsed by cuttingthe LGU without clear basis. • Enforce regulations on mangrove protectionThe net in-migration rate in Bataraza Manage human migration • Enact and enforce appropriate ordinance on(50%) & Rizal (80%) is high. through legal instruments registration of migrants at barangay levelKey Stakeholders Design and implement IEC • Conduct IEC on environmental laws• South Palawan Planning Council • Conduct IEC on other conservation policies• PCSDS• DENR• Shell Foundation Monitor & evaluate • Undertake an assessment of local wood demand• Conservation International resource use and supply• other NGOs • Undertake an assessment of existing fishpond• civil society leases and those fishponds without FLAs • Evaluate quarry application • Monitor quarry areas76 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 86. Kalayaan Island GroupSystematic terrestrial surveys ofspecies and habitats are warranted todetermine its conservation prioritystatus. Field surveys need to belaunched to confirm the presence ofmigratory species of birds on theseislands.The Law of the Sea Convention --an international law/standardagreed to by the countries of theworld -- is involved in the claims ofMalaysia, Brunei, and thePhilippines. These three countriesclaim that all or parts of the islandgroup are a part of their continentalshelf. According to the Law of theSea, the countries have legal rightover the area of their continentalshelf. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONThere has been a policy of the Undertake biological studies • Conduct systematic terrestrial surveys ofgovernment to establish permanent species & habitatssettlement areas in KalayaanIslands to strengthen its legal claim • Conduct surveys to confirm the presenceon the disputed territories. of migratory species of birds Undertake relevant policy • Assess potential impact of rapid migrationKey Stakeholders studies in the area• LGU • Study the possibility of establishing• Philippine Navy Kalayaan as a "multinational" protected• UP-MSI area pending the resolution of the• Malaysia territorial dispute• Brunei PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 77
  • 87. 4.3.2 Marine Sites Calamianes Island Group This area was considered of high priority due to the relatively high diversity of corals and fish and the presence of IUCN and CITES species of fish and cetaceans. The diversity of marine life in Calamianes is threatened by live reef fish trade, high fisher density, overfishing, illegal fishing (blast fishing, cyanide fishing, commercial fishing), pearl farming, tourism development, and beach quarrying (sand and pebbles). Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS MAMMALS Dugong dugon Dugong IUCN: Vulnerable REPTILES Chelonia mydas Green Turtle IUCN: Endangered Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle IUCN: Critical CLAMS Tridacna derasa Smooth Giant Clam IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II Hippopus hippopus Bear’s paw clam CITES: Appendix II FISH Rhincodon typus Whale Shark IUCN: Vulnerable Key Stakeholders • LGU • DENR • PCSDS • BFAR • NGOs • local community3 Nesting hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) 78 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 88. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Establish marine protected areas • Adopt an ordinance declaring specific areas for marine conservation • Declare marine sanctuaries in the areas of Mataya Reef and Siete Pecados and the small islands on the eastern side of Sangat in Coron Establish mariculture for live fish as alternative source for the LRFT Harmonize national and local policies/management • Adopt common fisheries code in the Calamianes zones • Study and re-evaluate RA 8550 to specify boundaries for marine habitat • Collate and study all laws and local ordinances pertaining to mangroves Design research agenda to establish baselines and • Undertake study on impacts and carrying capacity for pearl farming improve local database and mariculture • Undertake studies relating to live fish ♦ Identify aggregation areas ♦ Determine sustainable yield ♦ Conduct further studies on the regulation of LRFT by establishing open and closed seasons1 Islands in Busuanga (Calamianes area) PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 79
  • 89. Cuyo Island GroupIts remote location and its being bio-logically unexplored makes the areaa research priority for all major ma-rine habitats and species.Commercial production of seaweeds(Caulerpa sp), locally known as “lato”is fast replacing the natural mangroveareas in Cuyo, Agutaya & Magsay-say.Commercial fishing, cyanide fishingand blast fishing are prevalent.Key Stakeholders• LGU• PCSDS• BFAR• local community Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATMAMMALBalaenoptera physalus Fin whale IUCN: Endangered MarineDugong dugon Dugong IUCN: Vulnerable MarineREPTILEChelonia mydas Green turtle IUCN: Endangered Marine STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONUndertake studies Studies on major marine habitats and speciesDesign and implement environmental advocacy works80 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 90. Dumaran-Araceli IslandThis priority area still has a densemangrove cover yet this habitat ishighly threatened from humandisturbance. The presence of acommercial fishery forelasmobranchs is likewise a causefor concern. For other marinehabitats and species, data is largelylacking. This area is among the top 3priority sites.Opportunities include pearl farming,seaweed culture supported by KKP;and sargassum project underPCART.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKSMAMMALSDugong dugon Dugong IUCN: VulnerableTursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphin CITES: Appendix IIStenella attenuata Pantropical spotted dolphin CITES: Appendix IIStenella longirostris Spinner dolphin CITES: Appendix IIBalaenoptera physalus Fin Whale IUCN: EndangeredREPTILESChelonia mydas Green Turtle IUCN: EndangeredEretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill turtle IUCN: Critical STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Key StakeholdersEstablish marine sanctuary • LGU • PCSDSImplement zoning • PCCP • WWFImplement intensive IEC • DENRResearch • Cetacean/dugong survey • PCART • Coral cover surveyEnforce conservation policiesEnhance environment-friendly maricultureSupport cooperative approach to liveli- Enhance seaweed farming technologyhood PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 81
  • 91. El Nido & TaytayThese areas cover a number ofnational (Malampaya SoundProtected Landscape and Seascape;El Nido-Taytay Managed ResourceProtected Area) and municipal levelmarine reserves and are consideredto have high importance for coralreef, mangrove and seagrasshabitats. Coastal development andthe presence of commercial fisheriesthreaten these habitats and severalspecies of fish and cetacean. Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKSMAMMALSDugong dugon Dugong IUCN: VulnerableOrcaella brevirostris Irrawaddy dolphin Philippine Red List: CriticalTursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphin CITES: Appendix IIREPTILESLepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Sea Turtle IUCN: EndangeredEretmochelys imbracata Hawksbill Sea Turtle IUCN: CriticalChelonia mydas Green Sea Turtle IUCN: EndangeredCaretta caretta Loggerhead Turtle IUCN: EndangeredCLAMSHippopus hippopus Bear’s paw clam CITES: Appendix IIHippopus porcellanus China clam CITES: Appendix IIKey Stakeholders• Task Force Malampaya• LGU• law enforcement groups• NGOs• PAMB82 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 92. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Harmonize management zones and policies • Review CLUPs and GMPs • Resolve conflicts for joint enforcement • Finalize MoA between Taytay & San Vicente Design and implement resource enhancement and fisheries • Intensive surveys for the marine mammals & other species management programs • Consult stakeholders • Develop resource management program Establish MPAs • Delineate marine/fish sanctuaries • Lobby for passage of PA bills • Refine management plans Strengthen law enforcement • Refine/harmonize policies • Refine law enforcement program • Maintain military patrolling7 Dugong (Dugong dugon) PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 83
  • 93. Green Island Bay to Honda Bay The area was deemed high priority mainly due to the presence of critical habitats such as seagrasses and seaweeds and several IUCN- listed fish and cetacean species. Green Island Bay has been proposed as Marine Protected Area, but was not endorsed by the LGU. Prevalent in the area are blast fishing, cyanide fishing, commercial fishing, trawl fishing, growth & recruitment overfishing. Fisher density is noted to be high. Existing problems are presence of crown of thorns, red tide, presence of coliform, cadmium & mercury, and pollution from oil spill. Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKS HABITATMAMMALSDugong dugon Dugong IUCN: Vulnerable MarineREPTILESLepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley IUCN: Endangered MarineEretmochelys imbracata Hawksbill Turtle IUCN: Critical MarineChelonia mydas Green Turtle IUCN: Endangered MarineCaretta caretta Loggerhead Turtle IUCN: Endangered MarineCLAMSTridacna gigas Giant Clam IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II MarineTridacna derasa Smooth Giant Clam IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App II MarineFISHRhincodon typus Whale Shark IUCN: Vulnerable Marine84 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 94. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTION Establish and manage marine protected ar- • Undertake information campaigns and consultations eas/fish sanctuaries • Complete Protected Area Suitability Assessments • Establish community-managed fish sanctuaries at Honda bay • Strengthen sanctuary co-management structures (BFARMC, sanctuary management boards) Undertake environmental assessments • Conduct surveys for corals and seagrasses • Conduct assessment of environmental/ biodiversity impacts of infrastruc- ture development • Conduct siltation studies • Design a study on how to deal with mercury & cadmium • Establish research and monitoring stations Design and implement habitat protection and • Implement strict protection in snake island rehabilitation program • Enrich mangrove areas at snake island & the rest of Honda bay • Establish management zones • Implement solid waste management program • Manage settlement zones/areas Strengthen policy enforcement • Revoke city ordinance allowing compressor • Uphold the existing MFARMC ordinance • Clarify regulatory policy & management regarding oil contamination • Formulate and implement policy to address problem of anchorage Enhance livelihood support • Support mariculture strategies Key Stakeholders • LGU • DENR • PCSDS • NGOS • DOH • NGOs (WWF, Haribon, PCART) • Task Force Roxas Marine Mammal Conservation Network • MFARMC3 Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 85
