Ripples of Hope over Troubled Waters:The Calancan Bay Experience
Ripples of Hope over Troubled Waters:The Calancan Bay Experience
Ripples of Hope Over Troubled Waters: The Calancan Bay Experience Francisco P. Fellizar, Jr., Wanah Maria Ayesa H. Velo Robert G. Bernardo
The SEAMEO Regio na l Center tor Graduate Study and Resear ch in Agriculture (SE ARCA)is one of the regional research and training centers of the So utheast As ian Mini sters ofEducation O rganiza tio n (SEAME O), an intergovernment body founded in 1965 to promotecoop er ati on amo ng So utheas t Asian nations through acti vit ies in ed uca tion, sc ience , andcu lture. SEARCAs programs are designed to accel er ate sustai nable agricu lture and ruraldevelopm ent thr ough human reso urce development , resear ch , technology tra nsfer, andinfo rm ati on dis semi nation . It is hosted by the Philippine Govern me nt on the campus of theUniversi ty of the Phili ppines Los Banos, which is based in Lo s Banos, Lag una, Phil ippines.It is suppo rted by donation s from SEA M EO memb er and associa te me mber states, othergove rnme nts, and vario us internat ional donor age nc ies.Ripples of Ho pe Over Troubl ed Waters: The Calancan Bay ExperienceFrancisco P. Fe llizar , Jr., Wanah Maria Ayesa H. Vela, and Robert G. Berna rdoPubli shed by SE AMEO SEARCA, Co llege, Lo s Banos , Lagu na, P hilippinesPr inted in the Repub lic of the Phili ppin esF irst Printing, Nove mbe r 2002Style Edi ting andCover Desi gn: Lea h Lyn D. Dom ingoPhilippine Co pyright 2002 by the SEAMEO Regional Ce nter for G raduate Study andResear ch in Agri cultu re (SEA RCA)All rig hts reserved . No part of thi s publi cat ion may be reproduced or transmitted in anyfo rm or by any means, electro nic or mecha nical , including photocopy, reco rd ing, or anyinfor mati on storage and ret rieval system, withou t pe rmissio n in wr iting fro m SEA M EOSEARCA .ISBN No. 971 -560-19 1-3
Foreword Coastal resources are critical and vaJuable assets for achievingsustainable development. These resources support a wide range of economicactivities and ecological functions . However, they have been severelystressed due to the impacts of population and economic pressures, uplandas well as lowland activities, and use of destructive fishing methods, amongothers. In cognizance of these problems, strategies have been designed inmanaging these resources but most have generally failed in providingeffective and long-term solutions. This is mainly because many have failedto consider the interrelated nature of the upland, lowland, and coastalecosystems . Based on the principles of integrated landscape approach that treatsthe upland, lowland, and coastal ecosystems as interactive, SEARCAsCoastal Resource Management Project, under its Natural ResourceManagement Program, aims to enhance the capability for designing andimplementing community-based resource management projects as strategiesfor achieving sustainable development in coastal areas in Southeast Asia . This monograph is a product of SEARCAs research conducted inCalancan Bay, Marinduque, Philippines that had been the discharge pointof mine tailings of the Marcopper Mining Corporation (MMC) for 18years. Through this publication, we share om experiences in managingand conserving the degraded coastal ecosystem of Calancan Bay. Our aimis to provide valuable insights to planners, researchers, community workers,and policymakers. ~:;u~ RUBEN L. VILLAREAL Director
Introduction Calancan Bay is located in the northernmost tip of the island provinceof Marinduque. It is approximately between 121"5540" and 1220206"E longitudes and between 132941" and 13O3302" N latitudes. It isbounded in the east by Sta. Cruz Island, in the west by Sayao Bay and themunicipality of Mogpog, and in the south by Barangay Larnesa and Dolores. Calancan Bay had been the discharge point of mine tailings resultingfrom the mining operations of the Marcopper Mining Corporation (MMC)in San Antonio, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque. This dumping had been continuesfor 18 years, from 1975 to 1992, resulting in the formation of a 4.7 krncauseway with a total area of 84 ha, practically dividing Calancan Bayinto its western and eastern sections (Fig. 1). MMCs initial authority todump its tailings in the bay was by virtue of a permit granted by theNational Pollution Control Commissjon (NPCC) on 24-October 1975. The Calancan Bay Rehabilitation Program (CBRP) was created by virtue of the P o l l u t i o n Adjudication Board (PAB) Resolution No. 9 issued on 9 June 1988, which established guidelines for rehabilitating the portions of the bay that were affected by the dumping. Figure 1. Causeway resulting from mine tailings in Calancan Bay.The project funding came from the Ecology Trust Fund (ETF), which theOffice of the President (OP) on 13 May 1988 asked MMC to set up at therate of 30,000 for each day that the OP-issued restraining order was ineffect. The CBRP implemented five projects, namely: 1) reforestation of
~iiinctailings causeway and mangrove areas, 2) transplantation of seagrassand establishment of artificial seagrass systems, 3) deployment of artificialreefs, 4) fish yield monitoring, and 5) water quality monitoring. In 1996,CBRP commissioned SEAMEO SEARCA to evaluate the CBRP andrecommend future activities that should be integrated in the program toenhance its effectiveness. As a result of the evaluation activities, SEARCA was tasked to developan integrated area management plan (IAMP) for Calancan Bay. In facilitatingthe development of the plan, SEARCA espoused the concept of comrnunity-based resource management, a highly participatory resource planning andmanagement approach. A multidisciplinary team composed of experts inenvironmental planning, agriculture, forestry, aquatidfishery,socioeconomic (gender and agroindustrialization/livelihood),hydrology,institution/policy, wildlife, health, and ecotourism was formed to addressbiophysical, socioeconomic, and politico-administrative issues. Themanagement plan covers the seven barangays (i.e., Botilao, Dating Bayan,Ipil, Kamandugan, Kalangkang, Kasily, and San Isidro) of the municipalityof Sta. Cruz, Marinduque which were identified as heavily affected by themine tailings dumping.Approach and Methodology SEARCA adopted the community-based approach in resource planningand management for Calancan Bay. Community-based resourcemanagement (CBRM) is a process by which the people are provided theopportunity and/or responsibility to manage their own resources; definetheir needs, goals, and aspirations; and make decisions affecting theirwell-being (Fellizar 1993). Essential elements of CBRM include, amongothers, community access and control over resources, proper resourceuse, viable organization, and availability of suitable technology (Fellizar1993). It has six underlying features and/or assumptions: The quality of life of the population is largely a factor of resource endowment and the manner in which these resources are allocated by humankind singly or collectively; CBRM emphasizes the significance of considering or specifying a particular locale or setting where people resources-interaction takes place; 2
0 CBRM requires an inventory of resources and capabilities (both biophysical and human) in a given area; CBRM promotes community-centered and long-term goals; 0 CBRM proposes actions involving decision-making at the lowest level possible; and CBRM believes that communities can manage their own resources. Figure 2 shows the process framework adopted by SEARCA indeveloping the Integrated Area Management Plan (IAMP). The integratedarea management framework also requires that environmental, economic,social, and political dynamics be incorporated in the planning process,and the active involvement of the public in all stages of the project. STTUATlONAL ANALYSIS - Land Use Rewurce and Ecnlogical Assessment Sociocennomic EvaluationlAlternative Livelihoods - Fisheries Policy, Legal, and Institutional Arrangcmcnts - Fc~restry Hcalth 2 n L J R&D Issues, Needs. G a p s , Opportunities & Threats -n I & Identification o f Goals a n d Objectives of M a n a g e m e n t Plan -=LL Preparation of lntegrated Area Management Plan (IAMP) Managcment Body/Council .Management Zones - Managcment Strategies and - Projects Stakeholder Participation - -LA- Implementation o f [AMPFigure 2. Process framework for Calancan Bay IAMP.