  • 95. Tubbataha Reefs & Cagayancillo These are regarded as high priorities for conservation for all marine taxonomic groups. These areas are nationally and globally significant because of its high marine biodiversity, economic importance, and the social benefits of the area. Tubbataha reef is a World Heritage Site and ranked as one of the most critical wetlands by Ramsar Convention. Lack of sustainable financing mechanism for the management of Tubbataha Reef is a major issue. The fisheries code & municipal fisheries and zoning ordinances are currently being imposed in Cagayancillo. Poaching (sea turtles, etc.), cyanide, dynamite & spearfishing are prevalent. Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKSMAMMALSPhyseter macrocephalus Sperm whale IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App IStenella longirostris Spinner dolphin CITES Appendix 2Tursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphin CITES Appendix 2Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser’s dolphin CITES Appendix 2Globicephala macrorhynchus Short-finned pilot whale CITES Appendix 2REPTILESChelonia mydas Green turtle IUCN: EndangeredEretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill turtle IUCN: CriticalCLAMSTridacna gigas Giant clam IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App IITridacna derasa Smooth giant clam IUCN: Vulnerable; CITES: App IIHippopus hippopus Bear’s paw clam CITES: Appendix II86 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 96. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONEnhance legal and institutional mechanism for • Establish 4 identified areas as marine protected areas or criticalmarine reserves to generate technical/funding habitat under Wildlife Actsupport • Leverage funds for management supportUndertake bio-physical monitoring of 4 marine • Update Resource and Ecological Assessment (REA) data andreserves and surrounding areas measure changes • Conduct study & monitoring of the seabird populations • Design and implement study on "red shrimps” • Conduct study on megafauna in Cagayan RidgeImplement massive IEC • Disseminate information materials on the ecological importance of marine species • Design program to discourage community to harvest Tridacna (clams)Prevent damages from diving activities • Put up anchor buoys in dive sitesImprove socio-economic conditions of Cagayancillo • Seek technical assistance on better seaweed farm management techniques • Maximize economic returns from seaweeds • Increase access to market and credit facilities • Implement land use plan to guide migrantsKEY STAKEHOLDERS• KKP• DENR (PAWB)• T-PAMB• LGU• PCSD• OPA• DA-BFAR• CRMP• Civil Society PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 87
  • 97. Bataraza The area is of high importance especially for marine plants due to data deficiencies and increasing human-induced threats. The presence of a commercial fishery particularly for elasmobranchs and sharks, illegal quarry (river) and encroachment in the coastal area are the identified threats. The threatened Chelonia mydas is known in this area. Ursula Island Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary (UGRBS) is within this priority site. Key Stakeholders • LGU • UGRBS-PAMB STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONExpand UGRBS to include marine area to protect spawning, • Prepare PAMB resolution and other relevant document tofeeding & breeding grounds of marine species comply with NIPAS requirements to expand the protected area • Lobby for approvalEstablish baseline data on marine plants 3Green Turtle Hatchlings (Chelonia mydas)88 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 98. Balabac Island GroupThis area is regarded a top priorityfor conservation primarily due to itshigh species and habitat diversityyet very low research andconservation efforts have beenundertaken. It is likewise critical asa channel between the two marinebiogeographic zones, the SouthChina and Sulu Seas. The areawas proclaimed as a MarineReserve/Tourist Zone in 1978(Proc 1801) but not officiallyprotected under the NIPAS.Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKSMAMMALDugong dugon Dugong IUCN: VulnerableREPTILESEretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle IUCN: CriticalDermochelys coriacea Leatherback turtle IUCN: CriticalFISHRhincodon typus Whale Shark IUCN: VulnerableThreats include illegal, unreported & trade endangers mangrove speciesunregulated fishing (IUU), tanbarking, (Ceriops tagal). Capacity of LGU &pollution from pearl farm, proposed key agencies to manage large-scalecoastal/circumferential road, environmental programs is weak.proposed navigational reroutingthrough DFA-Maritime & Ocean The recent proclamation of TunAffairs Center (MOAC), pollution from Mustafa Managed Marine Area (innavigational activities, peace & order, Sabah) & possible collaborations withand the transboundary issues the Philippine Government is anbetween Sabah & Palawan. Tanbark opportunity that is worth exploring. 1 Debarking of mangrove trees causes their eventual death PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 89
  • 99. STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONEstablish marine protected areas • Conduct status surveys of key species especially for marine turtles & cetaceans • Establish MPAs in selected sites in the reefs of Brgys Catagupan, Agutayan, Rabor & Pasig • Extend PCSDP marine priority areas to include Mangsee Island • Establish CBFMs in candidate sites: Pandanan, Catagupan, Agutayan, Rabor, Pasig, MelvilleRecommend policy reforms • Review PP 2152 & recommend towards a more rational & practical conservation approach • Recommend the increase of taxes from pearl farms • Increase fines for illegal dumping (re: pollution from navigational activities) • Review regulations on mangrove useStrengthen enforcement & regulate activities • Increase enforcement personnel, logistical support and capacity • Empower local community to defend their access rights to fishing waters • Employ Fisheries Code on preferential right for small-scale fishers • Require environmental impact assessments whenever applicableReduce IF NOT STOP the demand for • Analyze market chain & recommend an "export ban"tanbark • Conduct a study on non-destructive alternative sources of dyeHarmonize different zoning mechanisms • Harmonize ECAN with proposed municipal development plansEnhance transboundary cooperation between • Conduct joint biodiversity assessments with relevant Sabah agencies &Malaysia & Philippines NGOs • Select & establish a transborder managed marine area (MMA) • Engage in ongoing intergovernmental planning process for the Sulu- Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion • Assess transboundary tourism potentialsStrengthen LGU capacity in managing large- • Provide training/seminars on implementing large-scale conservationscale conservation efforts efforts (corridor, ecoregions, hotspots) Key Stakeholders • LGU (Provinci/Municipal/Brgy) • DTI • NGOS: CI, ELAC • DENR • TLRC • WWF-SSME • PCSDS • TESDA • WWF-Malaysia-Sabah • PCAMRD • ACADEME: UP, SPCP, PSU • Dept of Fisheris-Sabah • DPWH, • PNP Maritime; Naval Station • Wildlife Dept-Sabah • DFA-MOAC Balabac Command • Sabah Parks • BFAR • National Museum90 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 100. Kalayaan Island GroupKalayaan Island Group is anexceptional case for prioritizationbecause it is indisputably consideredan area of high national and globalsignificance. Aside from being atransboundary area for severalcountries, it is more importantly acritical area for fisheries andstraddling stocks of migratory speciessuch as marine mammals and turtles.The area is threatened by muro-amiand other destructive fishing,poaching, high shipping activities (oiltankers) and coral mining. Key species TAXON COMMON NAME STATUS & REMARKSCLAMSTridacna gigas Giant Clam IUCN: VulnerableTridacna derasa Smooth Giant Clam IUCN: VulnerableHippopus hippopus Bear’s paw clam CITES: Appendix IIREPTILESCaretta caretta Loggerhead turtle IUCN: EndangeredChelonia mydas Green turtle IUCN: EndangeredEretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill turtle IUCN: CriticalLepidochelys olivacea Olive ridley IUCN: EndangeredFISHEpinephelus lanceolatus Giant Grouper IUCN: Vulnerable STRATEGY PRIORITY ACTIONAdvocate for joint-management of key areas by • Conduct multilateral discussions regarding joint MPA managementclaimant countries using migratory species as • Identify and establish MPA/sbasis • Establish species reserves for turtles/giant clamsMitigate poaching • Institutionalize multisectoral legal pool to handle poaching cases • Strengthen advocacy to enhance legal and diplomatic stance against poachingInstall mechanisms to mitigate possible oil spill • Explore feasibility of organizing a quick response task forceEstablish baseline data • Consolidate data from UP MSI and UPLB • Conduct biological, oceanographic and fisheries studies to fill-in data gapsKEY STAKEHOLDERS• LGU • DFA• DENR • Academe (UP MSI) PALAWAN CORRIDOR OUTCOMES AND STRATEGIES :: 91
  • 101. 5.4 Palawan Corridor Conservation Strategies and Priority ActionsGiven the species and site-specific INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND STAKEHOLDER’S PARTICIPATIONconservation strategies and priority COMMUNICATIONS ♦ Review and update existingactions, this section highlights the ♦ Develop a communication stakeholders participation andgeneral prescriptions for the entire buy-in strategyPalawan biodiversity corridor. ♦ Disseminate publications on ♦ Consolidate, strengthen andECOSYSTEM/HABITAT conservation issues, expand community-basedMANAGEMENT appropriate policies, resource management efforts♦ Identify, establish and develop enforcement and fines network of M/PAs or key ♦ Review and replicate PCSDS- COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT biodiversity areas PTFPP-Department of ♦ Identify, develop and support♦ Promote watershed management Education’s environmental conservation-linked livelihood education strategy in formal options to mitigate illegal/♦ Protect mangrove ecosystems schools destructive activities♦ Restore degraded habitats ♦ Intensify IEC programs in the ♦ Provide technical assistance on grassroots level information dissemination onLAW ENFORCEMENT successful livelihood CAPABILITY BUILDING FOR KEY technologies (e.g. seaweed♦ Enhance law enforcement farming, etc) against illegal/destructive AGENCIES activities: ♦ Strengthen barangays for ♦ Assess tourism potentials ⇒ fisheries resource/protected area ♦ Identify financing schemes & ⇒ mangrove destruction management planning and law sources (e.g. trust funds, ⇒ forestry enforcement endowment funds, users fees) ⇒ mining/quarrying ♦ Provide training/seminars on ♦ Reduce, if not eliminate tanbark ⇒ wildlife hunting i m p le me n t in g la r g e-s c a le trade♦ Increase enforcement personnel, conservation efforts (corridor, logistical support and capacity eco-regions, hotspots) ♦ Ma na ge hu man migr a tion through legal instruments♦ Strengthen monitoring of traffic of threatened/ endemic marine and terrestrial speciesDATA/INFORMATION GENERATION "The Earth is one but the world is not. We all♦ Develop biodiversity research depend on one biosphere for sustaining our lives. Yet agenda ⇒ produce a directory each community, each country, strives for survival ⇒ of biodiversity experts and prosperity with little regard for its impact on ⇒ organize activities to ⇒ develop research agenda others.” ⇒ encourage operation ⇒ of a research network♦ Conduct surveys and inventories Our Common Future,♦ Centralize research results92 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 102. Figure 3.Risk of habitat loss analysis utilizingeconometric methods of predictingimpacts of human activities onforest cover