A crit icid llcccl i l l Initlli~gclnclll plill~li~lg( I W cs(;~hlish~~~cnl is o1a rclii~hlcIxlsclinc prolilc or it11 analysis of the currcnt biophysical, socioeconomic,and institulional status of the area. In this regard, SEARCA formed aninlerdisciplinary team and applied a combination of methodologies suchas field observations and measurements, focus group discussions, keyinformant ipterviews, formal survey, field sampling and laboratory analysis,and review of secondary literature to come up with a comprehensiveunderstanding of the projects areas of concern. Team members alsoattended local meetings as observers to understand local socio-culturaland institutional dynamics. Informal discussions with community membersalso revealed a wealth of information that would have otherwise beenunavailable through formal channels. It was the SEARCA teamsresponsibility to sift through these information and conduct validationactivities to ensure that the information obtained were genuine and useful. Through the baseline profiles, the research and development (R&D)issues, needs, and gaps as well as the opportunities and threats wereidentified. While the project covered only the seven barangays that wereidentified as having been affected by the dumping, it was unavoidable toinclude other barangays andlor ecosystems that are integrally part of theentire Calancan Bay watershed. Thus, some identified concerns reflect thestatus and concerns not only of the seven barangays and their componentecosystems, but that of other adjacent barangays as well.Realities, Constraints, and Opportunities:The Calancan Bay Setting Owing to the complex nature of the coastal resources, a humanecological perspective was adopted to analyze the scenario in CalancanBay and the management of its coastal resources. Human ecological perspective allows holistic understanding of man-environment interactions. It provides a framework for the analysis andprescription of the appropriate mix of strategies to forge the needed balancebetween mans action and the capacity of natural resources to provide formans welfare. The human ecological perspective provides an integrativeand conlprehensive appreciation of the complex interaction between andamong population, resources, institution, and technology, which areoften overlooked in the planning and management of fishery resources.
Understanding the man-environment relationship minimizes negativeimpacts, thus ensuring long-term sustainability of the resource to meet thediverse and changing needs of man. Figure 3 shows the human ecologicalview in coastal resource management.Figure 3. Human ecological view of coastal resource management. ......................... REALITIESResources and 3lechnologyLand Use and Agriculture The project area covers the seven barangays that had been previouslyidentified as most affected by the dumping of the mine tailings. Thesebarangays are Ipil, Kamandugan, Kalangkang, Kasily, Botilao, DatingBayan, and San Isidro. With a combined area of about 3,381 ha, thesebarangays generally have undulating and rolling to hilly topography andthe landscape is generally dominated by coconut-based farming systems.Other important crops in the area are banana, rootcrops, and arrowroot.Small patches of rice paddies are cultivated mainly for home consumption.Traditional agriculture, that is, use of traditional varieties with no fertilizeror pesticide application, generally characterize local agriculture. Amongthe seven barangays, Dating Bayan and San Isidro are inland barangaysand therefore have no coastal shorelines.
I?ol-cstrylvcgetationand Icr~xstrial Wildlife Two types of forests exist in the area: the 124.51 ha limestone ormolave (Vitexparvrjlora)forest under the jurisdiction of Barangay DatingBayan and the 595.1 ha mangrove forests traversing the coastlines of Botilao,Ipil, Kalangkang, Kasily, and Kamandugan. The limestone forests havebeen badly exploited owing to their relative accessibility and the highvalue of molave timber. The remaining molave stand was found to beinsignificant, being widely dispersed and with 20 cm as the biggest diameterencountered. An old-growth limestone forest is estimated to yield an averageof not more than 30 m3/haof timber of merchantable size. In the case ofCalancan Bay, wood volume was estimated to be less than 4 m3/ha. Otherspecies identified in the limestone forest include alupas (Euphora didyma),balakat (Ziziphys talanai), lanete (Wrightia laniti), taluto (Pterocymbiumtinctorium), and narra (Pterocarpus indicus). Assessment of the mangrove forest, on the other hand, revealed densestands with an estimated density of 108 trees per 100 m2, or spacing ofless than 1 x 1 m. Bakauan babae (Rhizophora mucronata) was the mostfrequent species encountered, followed by bakauan lalaki (Rhizophoraapiculata) and tangal (Ceriops tagal). The estimated average volume ofthe mangrove forest in the entire Calancan Bay is 145,848.34 m3or 264.76m3/ha. This total volume is expected to increase further as the mangrovestands have been found to be relatively young, based on the preponderanceof trees with diameter of 0.5 to 5 cm. The area also boasts of fascinating extensive wildlife. The encountered,observed, and/or reported wildlife in the area include: 0 75 species of birds, including 17 Philippine endemics, 4-6 Marinduque endemics, and two migratory species, observed mostly in secondary and in mangrove forests; 0 18 mammals, four of which are Philippine endemics and three are commensal to human habitation. Of these species, 16 were recorded in secondary forests, 10 in agro-forests, and four in mangroves; 18 species of amphibians and reptiles, including five Philippine endemics and six commensal species. Eleven species were recorded in secondary forests, 10 in agro-forests, and six in mangroves.