  • 103. 5.0 Corridor Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Southern Palawan by DR. GRACE WONG and MIGUEL CASTRENCE Introduction analysis across spatial and hierarchical scales. Due to theDesigning and planning for sustainable unavailability of complete data for thelandscapes such as the Palawan whole province, the habitat lossBiodiversity Conservation Corridor analysis was carried out for the Southrequires an intimate understanding of Palawan Planning Area (SPPA) only.the dynamics of land use and resourceuse over time. By graphically illustrating Methodologythe effects of change in land cover andresource use in a business-as-usual Spatial econometrics is used to teasescenario, we can show the out the relationships betweenconsequences of current human geophysical features of the land withactivity through their impacts on land the broader socio-economic and 2cover and forest habitats. demographic trends. As shown in Mt. Maruyog, Brooke’s Point. This Table 10 on the following page, a area is part of the MantalingahanThere are multiple objectives for number of variables are used here to mountain range in southern Palawan,developing a risk of habitat loss represent different features of the a major habitat of severalscenario in the conservation corridor landscape. endangered and endemic species.planning process. Firstly, the risk ofhabitat loss map can be used to Information on land cover, elevation,communicate to resource managers roads and towns was obtained fromand policy-makers the risks of doing the PCSD/PTFPP. Similarly, this GIS “By graphicallynothing with regards to resource use data was also used to generatemanagement in the conservation information on the landscape’s illustrating the effectscorridor. In other words, the map geophysical aspects (i.e., land use of change in land coverdemonstrates conservation costs of the diversity, slope, distance from roadsstatus quo. Secondly, it helps resource and towns). Additional vegetation and resource use in amanagers and corridor planners to data was derived from Landsat TM business-as-usualidentify the relative vulnerability of imagery from 1987-1998. Informationdifferent areas within the corridor tohabitat change or degradation. In other on tenurial rights came from DENR field surveys of community-based scenario, thewords, the business-as-usual scenario forest management areas (CBFMAs) consequences of currenthelps us understand the “weak links” in and certificate of ancestral domainthe system. And thirdly, it contributes claims (CADCs). Data of population human activity throughtowards the design of a spatially explicit density and growth was provided by their impacts on landplan for conservation efforts to both the Socio-demographic Assessmentmitigate threats of habitat loss and of the PCSDP (Boquiren, 2003); and cover and forestminimize opportunity costs. socio-economic data was obtained from the Palawan Human habitats can be shown.”Our approach in developing this habitat Development Report (PCSD, 2001).loss analysis is unique because itintegrates economic theory with The statistical model used is a simpleGeographic Information Sciences binomial logistic model of two(GIS). This process involves choices, i.e., whether a plot of landinterpreting and merging data and (or pixel) will “remain forested” or CORRIDOR SPATIAL MODELING: A CASE STUDY FOR SOUTHERN PALAWAN :: 95
  • 104. Table 10. Variables used in the risk of habitat loss analysisVariables DescriptionDependent Forest (=0 if primary; =1 for all other)Independent1) Geophysical features Slope (in degrees) Elevation (in meters) Land use and land cover diversity NDVIa change from 1987 to 19982) Demographic Population density Population growth from 1995 – 2000 Projected population growth from 2000 – 20103) Access costs Distance to nearest road Distance to nearest town4) Socio-economic Per capita income (in PhP) Human Development Index (HDIb)5) Policy Presence of tenurial rights (Tenure = 1 if clear tenure exists, CADCs and CBFMAs; = 0 otherwise) aNote: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. b HDIs were obtained from the Palawan Human Development Report (2001).“deforested” (land use conversion into reclassified into categories of low, As shown in Figure 5, about 5% (oragriculture). The binomial logistic medium and high risk. Finally, the 9,100 hectares) and 12% (or 21,000regression is used to link the spatially risk categories are overlaid on the hectares) of primary forests are underexplicit land cover to biophysical, 1998 forest cover map to identify risk high and medium risk, respectively,distance, demographic and socio- areas according to forest type over the next 10 years. For secondaryeconomic variables (as listed in Table (primary and secondary). forests, over 17% (or 9,800 hectares)10). These variables are chosen based and 26% (or 14,800 hectares) areon theories of agricultural land use and Results and Discussion under high and medium risk,economic behavior; and because these respectively.data are currently most accessible. As Results of our analysis indicate thatfurther data are collected, improved over 24% of all forests in the South The location of where the threatenedvariables can be used to refine this Palawan Planning Area (SPPA), forests are located, based on their levelanalysis. Results from the regression including the Mount Mantalingahan of deforestation risk, is presented in theanalysis provide us with the impact of range, are under some level of land attached Map. It can be observed thateach variable on the likelihood that a conversion risk over the next 10 the highest risk forests are generallypixel will be deforested. years. Using our definitions of located along the edges of contiguous deforestation risk, approximately forest cover. The barangays withMulti-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) is used 18,900 hectares of all forests are largest areas of primary forests underto integrate the variables represented under high threat, and 35,800 high risk of loss are: Rio Tuba (1,251by the spatial data and develop a map hectares are under medium threat hectares), Tarusan (845 hectares),of potential deforestation areas. The (see Figure 4). Marangas (806 hectares), Buliluyanresults of the statistical analysis identify (574 hectares) and Isumbo (524the most significant factors (criteria) When we segregate our analysis by hectares). Except for Bgy Isumbocontributing to deforestation as well as forest type, namely by primary and which is located in Española, the othertheir respective influence (weights) for secondary forests, the results show four barangays are located in Bataraza.implementation in the MCE. In this that secondary forests face higherprocess, each variable is standardized deforestation pressure than do Although it does not appear as if thereto a common numeric range and primary forests. This is not an is a large area of primary forest undercombined through weighted averaging. unexpected result since secondary high deforestation risk, the high loss ofThe result is a map of continuous forests are typically easier to access buffering secondary forests mean thatvalues representing relative and are located in fragmented primary forests face greater threat ofprobabilities for deforestation. Next, the landscapes with diversified land uses. degradation and encroachment. Adeforestation probability map is limitation of this analysis is that96 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 105. Figure 1: Mantalingahan Forests under Risk 66% 10% 8% Low risk 16% Medium risk High risk Figure 4. Mantalingahan forests under risk CADC/CBFM 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% High risk 2 50% Medium risk 40% Ipil (Intsia bijuga) is categorized by IUCN as Low risk vulnerable because of harvesting and forest 30% destruction 20% 10% 0% Primary Secondary Figure 5. Risk of habitat loss, by forest type (%)although it adequately projects loss of Planning Area highlights the locationsforest cover, it is unable to capture the where forests are most Vulnerable toloss of forest quality. Lowland conversion for agriculture over thesecondary forest is an important wildlife next 10 years due to populationhabitat which is becoming increasingly growth and based on the historicalscarce due to threats from a range of trend in NDVI change. This map layerhuman activities. of forest vulnerability and habitat loss can be overlaid with other threatsIn summary, a business-as-usual information such as infrastructurescenario is generated to predict future development to identify its overalllandscape change and habitat loss impact on biodiversity, and to guidebased on current trends and policies. conservation efforts towards thoseThe risk of habitat loss map produced critical areas.in this analysis for the South Palawan CORRIDOR SPATIAL MODELING: A CASE STUDY FOR SOUTHERN PALAWAN :: 97