Among the six amphibians recorded, three were endemic and two were commensal. Among the 12 reptiles, two are Philippine endemics and four are commensal. Moreover, an unknown species of Forest Frog Platymantis sp. may be present in the vicinity of the limestone caves based on the calls. This, however, needs to be further verified. These are new records for the islands as there are no known records for amphibians and reptiles from Marinduque island; 111 species of terrestrial vertebrates, of which 26 are endemic to the Philippines. Six of these vertebrate species, which are endemic only to the Philippines and have a threatened status. Four reported species in the area are now feared as extinct (the warty pig, Sus philippensis; Philippine brown deer, Cervus mariannus; Rufous Hornbill, Buceros hydrocorax; and Southern Luzon giant cloud rat, Phloeomys cumingi).Hydrology The estimated water resources in the area include 2,000,000 millionm3/year of surface waterlstreamflow, 1,600,000 million m3/year ofgroundwater safe yield, 1,873 rnrnlyear of rainfall, and 50,000 m3 ofimpoundment. The areas covered by the project are generally classifiedas difficult areas, that is, areas with groundwater depths that var;considerably, with about 25 percent of developed wells yielding non-productive boreholes. Only part of Botilao, San Isidro, and a very smallpart of Kamandugan have deep well areas.Coastal Resources The whole coastline of Calancan Bay is lined intermittently withmangroves. Thick mangrove patches occupy the innermost portions ofBarangay Kalangkang, Bofilao, and Ipil. Where the mangroves end, seagrassbeds grow, occupying a large area, particularly in coves between Botilaoand Banot Island and the area east of the causeway in front of the thickmangroves of Ipil. From the coastline of Kalangkang to midway of Ipilmay be found an extensive reef structure made up predominantly of sandand silt with patches of small colonies of massive corals, rocks, and rubbles.
No significant coral formations, however, exist on the reef flat. Coralformations are shallow and moderately extensive on the edge, extendingfrom a depth of 2 n~to 8 m, and more than 15 m at the outermost edges.Coral formations west of the causeway occupy half of the northern portionof Hakupan Island and around most of the small islands of Banot. Themajor benthic components comprising the reef include live hard corals,other invertebrate fauna, dead corals, and other abiotic components.Although some algae were observed, algal assemblages were not significantin all sampling stations except at Manulao Shoal and Barangay Kalangkang.Visual fish census revealed nine families of commercially important species,5 species of schooling commercial food fish, and 15 major families in thebay. A total of 82 species distributed among 22 families and 1,846individuals were recorded in all sample stations in the bay.PopulationSocio-demographic Profile The human population of the seven barangays comprises about 11percent of Sta. Cruzs total population of 53,000 (1990 census). Theannual population growth rate in the municipality is low at 0.15 percent,which is reflective of the outmigration patterns prevailing in the province.The socioeconomic survey conducted in the seven barangays showed highliteracy at 96 percent, with the majority of the respondents having finishedelementary school only. More females were able to reach or complete11igI1 school education than males, who are considered to have greaterflexibility in finding jobs even without high educational attainments. Theaverage household size in the area is five. The majority of the respondents is engaged in farming and fishing,which is their primary source of livelihood. Livestock production is alsoa major source of income among households. The average annual householdincome is P28,706, but the majority of households have less than P5,000annual household income from various occupations. Production enterprisesare the common activities (e.g., copra productibn, fish production/harvesting, arrowroot production), with very few individuals engaging inprocessing and/or trading. The suki system is the prevalent marketingarrangement as the regular buyers of the produce also serve as the
households convenient sources of credit. Most farm produce are sold inthe locality. Fish are usually sold to compradors based in the coastalbarangays, who then transport the fish to Lucena City. Gender roles havebeen apparently delineated in various household and livelihood activities,with strenuous and non-household activities generally assigned to men.Women and children, on the other hand, generally take care of householdchores and livelihood activities that are based in the household (e.g.,backyard gardening and backyard livestock production). The majority ofthe respondents were open to diversification and/or expansion of theircurrent enterprises to increase family income.Health Profile Health remains a major issue in the area, particularly after thenPresident Fidel V. Ramos declared Barangays Botilao, Ipil, and Kamanduganas calamity areas for health reasons. The leading causes of mortality andmorbidity show the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases suchas cancer, CVA, hypertension, and cor-pulmonale. On the other hand,colnmunicable diseases such as Kochs pneumonia, diarrhea, and influenzacontinue to be the leading causes of morbidity. The apparent exposure ofthe population to heavy metals, particularly in the seven barangays, hasallegedly caused blood-related health problems in the community. Deathsdue to aplastic anemia, leukemia, and other blood dyscrasias registerednoticeable increases as shown by the records of RHU I and I1 from 1975to 1996.Institutions Several institutions are already working in Calancan Bay, but concertedeffort is needed to consolidate and integrate the various plans toward acommon goal. There is a strong environmental awareness among localcommunities, and this may be harnessed if local institutions could onlylink and harinoniously work together. The threats to the institutionalstability in the area are the institutional conflicts and poor prosecution ofoffenders (e.g., illegal fishers, illegal loggers). These need to be resolvedif only to operationalize the sustainability of a community-basedmanagement approach for Calancan Bay.
............. CONSTRAINTS and OPPORTUNITIES Calancan Bay may be generally characterized as an ecosystem thathas been degraded by mining activities, aggravated by increased economicpressures from its fishery-dependent marginalized population. CalancanBay should therefore address the twin concerns of ecological restorationand economic enhancement. This section discusses the issues that currently impinge on the integrity,rehabilitation, and conservation of Calancan Bays coastal resources. Theseare the very issues that characterize the "troubled waters" of thebay- ecologically, socially, economically, and politically.Resources and Ykchnology Upland areas covered by the seven barangays have been largelydeforested and converted to agriculture, largely coconut-based farming.Small patches of secondary forests were observed, not because of intentionalprotection but mainly due to their inaccessible locations. The major problem besetting the management of the remainingtimberland in Calailcan Bay is the absence of boundaries that set the extent/limit of the timberland as clearly demarcated by the Department ofEnvironment and Natural Resources (DENR) in its land classification map.[Inless clear delineations are set on the ground, the remaining timberlandwill continuously become subject to encroachment or speculation by lotowners adjacent to it. The size of the remaining limestone forest is relatively small,considering the number of people dependent on it for fuelwood and lumbersupply. This is further constrained by the slow rate of growth of trees,owing to their edaphic characteristics, which renders them insufficient to~llcct demands of the Calancan Bay population. The destruction of the thel i~ncstone forest has also affected wild animals (especially monkeys), whichI ~ ; I s also affected agricultural production. Moreover, the insufficiency ofI ~rliherresources (both for fuelwood and construction timber) resulted in
the exploitation of mangrove forests. Interviews with some leaders in lpilrevealed that there is an existing barangay ordinance that allows localresidents to cut trees from the mangrove for house construction. Saidordinance also reportedly requires users to plant the same number of treesthat were cut. The idea appears to be good, but monitoring and evaluationneed to be institutionalized. While it is recognized by the barangays that the mangrove forest servesimportant ecological role in the maintenance of marine resources, threatsto its integrity continue to be present. For instance, recent surveys revealedthat 85 percent of Sta. Cruz households use fuelwood as source of energyfor cooking. Fuelwood consumption per bakery is about 2.5 to4 m3/week, while households consume about 1.5 to 1.75 m3/ week. Dueto lack of good sources of fuelwood, commonly used species include thosethat appear in backyards (e.g., ipil-ipil, guava, madre de cacao, cypress).With the current demand for wood energy, the establishment of fuelwoodplantations for domestic needs is an opportunity that deserves seriousconsideration. Therefore, there is a need for creative management optionsinvolving the DENR, local government units, and the communities toaddress the issue of effective forest conservation and management. The negative consequences of deforestation and indiscriminate logginghave been clearly demonstrated in many studies in the Philippines as wellas elsewhere in the world. These include increased soil erosion, loss ofsoil fertility, reduced water retention and water supply, hastening of globalwarming, and loss of biodiversity. Forests are one of the most diverseecosystems on earth, on which depend the sustenance and survival ofother plants and animals, including man. Thus, the loss of Calancan Baysforest resources would have consequent effects on the integrity, number,and quality of other flora and fauna in the area. Within the seven barangays, there have been several visible incidencesthat can be traced to the reduction in forest cover. One is the decliningfertility of soil as evidenced by low. productivity of cocoimt and othercrops. Another is the encroachment of wild monkeys on farms. Someterrestrial vertebrates and endemics in the area are considered threatenedand face extinction. While the project area was classified as a difficultarea in terms of water resources, deforestation may have had also affectedthe reduced or weakened water supply in deep wells.