  • 106. 98 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 107. 6.0 Defining Communications Strategies for Conserving Palawan’s Biodiversity by REDEMPTO D. ANDAAs part of the Palawan Corridor The barriers to removing these threatsStrategy Development Project, the were identified as follows:consortium of Palawan partners • Poverty in many upland andconducted a two-day workshop on coastal areasAugust 19-20, 2003 at the Legend Hotel • High population growth rateto craft an overarching communications • Tenurial problemsstrategy to support of biodiversity • Declining quality of availableconservation. Dubbed as the 4-P agricultural landsWorkshop, it was facilitated by the • Higher net income from illegalInternational Communications activitiesdepartment of Conservation • Weak law enforcementInternational based in Washington, DC, • Low value placed on timberlandUSA and co-convened by the Provincial compared to other land usesInformation Office of the provincial • Inappropriate economic incentivesgovernment of Palawan. It was attendedby some 40 participants representing Among the potential barrier removalPCSDP partner institutions, other strategies suggested by the presentorNGOs, people’s organizations, were:academe and media. • Improvement of existing roadTwo main presentations had provided infrastructure and post harvestthe analytical framework for defining the facilitiescommunications strategy. The first was • Promotion of viable communitya discussion of threats to Palawan managed enterprises thatbiodiversity using resource economics complements conservation goals “The ultimate measure of aas tool for analysis, facilitated by Noela • Examination of incentives and effectiveness for local and successful information,Lasmarias, CI Resource Economist.The second was a presentation on community enforcement to curb education and“Challenges in Building Conservation illegal activitiesAwareness” discussed by Rolando • Review of valuation of timber/ communications strategy inBonoan, Jr., head of the Provincial forest lands relative to other landInformation Office. uses to capture ecological biodiversity conservation is services • Harmonization of various land use not only high level ofMs. Lasmarias presented the result ofan analysis previously conducted by the plans/zones environmental awarenesstechnical working group of the PCSDP • Review of government economicwhich enumerated the threats to incentives but behavior change.”biodiversity in the following ranking:• Forest destruction For his part, Mr. Bonoan discussed• Depletion of marine fishery Palaweños dependence on the• Mining and quarrying environment for most of their basic• Roads and other large infrastructure needs since the early times. He development described the Palaweños relationship• Tourism development with this unique environment, seemingly changing with the passing• Wildlife hunting of years not to mention increasing INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY :: 99
  • 108. population as well as arrival of migrants • Limited or lack of power/energy support law enforcementwith different cultural beliefs, values, • Budgetary constraints • To promote environmentally soundtraditions and practices. • Absence or lack of information livelihood opportunities/alternatives officers in the barangay, • To encourage environmentallyNoted is the difference in the level of municipality levels sound fishing practices andenvironmental awareness between campaign against illegal andPalaweños living in urban areas and Priority Objectives of the destructive fishing methods/rural barangays, considering exposure Communications Strategy overfishingto multi media and advocates of • To inform the local population onconservation such as government Deliberating on the threats to the benefits of having Protectedagencies, NGOs and private groups, biodiversity and the constraints of Areasamong others. removing these threats, and taking • To raise awareness on the negative into account the conditions obtaining impacts of deforestation, illegalHe highlighted the following challenges in Palawan from a communications timber extraction, slash and burnto building a unified conservation perspective, the workshop formulated farming, forest fires and wildlifeawareness campaign in Palawan: a list of priority communications hunting, and• Geographical objectives as follows: • To provide information to policymakers• Economics • To inform the local population on on the linkage of population dynamics• Inadequate communication facilities environmental laws and to and environmentFollowing is a summary of proposed communications plans and projects developed during the 4-P workshop:PLAN ANCHORED ON TARGET PUBLICS TARGET Activity Event Date Objective Location Responsible PUBLIC Product Number InstitutionLocal Distribution of 100,000 January 2004 5 Palawan-wide NGOs (CI, PCC,PNNI)communities calendars a la posters Corporate sponsors (with pictures of resources, in good and bad conditions) Paralegal training March 2004 1 Taytay, El Nido ELAC, NATRIPAL and Roxas up North; Quezon, Bataraza, Rizal down South Radio plugs and jingles, April 1-22, 2004 4&5 -do- Radio stations video showings, slogans, Media, PCSDS, DENR, art contests PNNI, other NGOs Symposium on June 2004 5 -do- LGUs, primary/ secondary deforestation and forest schools, DENR, NGOs management Enterprise and skills June 2004 2 Puerto Princesa PEEDO, TESDA, DTI, training, display and (Baragatan) NGOs (IDEAS, PCC, CI, promotion of local cottage PCART) industries/ community products Beach and coastal clean- September 2004 5 Ulugan and Honda Elementary/high schools, up, mangrove reforestation Bays DENR, NGOs100 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 109. TARGET Activity Date Objective Location Responsible Institution PUBLIC Event Product NumberLocal Distribution of 100,000 January 2004 5 Palawan-wide NGOs (CI, PCC,PNNI)communities calendars a la posters Corporate sponsors (with pictures of resources, in good and bad conditions) Paralegal training March 2004 1 Taytay, El Nido and ELAC, NATRIPAL Roxas up North; Quezon, Bataraza, Rizal down South -do- Radio plugs and jingles, April 1-22, 2004 4&5 Radio stations video showings, slogans, Media, PCSDS, DENR, art contests PNNI, other NGOs -do- Symposium on June 2004 5 LGUs, primary/ secondary deforestation and forest schools, DENR, NGOs management Puerto Princesa Enterprise and skills June 2004 2 PEEDO, TESDA, DTI, training, display and (Baragatan) NGOs (IDEAS, PCC, CI, promotion of local cottage PCART) industries/ community products Ulugan and Honda Beach and coastal clean- September 2004 5 Bays Elementary/high schools, up, mangrove reforestation DENR, NGOsLocal Conduct capacity building, 1st week of march 2004 1&6 Puerto Princesa City Provincial and municipalGovernment trainings and seminars for (provincial level governments, DENR,Units LGUs on environmental PCSD, DILG, NGOs laws 3rd week of March 2004 (municipal and All municipalities barangay levels) Mangrove reforestation June 19, 2004 (SEP Anniversary) 1 Province-wide Provincial and municipal governments, PCSD, DENR Airing of radio programs January 2004 to July on environmental issues 2005 (weekly) 1 Puerto Princesa City Provincial and municipal and all municipalities governments, barangay with local radio officials, DENR stations (Radyo Natin) Conduct of Provincial 1st week of September 1, 3, 4 & 6 Puerto Princesa City Provincial government, Summit on Environment 2004 DENR, PCSD, NGOs Conduct of coastal clean- 1&3 Province-wide Provincial and municipal up Mid-September 2004 governments, DENR, PCSD, NGOs LGU newsletter/wall newspaper (initiative of April 2004 to July 2005 1&6 All municipalities Provincial and municipal LGUs on environ-mental governments protection)National Capability building/ Capability building/ 1 Balabac DepEd, DENRAgencies workshop (law enforcers) workshop (lawand Law enforcers)Enforcers Adopt a wildlife (endemic) Adopt a wildlife 2 PWRCC, Calauit LGUs, military, DENR (endemic) Protected area site visit Protected area site visit 4 Taytay, El Nido DENR, PCSD, PAMB Awards/incentives - Awards/incentives Search for the best law - Search for the best 5 Puerto Princesa City LGU, military, DENR, enforcer (PNP, military, law enforcer (PNP, NGOs forest officers) military, forest officers) Seminar/workshop on Seminar/workshop on 6 -do- NSO, DOH, DepEd, DENR population and population and environment environment INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY :: 101
  • 110. TARGET Activity Date Objective Location Responsible Institution PUBLIC Event Product NumberFisherfolks, fish Fish Conservation Week 2nd week of October 1&3 Puerto Princesa BFAR, DA, City andtraders and Symposia/Seminars/ City, municipalities Provincial governments,operators -Conferences on NGOs -livelihood, -technology -fisheries laws Slogan writing/ May -do- -Painting contests -Rallies Ocean Month -Photo exhibit -Coastal cleaning NGOs, CI, provincial and -Mangrove planting city governments Visiting coastal barangays March 2004 to July 1&3 Remote coastal brochure & poster distribution 2005 barangays in symposium/meeting Puerto Princesa, KKP, CI, PGS, PNNI, other documentary/film showing May Calamianes, NGOs, barangay officials Ulugan, Malampaya, Bataraza Radio plugs and Everyday 1&3 Community radios Radio stations, city/ advertisements, TV and print municipal/provincial ads governments, NGOs Production of brochure/poster January (2 weeks) 1&3 Puerto Princesa BFAR, DA, City and -conceptualization January to February City, municipalities Provincial governments, -printing March-April NGOs -Distribution Production of documentaries Mid-September 1&3 -do- -do- Coastal clean-up Press releases, interviews At least once a week 1, 3 & 4 Coastal areas in Barangay officials, city/ Puerto Princesa municipal and provincial and municiplaities governments Awards for outstanding July 2004 to July 2005 3 Radio stations, Provincial Agriculture, fisherman, citations for fish community radios DYPR traders and operators who support environmental Puerto Princesa BFAR, DA, PNNI, DENR, programs City, municipalities ELAC, CITeachers and Seminar on environmental Seminar on 1 to 6 Puerto Princesa DepEd, PSU, privatestudents protection, seminar-workshop environmental Pilot Elementary schools in coordination with on preparation of protection, seminar- School DENR instructional/teaching aids for workshop on environmental education preparation of instructional/teaching aids for environmental education LG Quiz (environmental), LG Quiz 4&5 Magarwak planting DepEd, PSU, in song writing contest (environmental), song site coordination with LGU and writing contest LG staff Educational tours on Educational tours on 4 Protected areas: DepEd, PSU, in protected areas protected areas El Nido, PPSRNP, coordination with PTO and etc. LGU Poster making, essay writing, Poster making, essay 2&3 DepEd Division DepEd, PSU, in cookfest in connection with writing, cookfest in office coordination with BFAR Fish Conservation Week connection with Fish Conservation Week Organization of Organization of 6 DepEd, PSU, DepEd, PSU and private environmental clubs for environmental clubs for elementary and schools students students secondary schools Search for cleanest and Search for cleanest and 5&6 Schools, districts, DepEd greenest school greenest school municipalities102 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 111. TARGET Activity Objectiv PUBLIC Event Product Date e Location Responsible Institution NumberTeachers and Seminar on environmental 1st week of April 2004 1 to 6 Puerto Princesa Pilot DepEd, PSU, privatestudents protection, seminar-workshop Elementary School schools in coordination on preparation of instructional/ with DENR teaching aids for environmental education LG Quiz (environmental), song 3rd Saturday of June 4&5 Magarwak planting DepEd, PSU, in writing contest 2004 site coordination with LGU and LG staff Educational tours on protected 1st weekend of January 4 Protected areas: El DepEd, PSU, in areas 2004 Nido, PPSRNP, etc. coordination with PTO and LGU Poster making, essay writing, 2nd week of 2&3 DepEd