Illappropriate crop selection is also one of the major causes of lowproductivity of upland farms in the area. Simply put, crops being growni l l lllc upland farms are not appropriate to the soil, climatic, and hydrologicalconditions of the area. These are further aggravated by poor culturalnanagement practices.I ,owland Environment Similar to the upland scenario, lowland agriculture in the sevenharangays may also be generally characterized by inappropriate cropselection and under-utilization due to lack of adequate irrigation. Thestudies also showed that while 46 percent of farms are owned, 26 percentof farrner-operators are share-tenants. Insecurity of tenure has been foundto be a major disincentive for carrying out farm improvements as tenantsfeel that most of the benefits resulting from such improvements wouldonly accrue to the owners. The lack of irrigation facilities has limited the farmers choice ofagricultural crops. Rice, a staple food, is imported from neighboringprovinces and grown by farmers in the few areas with adequate water.The average farm size of 2.5 ha also constrains farmers from venturinginto potentially high income-generating agricultural production activities. 4Coastal Environment Calancan Bay residents attribute the reduction in fish catch anddegradation of coastal habitats to dumping of mine tailings. The dumpingwhich had resulted in an 84-hectare causeway, had smothered coral reefs,seagrasses, and even mangroves that were directly in the dumping area.Over the years, however, waves and currents directly act on the causeway,resulting in shifting and dissipation of the tailings substrate along a widerarea. For instance, mine tailings were also observed on the lower submergedslopes of Hakupan Island. Sand shifting had also led to the death ofmangroves and other beach tree species planted along the causeway aswell as in adjacent coastal vicinities along the bay. * Presently, Calancan Bay fishers report anaverage catch of 2 kg perday for about nine hours of fishing effort. SEARCA (1997) noted a 48percent decrease in the volume of fish catch and a 42 percent decrease inthe average size of caught fish from 1988 to 1996. This deterioration in - 12
the volume and quality of fish catch may be attributed to several factors-the degradation of habitats, increased fishing effort by local and commercialfishers, illegal fishing, and coastal pollution, among others. Commercialfishers had also been observed to encroach in Calancan Bay, which isentirely part of Sta. Cruzs municipal waters. Illegal activities such asdynamite fishing and use of sodium cyanide to catch aquarium fish hadalso been reported as still prevalent in the area. Decreasing fish catch may also be attributed to mangrove deforestationand conversion into fishponds and settlements. Mangrove trees areincreasingly becoming popular and convenient sources of fuelwood forsale or home consumption, such that clearings are already observed insome parts of the mangrove areas. Unsustainable fishpond practices suchas use of chemicals and abandonment without rehabilitation efforts alsoundermine the ecological functions of the mangroves. The presence of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc in themine tailings raises the possibility of heavy metal contamination of manthrough bio-magnification. While heavy metals in the water are alreadywithin background levels (i.e., can no longer be detected by instrumentsbecause of their low level), sediments still have elevated heavy metalconcentrations. Several fish species were also analyzed to have highconcentrations of cadmium and lead. This is therefore a strong concernfacing Calancan Bay communities, particularly the small fisherfolks whoare very much dependent on the bays fishes for their subsistence andsurvival.Institutions One of the most critical institutional issues that could facilitate theimplementation of a sustainable management plan for Calancan Bay is themandate and scope of the Calancan Bay Rehabilitation Program (CBRP).The Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB) should officially recognize theurgent need for incorporating and addressing socioeconomic rehabilitationconcerns within the mandate of CBRP. Otherwise, CBRP will still beoperating with fettered hands, and conflicts between the Program andother Calancan Bay stakeholders will not be resolved.
The high level of environmental awareness among various entities andconstituents of the bay is a good starting point for launching a concertedeffort for sustainably managing the bay. However, there remains a needfor all local government units, national agencies, nongovernmentorganizations, and peoples organizations to integrate their efforts andcombine resources to address pressing issues. Integral to this is thestrengthening of local capability to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluateresearch, management, and development programs. Among local communities, there is an apparent aversion to cooperativeformation due to community members negative experiences with failedcooperatives. The socioeconomic and institutional studies showed that inthe past, cooperative formation was generally fund-driven and imposedon the people, rather than based on their genuine needs and capacities.PopulationSocioeconomic environment Farming and fishing are the major sources of livelihood among theseven barangays covered by the project. Both, however, are in a criticalstate, with agricultural yield and fish catch on steady precipitous decline.The lack of supplemental livelihood options constrains households to stickto already non-productive or non-profitable livelihood activities. On theother hand, the stigma of failure experiences in cooperatives have ledcommunities to prefer household-based rather than cooperative-basedlivelihood enterprises. There have been several identified factors that contributed to the poorperformance of cooperatives and other similar organizations in the area.fliese include: 1) the donor- or fund-driven formula for establishment; 2) insufficient time for community organizing, thereby not allowing enoughIjrcparatory activities to inculcate group values and shared responsibilities;3 ) inadequacy of follow-up and monitoring activities; 4) weak leadershipcoliipounded by uncooperative members; and 5) premature turnover of~~csponsibilities the cooperativelorganization. Credit cooperatives have to:~lso heen largely unsuccessful because of poor loan repayment rates,; ~ t ~ r i l ~ tto cthe dole-out mentality of the people, the absence of checks c l; I I I ~Ix~lnnccs,and i~lcllectiveinstitutionalization and implementation ofI ) U I : I I ~ ics ; I I I ~ I ~ ~ ~;~nclregulations. l c s 14
The lack of effective marketing system for Calancan 13ay products isalso one of the main reasons for the continued dependence of thecommunities on marginal farm production and fish harvesting. Newlivelihood opportunities had been introduced to the communities in thepast, but market linkages and support services were not provided. Afterproduction, communities did not know where or how to dispose of theirproduce. Identifying livelihood technologies that are appropriate to thearea and effectively linking them with the market is a major concern thatshould be integrally addressed by IiveIihood development training programsand advocates. Lack of gender concerns is also evident, particularly in trainingactivities and/or skills enhancement programs for which male householdheads are automatically tapped. Schedules and timing of training activitiesalso do not consider the constraints faced by the trainees, particularlywomen.Health Environment The declaration of Barangays Ipil, Botilao, and Kamandugan as calamityareas for health reason brings to the fore the critical nature of the healthissues in Calancan Bay. A study by the Department of Health (DOH)indicated an elevated blood mercury level among purposively selectedschool children in said barangays. The issue now is to assess the possiblecontamination within the entire population of Sta. Cruz, possibly throughrandom sampling. While this may be a costly undertaking, it is necessaryto determine the seriousness and range of contamination. The daily dependence of Calancan Bay communities on local fishesfor food also poses health risks through bio-magnification of the heavymetals. Some fish species have been analyzed to contain little traces ofheavy metals. Information and education campaigns with regard tominimizing exposure to heavy metals in food items may lower the healthrisks of local communities.
. INTEGRATION OF ISSUES, CONSTRAINTS, and OPPORTUNITIESISTRAIEGIES The persistent problem of low income among Calancan Bay residentsis therefore a consequence of complex and interacting natural and man-made pressures, as shown in the problem network (Fig. 4). Man-inducedforces are more numerous and varied as compared to natural pressuressuch as difficult water and rocky soil conditions. In general, the resources and habitats in the area have been badlydegraded owing to three major causes: deforestation, poor and destructivefarming practices in the uplands, and the coastal dumping of mine tailings.The first two may have been a consequence of desperation among localresidents to provide for household subsistence, but the latter is a result ofindustrial activities that failed to consider potential environmental impacts.Population and economic pressures continued to aggravate the situation asmarginalized farmers and fishers continued to explore the remaining forestsfor fuelwood, timber and construction materials. On the other hand,fisheries continued to deteriorate due to illegal fishing (e.g., use ofdynamites, sodium cyanides). The increasing population consequentlyresulted in increased harvesting effort both upland and coastal resources.The mangroves have also not been spared too. Clear-cutting of stands forcharcoal production have been observed as well as reported by communityresidents. The degradation of the areas forest resources is indicated by thereported monkey infestation of farms adjoining the remaining forest patches.Being territorial entities, monkeys would only leave their territory whentheir natural food sources have been badly depleted. Hence, their attackson coconut farms and fruit trees directly imply that their natural habitatshave been badly degraded and that they may already be facing starvation.The El Niiio phenomenon aggravates this problem. Faced with these problems, local communities find very few alternativesdue to apparent lack of technical assistance from national and localgovernment agencies. The presence of CBRP, which has the potential tobring competent technical, logistical, and facilitative human and capitalresources to the area, has not been fully exploited. Hence, the peoplecontinue to be heavily dependent on traditional farming practices thatdegrade the resources,with low productivity, and low profitability. As a
colnlnon resource, Calancan Bay continued to be subjected to intenseIidiing activities, both legal and illegal, such that in 1996, the quantity;~nd quality of fish catch have severely declined by 48 percent and 42pcrpcent, respectively in only eight years. Poor market information and~llarket channels further contribute to the disadvantaged situation of localproducers. On the other hand, the few livelihood training activitiesconducted in the area have largely been unsuccessful, as the trainingprograms missed a critical component of enterprise development, that ismarket information and linkages. There was also an apparent oversightwith regard to the role of women in livelihood activities, as often only meninvited to participate in training activities, or, if women were invited, theschedules did not consider the womens own household functions andschedules. Inadequate law enforcement has encouraged the proliferation ofactivities such as illegal fishing, mangrove clearing, illegal logging, andthe like. Commercial fishers have been observed to encroach regularly onlilunicipal waters without being apprehended. Likewise, dynamite fishingand the use of sodium cyanide have been reported as regular practices inthe bay. Without effective control measures, these illegal activities willundermine any rehabilitation andlor management efforts in the bay. Local institutions such as the local government units (i.e., provincial,municipal, barangay), peoples organizations, national government agencies,and academic institutions based in the area have been found to need furthertechnical training and skills enhancement to make them effective partnersin sustainable resource management. Institutional inadequacies have beenevaluated in terms of number of personnel, technical knowledge, andlogistical support (e.g., equipment, materials, funds). Within thecommunities, there is also an aversion to cooperative formation as channelsfor livelihood introduction and community development due to the stigmabrought about by failed cooperatives in the area. Infrastructure is generally inadequate, which also limits the productiveand income potential in the area. Water supply is very limited, particularlyduring summer months, and electricity has still to reach five of the sevenbarangays covered by the project. The barangay road networks are generallyof limestone and/or gravel type, with limited public transportation. Moderncomnlunications networks are virtually non-existent.
This network ot problems therefore poses a I>igchallcngc to Ihc localgovernment units, communities, and all stakeholders of Calancan Bay. Inthe past, institutional conflicts and lack of adequate conmunication betweenand among involved parties have further contributed to existing problems,instead of resolving them. While the past events have indeed brought aboutmany of the existing issues, efforts now must be directed at pro-active,concerted action among all sectors to address these concerns. By lookingforward instead of dwelling on the past, efforts will be better guided, andpotential benefits may actually be realized, enjoyed and shared by all sectors.Figure 5 presents the summary of interrelationships between population,resource, institution, and technology issues and how they were addressedbased on project findings, and technical knowledge, and experiences ofthe SEARCA team.Ripples of Hope Over Troubled Waters:The Integrated Area Management Plan forCalancan Bay In facilitating the development of the plan, SEARCA espoused theconcept of community-based resource management, a highly participatoryresource planning and management approach anchored on a humanecological perspective. In order to address the biophysical, socioeconomic,and politico-administrative issues, a multidisciplinary team composed ofexperts in environmental planning, agriculture, forestry, aquaticlfishery,socioeconomic (gender and agro-industry/livelihood), hydrology,institution/policy, wildlife, health, and eco-tourism was formed. Themanagement plan covers the seven barangays (Botilao, Dating Bayan, Ipil,Kamandugan, Kalangkang, Kasily, and San Isidro) of Sta. Cruz,Marinduque which were identified as heavily affected by the mine tailingsdumping. IAMP envisions Calancan Bay as a coastal environment characterizedby ecological soundness, improved economic well being, and an activecommunity and local government involved in sustainable developmentefforts. The main goal of IAMP for Calancan Bay con~munities, therefore,is to provide a framework that will be used as guide for decision- andpolicymakers, particularly the local government units, to improve the qualityof life through con~munity-based,sustainable resource managementstrategies.