Division DepEd, PSU, in cookfest in connection with October 2004 office coordination with BFAR Fish Conservation Week Organization of environmental June 2004 6 DepEd, PSU, DepEd, PSU and private clubs for students elementary and schools secondary schools Search for cleanest and June 2004 to July 2005 5&6 Schools, districts, DepEd greenest school municipalitiesMedia Nature Trip 1st week of April to 1st 1, 2, 3, 4 Taytay, El Nido CI, PNNI, PCSDS, ELAC, - survey questionnaires week of May 2004 and 5 city and provincial - video, documentary governments, DENR presentations - field/site trip (terrestrial, marine) - Produce commentary (broadcast and print) Environmental capability 3rd week of January -do- Puerto Princesa City -do- building workshop 2004 - souvenir items with the theme: “You make a difference” Launching of environmental June 19, 2004 -do- Puerto Princesa City -do- media club (Capitol) IFEJ Launching of environmental -do- -do- -do- -do- media awards - Best environmental report (broadcast and print) - Best environmental documentary Sustained information drive Quarterly -do- Province-wide Radio stations, CI, PNNI, - jingles PCSDS, ELAC, DENR, - plugs provincial and city - advertisements governmentsPLAN ANCHORED ON PRIORITY OBJECTIVES ResponsibleOBJECTIVE Target Public Activity Product Event Date Location Institution #1 Local communities, Orientation on existing environmental Earth Day Province-wide ELAC, DENR, BFAR, law enforcers laws PCSD, provincial government Skills trainings -do- -do- - trainers training - PLT/deputization Production of IEC materials Starting January Puerto Princesa PIO, PCSD - radio plugs 2004 City - leaflets - primers - brochures Conduct of community discussions -do- Province-wide Locally-based NGOs INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY :: 103
  • 112. OBJECTIVE Target Public Activity Product Event Date Location Responsible Institution #2 Local communities Inventory and assessment of January to Province-wide PCSDS, DA, Academe, existing and potential projects February 2004 DAR, DENR, NGOs, LGUs, DTI Production of IEC materials January to April Province-wide Project implementors, - livelihood manuals 2004 media, schools, Pos, - videos NGOs, GAs, LGUs - radio and TV testimonials Networking with existing local Starting January -do- Project implementors organizations 2004 Cross visits To be determined Selected sites POs, LGUs, NGOs, etc. #3 Fisherfolks, fish Community gatherings Monthly starting Priority areas MAO, BFAR, PCSD, traders and operators June 2004 (barangay level) PNNI Production of IEC materials March to April Province-wide BFAR, PCSD, PIO 2004 Search for the best managed coastal areas - aunching June 19, 2004 Capitol grounds Provincial government, - awarding June 19, 2005 PPC PCSD, PNNI, media Networking 2004-200 Province-wide PNNI, media #4 Local communities Community gatherings Starting June 2004 PPC, El Nido, DENR, PCSD, LGUs, Taytay, NGOs, TWGs, PAMBs, Bataraza, KKP, CI, SPCP, 2nd Coron, Congressional district, Cagayancillo, PCCP Taytay, San Vicente, Brooke’s Point, Quzon, Rizal, Espanola, Narra Production/dissemination of IEC March to April -do- -do- materials 2004 Production of audio-visual -do- -do- -do- materials on successful protected areas National agencies Palawan protected areas June 2004 and Puerto Princesa DENR, PCSDS, PAMBS, congress 2005 City provincial and city governments, CI Production of technical information March to April Puerto Princesa -do- kit 2004 City104 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 113. OBJECTIVE Target Public Activity Product Event Date Location Responsible Institution #5 Local communities Community gatherings Starting June CBFMAs, PAs LGU (barangay and 2004 in Palawan municipal level), Pos/ CBFM Federation, media, NGOs, DENR, PCSD -do- Survey CADCs, CBFMAs and -do- -do- identify best practices -do- Production of IEC materials March to May -do- - successful CADCs, CBFMAs 2004 testimonials - brochures - radio plugs -do- PLT/deputization of CBFMA holders -do- -do- Networking/linkaging -do- -do- -do- #6 Local government Gather information on population January to June Priority NSO, Provincial units, national and environmental issues 2004 locations are government (CBMS), agencies, and the areas with high barangay health workers, general public population CI, media, Population growth Commission, DepEd, NGOs, GAs, LGUs Networking Starting January In and outside -do- 2004 Palawan Lobbying July 2004 to July -do- -do- - Data analysis 2005 - Policy recommendation and direction Publication of “handbook” on -do- Puerto Princesa -do- environmental laws and issues” City INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY :: 105
  • 114. LIST OF ACRONYMS A&D Alienable and Disposable MCE Multi-Criteria Evaluation ADB Asian Development Bank MENRO Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines MFARMC Municipal Fisheries and Resource Management Council BCN Biodiversity Conservation Network MFPC Multi-Sectoral Forest Protection Committee BFAR Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources MMA Managed Marine Area BFARMC Barangay Fisheries and Resource Management Council MOA Memorandum of Agreement BID Bureau of Immigration and Deportation MOAC Maritime and Ocean Affairs Center CABS Center for Applied Biodiversity Science MPA Marine Protected Area CADC Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim MPDC Municipal Planning Development Council CALC Certificate of Ancestral Land Claim MPSA Mineral Production Sharing Agreement CADT Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title MSI Marine Science Institute CBFM Community Based Forest Management MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield CBFMA Community Based Forest Management Agreement NCIP National Commission for Indigenous People CBFMP Community Based Forest Management Program NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index CENRO Community Environment and Natural Resources Office NGO Non Government Organization CEPF Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund NIPAS National Integrated Protected Areas System CFI Crocodile Farming Institute NRM Natural Resource Management CI Conservation International NSO National Statistics Office CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora NTFP Non-timber Forest Products OPA Office of Public Affairs CLUP Comprehensive Land Use Plan CLWUP Comprehensive Land and Water Use Plan PA Protected Area CNRMC Conservation and Natural Resource Management PAMB Protected Area Management Board Certification PASU Protected Area Superintendent COMPACT Community Management of Protected Areas Conservation PAWB Protected Area Wildlife Bureau CRM Coastal Resource Management PCAMRD Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and CRMC Coastal Resource Management Certificate Development CRMP Coastal Resource Management Program PCART Philippine Center for Appropriate Rural Technology CSC Certificate of Stewardship Contract PCCP Philippine Cockatoo Conservation Program DA Department of Agriculture PCSD Palawan Council for Sustainable Development DAO Department Administrative Order PCSDP Palawan Corridor Strategy Development Project DBM Department of Budget Management PCSDS Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources PENRO Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office DFA Department of Foreign Affairs PEZA Philippine Economic Zone Authority DILG Department of Interior and Local Government PFFWR Palawan Flora & Fauna Watershed Reserve DOF Department of Finance PNP Philippine National Police DOH Department of Health PO People’s Organization DOJ Department of Justice PP Presidential Proclamation DPWH Department of Public Works and Highways PPC Puerto Princesa City DTI Department of Trade and Industry PPSRNP Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park ECAN Environmentally Critical Areas Network PSTFAD Provincial Special Task Force on Ancestral Domains EIA Environmental Impact Assessment PSU Palawan State University ELAC Environmental Legal Assistance Center, Inc. PTFPP Palawan Tropical Forestry Protection Programme ENTMRPA El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area RA Republic Act EO Executive Order REA Resource and Ecological Assessment EU European Union RSA Resource and Socio-economic Assessment FAO Fisheries Administrative Order RUP Resource Use Plans FGD Focus Group Discussion SEP Strategic Environmental Plan FLA Fisheries Lease Agreement SEZ Special Economic Zone FRM Fisheries Resource Management SPCP State Polytechnic College of Palawan FRMP Fisheries Resource Management Program SPPA South Palawan Planning Area GEF-SGP Global Environment Facility – Small Grants Program SPPC South Palawan Planning Council GIS Geographic Information System SSME Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion HDI Human Development Index TABC Technical Assistance For Improving Biodiversity Conservation IEC Information, Education and Communication In Protected Areas In The Philippines IP Indigenous People TAC Total Allowable Catch IPAF Integrated Protected Area Fund TESDA Technical Education and Skills Development Authority IPRA Indigenous People’s Rights Act TLRC Technology and Livelihood Resource Center IRA Internal Revenue Allotment TRNMP Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park IRR Implementing Rules and Regulations UIGRBS Ursula Island Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary ISF Integrated Social Forestry UNDP United Nations Development Programme IUCN The World Conservation Union UNEP United Nations Environment Programme IUU Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural JAFTA Japan Forest Technical Association Organization KII Key Informant Interview UP University of the Philippines KKP Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas (also known as WWF- UPLB University of the Philippines Los Baños Philippines) USAID US Agency for International Development LGC Local Government Code WRP Wood Recovery Permits LGU Local Government Unit WWF World Wildlife Fund for Nature LRFT Live Reef Fish Trade YKR Yulo King Ranch106 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 115. REFERENCESAlava, M.R. 2002. Elasmobranchs. In: Ong, P.S., L.E. Afuang and R.G. Rosell-Ambal (eds). 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program- University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine Environment, Quezon City, Philippines. p 52.Aliño, P.M. and E.D. Gomez. 1995. Philippine coral reef conservation: Its significance to the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Regional Conference of the East-West Center Association. Nov. 5-6, 1993, Okinawa, Japan. pp. 222-229.Allen, G.R. 2000. Reef and shore fishes of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. In: Werner, T.B. and G.R. Allen (eds). 2000. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Washington, DC. Conservation International. pp 31-44.Aragones, L.V. 2002. Cetaceans. In: Ong, P.S., L.E. Afuang and R.G. Rosell-Ambal (eds). 