Eco-tourism cum enterprise development is identified us the ovemllstrategy for the sustainable utilization and management of CalancanBay. This scheme has been identified for the following reasons: 1) CalancanBay has natural attractions that should be preserved while, at the sametime, provide economic returns; and 2) dependence on Calancan Bayfisheries for food and subsistence may continue to pose health risks tolocal communities because of the possible bio-magnification effects ofheavy metals. The rationale, therefore, is to provide supplemental livelihoodactivities, that is, livelihood options that will not totally withdraw localcommunities from fishery activities, but provide additional income forfood and other household needs. It is hoped that this exposure to otherlivelihood activities will provide the motivation for communities to decideon their own, decide to shift occupations and engage in other profitableand sustainable livelihood activities. The baseline environmental profiling activities in Calancan Bay revealedthe existence of natural habitats and attractions that have high potentialsfor eco-tourism development. Some of these attractions are, in fact, alreadypopular and regularly receive local and foreign tourists. Ironically, thisunregulated tourism is, at present, endangering the integrity of theseattractions. Yearly, the large number of visitors force the natural inhabitants(e,g., pythons) of Bathala Caves to abandon their habitats during someparts of the year. Waste disposal, vandalism, and damage to naturalstructures are also quite common. This is very unfortunate, consideringthe ecological value and economic potential that can be derived from theestablislunent of sustairiable management mechanisms for these attractions. Figure 6 locates the areas that have eco-tour potentials within CalancanBay. These are the natural sites that should be preserved and managedand, at the same time provide income support to the local governmentunits and to the communities. With proper management, these eco-tourareas and activities are expected to be financially sustainable such that itsfuture projects and activities will be financed out of its own earnings. Complementing these projects are other livelihood and human resourcedevelopment activities that aim to empower local communities andgoverning bodies, and improve their quality of life. Institutionalarrangements and structures must also be established to implement andfacilitate the plan. In particular, linkages and networking between and
among relevant government agencies, nongovernment organizations,peoples organizations, and the businesslprivate sector, are critical in theattainment of the goals of this plan.Eco-tour Areas and Projects The mine tailings causeway has the potential to address the three-foldobjective of eco-tourism: 1) its fine, sandy, shoreline substrate allowsswimming and other recreational beach activities; 2) it provides a stagingor launching point for water sports activities that are appropriate for thebays calm waters; and 3) it is an educational site, a natural laboratory bywhich the impact of industrial activities on the natural environment andmans effort to rehabilitate a degraded ecosystem are very much evident.The causeway, however, is not meant to have permanent structures, basedon the observed constant modifications on its landscape, particularly atthe seaward end which is exposed to wave and wind action. It is thereforerecommended that only temporary structures be constructed in thecauseway. CBRPs causeway rehabilitation projects showed that some tree speciescould survive and proliferate in mine tailings substrate. Opening thecauseway at this point for agriculture, as proposed by some LGU officials,does not seem feasible, owing to the substrate type (i.e., mine tailings)which is predominantly sandy in composition. Furthermore, wave actionhas caused extensive erosion/slumping of the causeway, thus narrowingsome sections that might ultimately create a partition along the causeway. Beach activities and water sports seem to be viable activities inCalancan Bay. Since the CBRP began its rehabilitation efforts, "natural"swimming areas have evolved within the causeway, these are areas wherelocal residents of Sta. Cruz have picnics, swim, and even camp out, onweekends. During summer months particularly during the Lenten season,the causeway has become a very popular beach area. These swimmingareas may be further enhanced through the construction of huts and cottages,which could be rented by tourists at a minimal fee. The wide beach area ofthe causeway may also scrvc as venue for sports activities such as beachvolleyball.
Ilic clear and calm waters of Calancan Bay also offer potentials forv;~lcr sporls such as snorkeling, diving, kayaking, and jet-skiing, amongo~liers.lhe resource and ecological assessment conducted in the bayrcvc:~lcdseveral areas that are good spots for snorkeling and scuba divingI u a u s e of their extensive coral reef and the presence of a variety of fishywcies. The causeway can serve as launching area for these activities.Mooring stations/posts for boats must be established along the designatedxiiorkeling/diving spots to avoid dropping anchors and prevent damage torllc reef. The bay has also scientific and educational value for students. Bathala Caves, Busay Falls, and mangrove forests of the bay can;~lso incorporated in the Calancan Bay eco-tourism package. be Bathala Caves is a network of seven caves in which only four caveshave been explored, one of which features an underground river. Firmguidelines must be established to ensure that tourists going in the caveswill not disturb the natural fauna and flora in the area, particularly thepythons, bats, and birds that inhabit the caves. Presently, some parts ofthe caves have already lost their natural beauty and inhabitants due tounregulated human intrusion, vandalism, graffiti on cave walls, scatteredwastes, and limestone quarrying. The Bathala Caves are privately-owned,and the owners have expressed interest in including them within anintegrated eco-tour program encompassing the entire bay. As a first step,therefore, a rapid cave resource assessment (CRA) will have to beconducted, consistent with the provisions of Department of Environmentand Natural Resources (DENR) Administrative Order (DAO) 94-04, whichestablished and provided the guidelines for a national Cave Managementand Conservation Program (CMCP). The objectives of the CRA will beto inventory, classify, and document in general terms the biologic, geologic,hydrologic, paleontological, archaeological, and historic resourcesassociated with individual caves. While SEARCA had conducted someinitial assessments of the cave, this was limited to a cursory assessment ofthe faunal and geologic characteristics of four caves. Results of the CRAwill be the basis for establishing guidelines for cave tours. To give the tourists a glimpse and understanding of the ecologicalfunctions of mangroves and the biodiversity it harbors, board or canopywalks may be constructed along the mangrove forests of the bay. Theboard walks will feature the various mangrove species, the faunal inhabitants,
the clamaged poslioils ollhc hsest, and Lllc areas that li:~vcIxxn rcllal~ilil;~lctlthrough comniunily reforestation efforts. The extensive mangrove li~seslsof Barangay Kalangkang and Kamandugan will be the sites of theboardwalks. Busay Falls, on the other hand, is famous for its clear water cascadingthrough-large boulders smoothened by water action. A favorite picnic area,the Busay Falls, however, has been slowly losing its natural grandeur,intermittently drying during the summer season, owing to the rapiddeforestation of the watershed. A critical source of drinking water of thecommunity, the Busay Falls also serves as laundry area and source ofirrigation water. With proper education and community action, restoringthe functions and beauty of the Busay Falls will not be a difficult objective. These proposed eco-tour sites should be packaged in an integratedmanner, such that tours will be conducted in an orderly, regulated, andcoordinated way. Marinduque still boasts of other tourist attractions suchas the Elephant Island, the Boac beaches, and the world famous MorionesFestival which is staged annually during the Lenten season. As the Morionesis held in all five towns of Marinduque, it is also during this time whenBathala Caves and Calancan Bays beaches are deluged by visitors. Theeco-tour package of Calancan Bay must therefore also be integrated withthe other attractions in Marinduque. The local government units ofSta. Cruz should work with the Department of Tourism (DOT) toward thisend. Along this eco-tourism strategy is a waste rnanagerrierlt program forthe bay. This program will be developed to properly address the wasteproblem that may arise as a result of the influx of tourists as well as theconstruction and operation of the different facilities of the eco-tourismprojects. Project personnel and community members will be givenappropriate training in the different aspects of waste management includingminimization, recyclingireuse, and alternative disposal mechanisms. For wastewater that will be generated from eco-tour facilities, especiallynear the bay, water-tight septic vaults should be provided for each facility,and discharge of wastewater into the bay will not be allowed. Wastewaterfrom the septic vaults will be withdrawn by a local service utility forproper disposal. If there is no local utility that can provide such service, a
wwtcwaler treatinent facility will have to be established to further treat thewastewater from the vaults until such are safe for land application or reuse./Lstablishment of a Wildlife Sanctuary The remaining patches of forests in Brgy. Dating Bayan, with an areaof 124.69 ha, are the remaining refuge of monkeys, birds, snakes, andother wildlife of Calancan Bay, many of which have been found to beendemic in the area. Preserving these faunal diversity necessitates theprotection of the remaining forest stands in the area to prevent the occurrenceof incidences such as monkey attacks on crops as well as to improve thewater supply in the area. A wildlife sanctuary implies that its covered area will have to be freefrom any extractive human activities. Therefore, no logging, fuelwoodgathering, harvesting, agriculture, and the like will be allowed in thesanctuary. Nature appreciation trips may be allowed as part of the overalleco-tourism program for Calancan Bay.Coastal Resources Management (CRM) Projects The resources of Calancan Bay are seriously threatened by illegalfishing activities, siltation, fishing pressure, and habitat destruction, amongothers. The rehabilitation strategies conducted under CBRP have shownthat the activities were generally successful in reviving biological growthand production in the near-shore areas. Hopefully, sustained support tothis recovery process will lead to biological succession and ultimately to aclimax community. Since some communities were already on their way torecovery (e.g., seagrass beds), there is still a need to further enhancecoral growth through the provision of stable substrates (SEARCA 1996).This highlights the importance of the availability of suitable areas for larvalattachment and eventual colonization. Inherent in the assumption is thenotion that the larvae are present. Monitoring of the impact of rehabilitationstrategies will be done as well as some studies that will complement therehabilitation. The provision of artificial reefs (ARs), are necessary for attachmentof coral planulae (larvae). These ARs must be deployed in suitable locationswithin Calancan Bay considering that the near-shore community has beenburied under mine tailings, the loose materials are not suitable for larval 26
altacliment and colonization. Ilowcver, approprialc inslilutionalarrangements must be established to ensure that ARs do not serve as mcrcfish aggregating devices. There were potential sites in the bay identified for the establishmentof fish sanctuaries. These identified sites were characterized as high inspecies richness and high in abundance of both fish and coral species. Fish sanctuaries are areas in a marine environment that is protectedfrom any form of exploitation, particularly fishing. The objective ofestablishing fish sanctuaries is to maintain sufficient gene pool reserves offish and other marine organisms in the area. These areas will provide arefuge for fish to spawn and mature. The maintenance of a critical spawningstock biomass of fish and other organisms is necessary to ensure constantsupply of larval recruits that will seed adjacent fished areas within the bay.In addition, these areas can serve educational purposes as well asrecreational activities. Within the marine sanctuary, the local government units and thecommunity may decide the forms of management that they would like toinstitute to ensure the sustainable utilization of the bays coastal resources.The sanctuaries will be free from extractive activities, but non-extractiveactivities such as snorkeling and diving may be allowed. Zones may bedelineated for various educational and eco-tourism activities. Unless strong institutional and community support is provided, a marinesanctuary will not be successful. Wjthin the communities, there must bea clear understanding of the objectives, the needs for, and benefits fromthe establishment of such marine sanctuaries. The initial stages inestablishing marine sanctuaries will be demanding and difficult because itwill require high profile monitoring and wide information awarenesscampaigns, and often conflict with other sectors of the community.However, experience from other areas have shown that communities havebecome used to the idea of a sanctuary after a while, and begin to betterappreciate its value once fishery benefits (e.g., increased harvest) havebeen observed. Support activities such as monitoring and research were proposed tobe conducted. To assess the impacts of the rehabilitation effort, artificialsubstrates, fish sanctuary, and permanent observation sites in natural reefs; 27
Iish landing; and heavy metal levels in fishes and the sediment will have toIlc conducted. The results will be used to strengthen or modify thep~wcribed CRMP activities. Through research, rehabilitation of Calancan Bay will be enhanced. It1 necessary to better understand key biological, ecological, and fishery sdynamics of the various marine resources in the area. Initially, life historycharacteristics (e.g. sexual patterns, spawning season and behavior, age;~nd size at first sexual maturity, age structures) of important reef fishspecies must be determined. If we are to develop an industry that is basedo n the exploitation of this fishery resources, it is imperative that these keyaspects are better understood.Water Resources Development Projects Water resources development has been identified as a critical need inthe area, where water supply even for domestic uses alone is very limited.The major water resources projects that are proposed for the area includewell and spring developnlent as well as water impoundment. Well andspring development will include storage tank construction and pipeinstallation. The water impoundment projects will be concentrated on theexisting creeks of each barangay. Impoundments are expected to serve asadditional source of water for other domestic and agricultural needs aswell as for enhancement of the groundwater recharge.Livelihood Activities SEARCAs studies showed that the majority of households in the sevenbarangays are heavily dependent on fishing and farming for their food andlivelihood. The degradation of Calancan Bays resources and natural habitatshad therefore further increased the level of desperation among CalancanBay communities, as fish catch has declined to about 2 kglday, andagricultural production that is mostly based on coconut became seriouslyconstrained by non-productive trees or poor soil. The presence of heavynietals in sediments near the causeway also poses the risk of contaminatioqthrough bio-magnification. The livelihood activities proposed in this plan are the result ofconsultations with local communities and the validation activities conducted