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program-University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine Environment, Quezon City, Philippines. p 54.Boquiren, R. 2003. Social Assessment for the Palawan Corridor. Palawan Corridor Strategy Development Project (PCSDP). CI Philippines, Puerto Princesa City.Brown, R.M., and S.I. Guttman. 2002. Phylogenetic systematic of the Rana signata complex of Philippine and Bornean stream frogs; reconsideration of Huxley’s modification of Wallace’s Line at the Oriental-Australian faunal zone interface. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 76:393–461.Cummings, V. 2002. Sea Turtle conservation in Guam. In: Kinan (ed). 2002. Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop. Feb. 5-8, 2002. Honolulu, Hawaii. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 1997. Philippine Biodiversity: An Assessment and Action Plan. Bookmark Inc., Makati, Philippines.Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (DENR-PAWB) and Toba Aquarium, Japan. 1995. Dugongs Dugong dugon (Muller, 1776) of the Philippines: A Report of the Joint Dugong Research and Conservation Program.Dickinson, E.C., R.S. Kennedy, and K.C. Parkes. 1991. The Birds of the Philippines. British Ornithologists’ Union, London. 448 pp.Eckert, S.A., L.L. Dolar, G.L. Kooyman, W. Perrin and R.A. Raman. 2002. Movements of whalesharks (Rhincodon typus) in Southeast Asian waters as determined by satellite telemetry. J. Zool. 257: 111-115.Escaño, J., Rabang, J. and Heinrichs, D. 2001. Palawan Human Development Report 2000. Provincial Government of Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Palawan.Fellizar, Jr. F.P., R.G. Bernardo, and A.C. Sandalo. 2001. Policy and Institutional Analysis of Honda Bay and Puerto Princesa Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. Resource and Social Assessment of Honda Bay and Puerto Princesa Bay.Fortes, E. 2002. Seaweeds. In: Ong, P.S., L.E. Afuang and R.G. Rosell-Ambal (eds). 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program-University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine Environment, Quezon City, Philippines. p 49.Gomez, E.D., P.M. Aliño, W.R.Y. Licuanan and H.T. Yap. 1994. Status report of the coral reef of the Philippines. In C.R. Wilkinson, S. Sudara, L.M. Chow (eds). Proceedings of the 3rd ASEAN- Australia Symposium on Living Coastal Resources, May 16-20, 1994, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 57-76.Harris, Larry D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation of Biotic Diversity. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.Heaney, L.R., and J.C. Regalado. 1998. Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rain Forest. The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois.Hilton-Taylor, C. (Compiler) 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xvii+61 pp.Ingles, J. 2000. Fisheries of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. In: Werner, T.B. and G.R. Allen (eds.). A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17.Washington, D.C.: Conservation International. pp 45-64.Japan Forest Technical Association (JAFTA). 1992. Forest Register (Palawan). Information System Development Project for the Management of Tropical Forest.Lachica-Aliño L., R. Sariego, B. Montaqo, E. Desabelle, H. Palla, R. Creador, and G. Silvestre. 2001. Results of the Fish Stock Assessment Puerto Princesa City, Palawan (2000-2001). Fisheries Resource Management Project, Philippines. Resource and Ecological Assessment-RSA for Honda Bay and Puerto Princesa Bay.Lambert, F. R. 1994. The Status of the Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia in Palawan and the Sulu Islands, Philippines. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.Licuanan, W. and E. Capili. 2002. Corals. Ong, P.S., L.E. Afuang and R.G. Rosell-Ambal (eds). 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program- University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine Environment, Quezon City, Philippines. 113pp.Madulid, D.A. 2002. A Pictorial guide to the Noteworthy Plants of Palawan. Palawan Tropical Forestry Protection Programme. 129pp.Mallari, N. A. D., B. R. Tabaranza, Jr., and M. J. Crosby. 2001. Key Conservation Sites in the Philippines: a Haribon Foundation & BirdLife International Directory of Important Bird Areas. Bookmark, Inc. Makati City.Manamtam. A.S. 1996. Conservation and Management Strategies for Seabirds in the Sulu Sea. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Haribon Foundation, BirdLife International, and Dansk Ornitologisk Forening. Manila.Mayo-Anda, G. and D. A. Dalabajan. 2003. Assessment of Conservation Policies as Applied in Palawan. Paper presented at the Biodiversity Convention of the Palawan Corridor Strategy Development. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines.Nemenzo, F. Sr. 1986. Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna Volume 5: Corals. Natural Resources Management Center Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines, Manila. 271pp.Noss, Reed F., M. A. O’Connell and D. D. Murphy. 1997. The Science of Conservation. Planning Under the Endangered Species ACT. Wahington D.C.: Island Press.National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO). 1990. Philippine Yearbook.Ong, P.S., L.E. Afuang and R.G. Rosell-Ambal (eds). 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program-University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, and Foundation for the Philippine Environment, Quezon City, Philippines. 113pp.Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD). 1998. Land Cover 1998 (Landsat CITM Satellite Image).Saunders, Denis A. and Richard J. Hobbs (editors). 1991. Nature Conservation 2: the Role of Corridors. Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty. 442pp.Soejarto, D.D, J.C. Regalado Jr., D.A. Madulid and C.E. Ridsdale. 1995. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants of Palawan, Philippines.Soule, Michael and Bruce Wilcox. 1980. Conservation Biology: an Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.Szaro, Robert and D. Johnston. 1996. Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes: Theory and Practice. USA: Oxford University Press, Inc.Tan, B. 1996. Biogeography of Palawan mosses. Australian Systematic Botany 9: 193-203.Valmonte-Santos, R.A., M.C. Celzo, K.F. Santos, R. Creador, and V.S. Ticzon. 2001. Water Quality Assessment in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan In Resource and Ecological Assessment of Honda Bay, Palawan. Fisheries Resource Assessment Project, Philippines. Resource and Ecological Assessment –RSA of Honda Bay and Puerto Princesa Bay.Veron, J.E.N. 2000. Corals of the World. Vol. 1-3. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland, Australia.Veron, J.E.N. and D. Fenner. 2000. Corals (Zooxanthellate Scleractinia) of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. In: Werner, T.B. and G.R. Allen (eds). 2000. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Washington, DC. Conservation International. pp 24-26.Wells, F.E. 2000. Molluscs of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. In: Werner, T.B. and G.R. Allen (eds). 2000. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Washington, DC. Conservation International. pp 27-30.Werner, T.B. and G.R. Allen (eds). 2000. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Washington, DC. Conservation International. 127pp. REFERENCES :: 107
  • 116. CONTRIBUTORSABES, Norwin ARCEO, Hazel Princesa CityDesignation: Law Enforcement Officer Organization: UP Marine Science Institute Phone: (048) 4335525Organization: KKP - Tubbataha Address: University of the Philippines, Diliman, Email: offiepablo@hotmail.comAddress: Wescom Rd., Puerto Princesa City QCPhone/Fax: (048) 4342100 Phone: (02) 9223959 BLASTIQUE, TeresitaEmail: nabes@wwf-phil.org.ph Email: hazel@upmsi.ph Designation: In-charge, Resources Assessment SectionABIOG, Rogelio ARZAGA, Winston Organization: DENR – Protected Areas & WildlifeDesignation: Technical Committee Chairman Designation: Executive Director BureauOrganization: South Palawan Planning Council Organization: Palawan Council for Sustainable Address: Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife NatureAddress: Sofronio Espanola, Palawan Development Staff Center, Quezon Ave., Diliman, QCPhone: 09192596326 Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Phone: (02) 9296626 to 29 Phone: (048) 4343370 Fax: (02) 9240109ABUEL, MarionDesignation: Executive Assistant ATRIGENIO, Michael BLAZA, MerlynOrganization: CI - Philippines Designation: Grant Manager Organization: DENR-PENROAddress: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Organization: CEPF Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityQuezon City Address: Philam Homes, Quezon CityPhone: (02) 4128194 Phone: (02) 4128194 BONOAN, Rolando Jr.Fax: (02) 4128195 Fax: (02)4128195 Designation: Provincial Information OfficerEmail: mabuel@conservation.org.ph Email: matrigenio@conservation.org.ph Organization: Provincial Government of Palawan Address: 3/F Capitol Complex, Puerto PrincesaADIER, Winston BACOSA, Rosalinda CityDesignation: Municipal Planning and Designation: National Co- Director Phone: (048) 4334566Development Officer Organization: Palawan Tropical Forestry Fax: (048) 4332777Organization: Municipality of Aborlan Protection Program Email: ipalawan@mozcom.comAddress: Aborlan, Palawan Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Phone: (048) 4343370 BOQUIREN, RowenaADRIANO, Priscilla Designation: Professor of HistoryDesignation: Chief, Protected Area & Wildlife BAGUILAT, Clarence Organization: University of the Philippines -Services Designation: Regional Executive Director BaguioOrganization: DENR-PENRO Organization: DENR - Region IV (MIMAROPA) Address: Gov. Pack Rd, Baguio CityAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Address: 1515 L&S Bldg. Roxas Blvd., Mla. Phone: (074) 4423888, 4422427Phone: (048) 4344850 Phone: (02) 4050015,4050047 Fax: (074) 4422477, 4423888 Fax: (02) 4050046 Email: rowieboq@yahoo.comANDA, RedemptoDesignation: Project Manager BAGUYO, Andronico CAC, EdwinOrganization: CI - Philippines Organization: Provincial ENRO Designation: ForesterAddress: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Address: Capitol Complex, Puerto Princesa Organization: CENRO-CoronPhone: (048) 4333551 City Address: Coron, PalawanFax: (048) 4342419 Phone: (048) 4344579Email: randa@conservation.org.ph CALAMBA, Jerry BALETE, Danny Designation: Municipal Environment & NaturalANDA, Grizelda Designation: Project Officer Resources OfficerDesignation: Executive Director Organization: Laksambuhay Foundation Organization: Municipality of RizalOrganization: Environmental Legal Assistance Address: c/o Haribon Foundation: 4th Floor, Fil Address: Rizal, PalawanCenter Garcia Building, Kalayaan Avenue, Quezon Phone: 09187974869Address: Malvar St., Puerto Princesa City CityPhone: (048) 4334212 Phone: (02) 9253332 CALIWAG, EzequielFax: (048) 4335183 Organization: Dept. of Agriculture-ResearchEmail: gerthie@mozcom.com BANTAYAN, Nathaniel Outreach Station Organization: Environmental Remote Sensing Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityANTOLIN, Artemio & Geo-Information LaboratoryDesignation: Project Manager Address: UPLB, College, Laguna CASTRENCE, MiguelOrganization: CI - Philippines Email: ncb@laguna.net Designation: Fulbright FellowAddress: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Organization: Environmental Legal AssistanceQuezon City BANUA, Dionisia CenterPhone: (02) 4128194 Designation: Director Address: Puerto Princesa, PalawanFax: (02) 4128195 Organization: NATRIPAL Email: Miguel_Castrence@fulbrightweb.orgEmail: aantolin@conservation.org.ph Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Phone: (048) 4336573 CAYATOC, FelizardoAQUINO, Ma. Theresa Designation: ForesterDesignation: Project Manager BARRAQUIAS, TINA Organization: DENR-PENROOrganization: KKP-Malampaya Designation: Researcher Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityAddress: Wescom Rd., Puerto Princesa City Organization: Palawan NGO Network, Inc Phone: 09204459898Phone/Fax: (048) 4342100Email: taquino@wwf-phil.org.ph BERNARDINO, Ma. Cleofe CAYATOC, Norma Designation: Executive Director Organization: CENRO - Puerto Princesa City Organization: PNNI Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Address: Zanzibar Bldg. Rizal Ave., Puerto Phone: 09207155128108 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 117. CONTRIBUTORSCHAN, Pauline DIMALIBOT, Judeline GALIT, MilarosaDesignation: Community Development Officer Designation: Coordinator Designation: ResearcherOrganization: CI - Philippines Organization: Sustainable Environmental Organization: Palawan NGO Network, IncAddress: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Management for Northern Palawan Address: Puerto Princesa, PalawanPhone: (048) 4333551 Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Phone: (048) 4335525Fax: (048) 4342419 Phone: 09207735974 Email: pnni@mozcom.comEmail: pchan@conservation.org.ph Email: judimalibot@yahoo.com GAPUD, VictorCHAN, Sheila DOLOROSA, Roger Organization: Department of Entomology, UPLBDesignation: Executive Director Designation: Instructor Address: UP Los Baños, College, LagunaOrganization: Palawan Conservation Corps Organization: State Polytechnic College of Phone/Fax: (049) 5361315Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Palawan Email: vicgap@laguna.netPhone: (048) 4333358 Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityEmail: palcorps@mozcom.com GARCIANO, Adoracion DUYA, Melizar Designation: HeadCO, Leonard Designation: Biologist Organization: Bureau of Agricultural StatisticsDesignation: Senior Botanist Organization: CI - Philippines Address: Zanzibar Bldg., Puerto Princesa,Organization: CI - Philippines Address: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, PalawanAddress: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Quezon CityQuezon City Phone: (02) 4128194 GARINGA, RogerPhone: (02) 4128194 Fax: (02) 4128195 Designation: Project ManagerFax: (02) 4128195 Email: mduya@conservation.org.ph Organization: Institute for the Development ofEmail: lco@conservation.org.ph Ecological Alternatives (IDEAS) DYGICO, Marivel Address: 30 Mozo Apt., Quirino St., Quezon,COJAMCO, Emmy Designation: Project Manager PalawanDesignation: Chief – Forest Management Organization: Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas Phone: 09187527949Services Address: Wescom Road, Puerto Princesa CityOrganization: DENR-PENRO Phone: (048) 4342100 GASCON, ClaudeAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Email: mariveld@mozcom.com Designation: Senior Vice President Organization: Conservation InternationalCOROZA, Oliver ELLIS, Susie Address: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600,Designation: GIS/IT Manager Designation: Vice-President Washington, DCOrganization: CI - Philippines Organization: Conservation International Phone: (202) 9121000Address: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Address: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Fax: (202) 9121030Quezon City Washington, DC Email: c.gascon@conservation.orgPhone: (02) 4128194 Phone: (202) 9121000Fax: (02) 4128195 Fax: (202) 9121030 GERONILLA, ElizabethEmail: ocoroza@conservation.org Email: s.ellis@conservation.org Designation: Professor Organization: Palawan State UniversityDALABAJAN, Dante ESCAÑO, Josephine Address: Tiniguiban, Puerto Princesa CityOrganization: Environmental Legal Assistance Designation: Division ChiefCenter Organization: Provincial Planning & GONZALES, BenAddress: Malvar St., Puerto Princesa City Development Office Designation: Project ManagerPhone: (048) 4334212 Address: Capitol Complex, Puerto Princesa Organization: Coastal Resource Mgt ProjectFax: (048) 4335183 City Address: Corporate Bldg., Rizal Ave., PPCEmail: ddalabajan@yahoo.com Phone: (048) 4335501 Email: bjg@mozcom.comDEVANADERA, Nelson EUGENIO, Amy GRANADO, GenerosoDesignation: Provincial Planning & Development Organization: CI - Philippines Designation: Chairman on EnvironmentalOfficer Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan ProtectionOrganization: Provincial Government Phone: (048) 4333551 Organization: Sangguniang Bayan, LinapacanAddress: Capitol Complex, Puerto Princesa City Fax: (048) 4342419 Address: Linapacan, PalawanPhone: (048) 4345121 Email: mindfruit@hotmail.com HOLTZ, ChristopherDIAZ, Florencio FABURADA, Arturo Designation: DirectorDesignation: CENRO Designation: CRM Specialist Organization: Conservation InternationalOrganization: CENRO-Roxas Organization: KKP - Tubbataha Address: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600,Address: Roxas, Palawan Address: Wescom Rd., Puerto Princesa City Washington, DCPhone: 09165411356 Phone: (048) 4342100 Phone: (202) 9121000 Fax: (202) 9121030DIAZ, Siegfred FERNANDO, Edwino Email: c.holtz@conservation.orgOrganization: Phil Cockatoo Conservation Designation: DirectorProject Organization: Makiling Center for Mountain IBUNA, NancyAddress: Narra, Palawan Ecosystems Organization: Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas Address: UP Los Baños, College, Laguna Address: LBI Bldg. 57 Kalayaan Ave. Diliman,DIESMOS, Arvin Phone: (049) 5363572 QCOrganization: Philippine National Museum Email: esf@laguna.net Email: nancy_ibuna@yahoo.comAddress: Old Congress Bldg., P. Burgos St., MlaEmail: kaloula@i-manila.com.ph CONTRIBUTORS :: 109
  • 118. CONTRIBUTORSINGLES, Jose MACLANG, ELIZABETH MATULAC, JosephineDesignation: Coordinator, Sulu-Sulawesi Designation: Researcher Designation: Director, Project Operations andEcoregion Program Organization: Palawan NGO Network, Inc Implementation DivisionOrganization: KKP Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Organization: Palawan Council for SustainableAddress: LBI Bldg. 57 Kalayaan Ave. Diliman, Q Phone: (048) 4335525 Development StaffC Email: pnni@mozcom.com Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityPhone: (02) 4333220 to 23 Phone: (048) 4343370Email: jingles@wwf.org.ph MADULID, Domingo Organization: Philippine National Museum MELO, CarmenJAMESON, Chris Address: Old Congress Bldg., P. Burgos St., Designation: Research OfficerDesignation: Coordinator Mla Organization: DENR-PENROOrganization: Conservation International Phone: (02) 5270210 Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityAddress: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Phone: (048) 4335639Washington, DC MAGALLANES, InocencioPhone: (202) 9121000 Designation: Director MENDOZA, JamesFax: (202) 9121030 Organization: Haribon - Palawan Designation: Park SuperintendentEmail: c.jameson@conservation.org Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Organization: Puerto Princesa Subterranean Phone: (048) 4346645 River National ParkJARDIN, Ruben Address: Puerto Princesa, PalawanOrganization: Bureau of Fisheries & Aquatic MANA, Katherine Phone: (048) 4332409Resources Organization: Environmental Legal AssistanceAddress: Carandang St., Puerto Princesa City Center MORALES, Connie Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Designation: Project CoordinatorJOVENAL, Benjamin Phone: (048) 4344212 Organization: CI - PhilippinesDesignation: CENRO Fax: (048) 4335183 Address: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes,Organization: CENRO-Quezon Email: airinekate@yahoo.com Quezon CityAddress: Quezon, Palawan Phone: (02) 4128194 MANALO, Rainier Fax: (02) 4128195LAGUNZAD, Dan Organization: Palawan Wildlife Refuge & Email: cmorales@conservation.org.phOrganization: Institute of Biology, UPD Conservation CenterAddress: University of the Philippines, Diliman, Address: Irawan, Puerto Princesa City NABUA, ElyQC Designation: CENROPhone: (02) 9205471, 9205301 loc 6536 MANUEL, William Organization: CENRO-CalamianesEmail: dlagunzad@hotmail.com Designation: GIS Associate Address: Coron, Palawan Organization: CI - Philippines Phone: 09196835703LASMARIAS, Noela Address: Puerto Princesa, PalawanDesignation: Resource Economist Phone: (048) 4333551 NAGUIT, ShellaneOrganization: CI - Philippines Fax: (048) 4342419 Designation: Project CoordinatorAddress: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Email: wmanuel@conservation.org.ph Organization: CI - PhilippinesQuezon City Address: Puerto Princesa, PalawanPhone: (02) 4128194 MAON, Ferdinand Phone: 09189215012Fax: (02) 4128195 Designation: GIS Specialist Email: snaguit@conservation.org.phEmail: nlasmarias@conservation.org.ph Organization: CI - Philippines Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan NALZARRO, OscarLATUMBO, Zoe Phone: (048) 4333551 Designation: DeanDesignation: IEC Officer Fax: (048) 4342419 Organization: SPCP-Aquatic Science &Organization: KKP - Tubbataha Email: fmaon@conservation.org.ph Technology InstituteAddress: Wescom Rd., Puerto Princesa City Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityPhone: (048) 4342100 MARTIN, SegundinoEmail: zoecl@yahoo.com Designation: CENRO NAVARRO, Joy Organization: CENRO-Taytay Organization: DENR - PAWBLIGGAYU, Ryan Address: Taytay, Palawan Address: Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife NatureDesignation: GIS Operator Center, Quezon Ave., Diliman, QCOrganization: Provincial Government MATILLANO, JoeyAddress: Capitol Complex, Puerto Princesa City Designation: Instructor OCAMPO, Diosdado Organization: State Polytechnic College of Designation: CENROLISBOA, Glen Palawan Organization: CENRO - Brookes PointDesignation: Chairman, Committee on ENR Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Address: Brooke’s Point, PalawanOrganization: Sangguniang Bayan, Culion Email: joiemati@yahoo.comAddress: Culion, Palawan OLANO, Rolando MATTA, John Patrick Organization: Haribon-PalawanLOBATON, Rodrigo Designation: Chairman, Committee on ENR Address: Rizal Ave. Ext., Puerto Princesa CityDesignation: Forester Organization: Sangguniang Bayan, Coron Phone: (048) 4346645Organization: CENRO-Brookes Point Address: Coron, PalawanAddress: Brookes Point, Palawan ONG, EmilioPhone: 09193969881 MATTA, Noel Designation: Municipal Planning & Development Designation: President Officer Organization: Calamianes Association of Organization: Municipality of Balabac Tourism Establishments Address: Balabac, Palawan Address: Coron, Palawan Phone: 09198717860110 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 119. CONTRIBUTORSORBETA, Elvira PAPA, Daisy REGALO, ApolloOrganization: Resources, Environment and Designation: Researcher Organization: Palawan Council for SustainableEconomics Center for Studies, Inc Organization: Palawan NGO Network, Inc Development StaffAddress: Suite 405, The Tower at Emerald Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CitySquare, J.P. Rizal cor. P. Tuazon Sts., Project 4, Phone: (048) 4335525 Phone: (048) 4343370Quezon City Email: pnni@mozcom.comPhone: (02) 4396616, 4396617 REYES, VictorFax: (02) 438-8858 PATENO, Alejandro Designation: Project ManagerEmail: eorbeta@mozcom.com Designation: Chairman, Committee on ENR Organization: Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas Organization: Sangguniang Bayan, Busuanga Email: vreyes@wwf-phil.org.phPABLICO, MARIFI Address: Busuanga, PalawanDesignation: Researcher Phone: 09204043991 RODRIGUEZ, RoshielaOrganization: ELAC Designation: GIS SpecialistAddress: Puerto Princesa, Palawan PIDO, Michael Organization: CI Philippines Designation: Professor Address: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes,PACRIS, Rodolfo Organization: PSU Quezon CityDesignation: CENRO Address: Manalo St., Puerto Princesa City Phone: (02) 4128194Organization: CENRO-Narra Phone: 09194308206 Fax: (02) 4128195Address: Narra, Palawan Email: mdpido@yahoo.com Email: rrodriguez@conservation.org.phPADILLA, Lawrence PINSONNEAULT, Yves ROLLON, ReneDesignation: Project Manager Organization: Conservation International Organization: UP Marine Science InstituteOrganization: Palawan Center for Appropriate Address: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Address: University of the Philippines, Diliman,Rural Technology Washington, DC QCAddress: Bancao-bancao, Puerto Princesa City Phone: (202) 9121000 Phone: (02) 9223959, 9223961Phone: (048) 4344121 Fax: (202) 9121030 Email: rollon@upmsi.ph Email: y.pinsonneault@conservation.orgPADILLA, Fernando SAMANIEGO, Pamela RaquelDesignation: Project Development Officer POLLISCO, Wilfrido Designation: Division ChiefOrganization: Palawan Council for Sustainable Designation: Director Organization: Department of TourismDevelopment Staff Organization: DENR-Protected Areas & Address: TM Kalaw St., ManilaAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Wildlife BureauPhone: (048) 4343370 Address: Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife SCHOPPE, Sabine Nature Center, Quezon Ave., Diliman, QC Organization: State Polytechnic College ofPALATINO, Arthur Phone: (02) 9296626 to 29 PalawanDesignation: Chief, Environmental Management Fax: (02) 9240109 Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityServices Email: sschoppe@mozcom.comOrganization: DENR-PENRO PONTILLAS, JohnAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Designation: Project Development Officer SHEEN, RobertoPhone: (048) 4344850 Organization: Palawan Council for Sustainable Designation: Director Development Staff Organization: DENR – EnvironmentalPALMA, Joel Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Management Bureau (MIMAROPA)Designation: Species Director Phone: (048) 4343370 Address: 1515 L&S Bldg. Roxas Blvd., Mla.Organization: Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas Email: john_pontillas@hotmail.com Phone: (02) 5369786Address: LBI Bldg. 57 Kalayaan Ave. Diliman,Q.C. QUIBILAN, Miledel Christine SONGCO, AngeliquePhone: (02) 4367311, 4367316, 4367317 Organization: UP Marine Science Institute Designation: Park SuperintendentFax: (02) 4330911 Address: University of the Philippines, Diliman, Organization: Tubbataha Reef National Marine QC ParkPALMA, Angelito Phone: (02) 9223959, 9223958 Address: Puerto Princesa, PalawanOrganization: Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas Email: magz@upmsi.ph Phone: (048) 4345759Address: LBI Bldg. 57 Kalayaan Ave. Diliman,QC RACUYA, Felomino SOPSOP, GlennPhone: (02) 4333220 to 23 Designation: District Manager Designation: Dean Organization: Palawan Council for Sustainable Organization: SPCP-Institute of EnvironmentPALOMAR, Nadia Development Staff Address: Aborlan, PalawanDesignation: Project Coordinator Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Phone: 09185584104Organization: CI - Philippines Phone: (048) 4343370Address: Puerto Princesa, Palawan SOPSOP, LitaPhone: (048) 4333551 RAMOS, Noel Organization: Institute of Environment, SPCP-Fax: (048) 4342419 Designation: Project Development Officer Main CampusEmail: npalomar@conservation.org.ph Organization: City ENRO Address: Aborlan, Palawan Address: San Jose, Puerto Princesa CityPAMBID, Wilson Phone: (048) 4334296 SORIANO, Ma. VivianDesignation: Project Development Officer Designation: Environmental ManagementOrganization: Palawan Council for Sustainable REBONG, Glenn SpecialistDevelopment Staff Designation: Head, Technical Division Organization: DENR-PENROAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Organization: Palawan Wildlife Refuge & Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa CityPhone: (048) 4343370 Conservation Center Phone: 09193836067 Address: Irawan, Puerto Princesa City CONTRIBUTORS :: 111
  • 120. CONTRIBUTORSSUALOG, Delia UBANI, Rhodora WONG, GraceDesignation: Chief, Environmental Research & Designation: Environmental Management Designation: Resource EconomistDevelopment Services Specialist Organization: Conservation InternationalOrganization: DENR-PENRO Organization: DENR-PENRO Address: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600,Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Washington, DCPhone: 09196564860 Phone: 09198875410 Phone: (202) 9121000 Fax: (202) 9121030TABANGAY-BALDERA, Jeanne UYAMI, Arselene Email: g.wong@conservation.orgDesignation: Project Coordinator Designation: InstructorOrganization: CI - Philippines Organization: Palawan State University YAP, SherylAddress: Puerto Princesa, Palawan Address: Tiniguiban, Puerto Princesa City Organization: Department of Entomology, UPLBPhone: (048) 4333551 Email:RC-Uyami@eudoramail.com Address: UP Los Baños, College, LagunaFax: (048) 4342419 Phone: (049) 5361315Email: jbaldera@conservation.org.ph VALIENTES, Rodger Email: sheng_yap@yahoo.com Designation: Instructor 2TABUGON, Lualhati Organization: Department of Economics, YAPTINCHAY, Arnel AndrewDesignation: Director, Planning & Technical College of Economics and Management Organization: Kabang Kalikasan ng PilipinasServices Division (CEM) Address: Wescom Rd., Puerto Princesa CityOrganization: Palawan Council for Sustainable Address: University of the Philippines Los Phone: (048) 4342100Development Staff Baños (UPLB) Email: aayaptinchay@hotmail.comAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City College, LagunaPhone: (048) 4343370 Phone: (049) 5362505 ZABALO, Edgardo Fax: (049) 5363641 Designation: Provincial Agiculture OfficerTACTAY, Fernando Email: rodge831@yahoo.com Organization: Provincial Agriculture OfficeDesignation: CENRO Address: Capitol Complex, Puerto Princesa CityOrganization: CENRO-Puerto Princesa VALLEDOR, GilAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Designation: MENRO ZAMORA, Prescillano Organization: Municipality of Roxas Organization: Institute of Biology, UP Diliman Address: Roxas, Palawan Address: University of the Philippines, Diliman,TAGYAB, Rolando Phone: 09198233627 QCDesignation: Municipal Environment & Natural Phone: (048) 922-0748Resources Officer VIACRUCIS, EdgarOrganization: Municipality of Narra Address: San Miguel, Puerto Princesa,Address: Narra, Palawan Palawan Conservation International – PalawanPhone: 09207076812 Email: edviax@yahoo.com Program StaffTENEBRO, Ma. Corazon VILLARUZ, Edmund REDEMPTO D. ANDA, Program ManagerDesignation: Project Development Officer Organization: Provincial ENRO NOELA LASMARIAS, Resource EconomistOrganization: Municipality of Brooke’s Point Address: Capitol Complex, Puerto PrincesaAddress: Brookes Point, Palawan City JEANNE TABANGAY-BALDERA, PalawanPhone: 09205673296 Phone: (048) 4334579 Mainland Coordinator SHELLANE C. NAGUIT, CalamianesTIONGSON, Virgilio VILLEGAS, Rene CoordinatorDesignation: Provincial Environment & Natural Organization: Palawan Council for Sustainable NADIA E. PALOMAR, Marine CoordinatorResources Officer Development StaffOrganization: Department of Environment & Address: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City FERDINAND F. MAON, GIS SpecialistNatural Resources Phone: (048) 4343370 WILLIAM D. MANUEL, GIS/IT AssociateAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa, Palawan Email: jrfvill@yahoo.com PAULINE S. CHAN, Community DevelopmentPhone: (048) 433-5638 Officer VYNNE, StacyTORRES, Aida Designation: Coordinator MARYLU MAYOR-ANDERSON, AdministrativeDesignation: Division Chief Organization: Conservation International AssistantOrganization: Palawan Council for Sustainable Address: 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, REY T. ALCANTARA, Finance OfficerDevelopment Staff Washington, DC RUSTICO NARIDO, Driver/UtilityAddress: Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City Phone: (202) 9121000Phone: (048) 4343370 Fax: (202) 9121030 Email: s.vynne@conservation.orgTRONO, RomeoDesignation: Executive Director WIDMANN, PeterOrganization: CI - Philippines Designation: Project ManagerAddress: #5 South Lawin, Philam Homes, Organization: Philippine CockatooQuezon City Conservation ProjectPhone: (02) 4128194 Address: Wescom Rd., Puerto Princesa CityFax: (02) 4128195 Phone: (048) 4345267Email: rtrono@conservation.org.ph Email: peterwid@mailcity.comTRONO, GavinoOrganization: UP Marine Science InstituteAddress: University of the Philippines, Diliman,QCPhone: (02) 9223959, 9223960112 :: STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE PALAWAN’S BIODIVERSITY
  • 121. PHOTO CREDITS 1 2 2 11 Conservation International-Phils2 Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff3 Jurgen Freund4 Palawan NGO Network, Inc.5 Environmental Legal Assistance Center6 World Wildlife Fund-Phils7 Ken Saito8 Hildie Nacorda9 Rene Abesamis10 Gheny Francisco-OlegarioMap layouts by Ferdinand Maon (CI-Phils)Base map data (coastline, rivers, roads, administrative boundaries) were supplied by the National Mapping ResourcesInformation Authority through PCSDS and the Provincial Government of Palawan. This document is not an authority onadministrative boundaries. PHOTO CREDITS :: 113
  • 122. Surublien - Tagbanua term for ‘legacy’ THE STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE PALAWAN CORRIDOR :: 114