by the SEAKCA team. It must be noted that these livelihood enlerpsiscsare perceived to be "supplemental, " rather than "alternative, " to thccommunities existing livelihoods. This is to address the concern of somelocal fisherfolks who perceive the term "alternative livelihoods" negativelyas taking small fishers off from fishing and relinquishing the entire fisheryresources to commercial fishers. The identification of livelihood activities was conducted in a mannerwhich allowed barangay representatives to pre-identify their desiredlivelihood options. During the consultation, each barangay was asked toidentify the following: 1) the strategies and projects which from theirperception will be applicable andlor desirable in their area; 2) the locationof these strategies and/or projects within the barangay; 3) the area thatwill be covered, where possible; 4) the relevant institutions/organizationsthat will be involved; and 5) the implementation schedule, which denotesthe level of priority of the various projects. SEARCA project team members who were present during consultationmeetings provided technical assistance to the different barangaydgroups.This process resulted to the identification of livelihood projects for theseven barangays, which were classified in terms of availability in thebarangays, level of impact (i.e., market potential, technical/resourcematching/suitability, current and potential volume) and level ofintervention required (i.e., high, medium, or low). Intervention refersto technology adoption, training, and marketing support as provided byboth local government and private sector initiatives. For the level of intervention, a low rating implies a need for minorintervention to improve existing livelihood; medium implies that existingor introductory enterprises need moderate intervention; and high if existingenterprises need major intervention or if introduction of such requiresmoderate intervention. This analytical screening process enabled theidentification of major projects preferred by the majority of the barangays.These are coconut oil processing, banana marketing, aquarium fishmarketing, nursery, tamarind candy processing, and arrowroot productionand processing.
Conclusions In support of the passion of the community to sail through troubledwaters, SEARCA conducted a comprehensive research of the affectedcommunities of Calancan Bay and developed an Integrated AreaManagement Plan (IAMP) for the bay. Despite the presence of mine tailings,the ecological and economic potential of the area was identified to providethe spark to enliven the peoples dreams of having a coastal environmentcharacterized by ecological soundness, improved economic well-being,and an active community and local government in sustainable developmentefforts. A number of lessons may be drawn from the Calancan Bay experiencefor the benefit of the scientific community, policymakers and/or planners,the local community, and other similar integrated coastal resourcemanagement efforts. Using the human ecological perspective, the followingare worth looking into: 8 Evaluate and empower the community. Planning for any particular resource must always consider the actors and sectors that will influence the status and health of the resource. Efforts must be directed in identifying individuals and/or groups who are willing to take the lead in protecting their resource. With the CBRM approach that SEARCA has adopted in resource planning and management for Calancan Bay, the people were given the chance to take the lead role in designing the management plan. This approach implies long- term and genuine commitment among stakeholders in protecting their resource as indicated in the plan. But commitment does not solely answer the sustainable management of the bay, the people must be empowered and acquire the necessary skills and knowledge in promoting sustainable management of the bay. 8 Manage the resources sustainably. The IAMP for Calancan Bay aims to provide a framework that will be used as guide for decision- and policymakers, particularly the local government units, to improve the quality of life through community-based, sustainable resource management strategies. In designing the plan, the potential and limitations of the Calancan Bay resource were identified to determine the optimum benefits that can be acquired from its limited natural
base, and at the salne time, minimizing resource and environmentnl degradation by regulating the use of its resources over time. Resolving the issue of jurisdiction/ownership and responsibility over the resources is a pre-condition for effective resource management. This is particularly significant with respect to the development and management of the causeway. Due to budget limitations in the development of an IAMP for Calancan Bay, only the affected barangays of the mine tailings dumping were included in the plan. It is therefore suggested that a management plan for all the communities of Calancan Bay be developed in order to gain bay-wide commitment in protecting and enhancing the bays resources. This opens windows for more research and collaboration between and among the local government units (LGUs) of Marinduque and research institutions in incorporating all the Calancan Bay communities in the plan, and in improving the planning strategies identified for the affected communities as well. Re-engineer institutions for effective governance. Local institutions such as the local government units (i.e., provincial, municipal, barangay), peoples organizations, national government agencies, and academic institutions based in the project area have been found to need further technical training and skills enhancement to make them effective partners in sustainable resource management. Institutional inadequacies have been evaluated in terms of number of personnel, technical knowledge, and logistical support (e.g., equipment, materials, funds). Within the communities, there is also an aversion to cooperative formation as channels for livelihood introduction and community development due to the stigma brought about by failed cooperatives in the area. Innovate and apply appropriate technology. There have been various technologies identified in the IAMP for livelihood purposes and for the rehabilitation and protection of Calancan Bay. However, technological applications must be accompanied by appropriate regulations to ensure that the integrity of the bay and its resources are maintained. Amid the constraints and difficulties, such as resource degradation,low fish catch, lack of supplemental sources of income, and unsuccessful 31
livcliliood ventures, there remain ripples of hope for the sustainable~ii;~liagementCalancan Bay. The IAMP that evolved through active efforts of01 the community and other stakeholders indicate tremendous opportunities;IIKI challenges. Transforming ripples of hopes into waves of collectivextions requires no less than the commitment of various sectors. A coastal~~nvironment characterized by ecological soundness, improved economicwcll-being, and an active commullity and local governments involved insr~stainable development efforts is attainable. This publication is a modest;I 11d small "ripple" toward this end.References( h a , T.E. and L.F. Scura (eds). 1992. Integrative Framework and Methods for Coastal Area Management. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 37.I ;ood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1997. Report of the Workshop on Population Characteristics and Change in Coastal Fishing Communities. Madras, India.Ikllizar, F.P., Jr. 1993. Community-Based Resource Management: Perspective, Experiences, and Policy Issues. ERMP, IESAM, UPLB.Ihilippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD). Undated. Philippine Agenda 21: A National Agenda for Sustainable Development.SEAMEO SEARCA and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) . 1998. Integrated Area Management Plan for Calancan Bay. SEARCA, College, Laguna.SEAMEO SEARCA and DENR. 1998. Environmental Profile of Calancan Bay. SEARCA, College, Laguna.
PRODUCTION STAFFProduction Coordinator: Leah Lyn D. DomingoLayout Staff: Ayrin D. Cosico Nicasio Q. lmatongAdviser: Dr. Dioko Suprapto