Resources Analysis - Province of Palawan, Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies on the Environment
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Resources Analysis - Province of Palawan, Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies on the Environment

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IMAPE Project
Philippines

Impacts of Macroeconomic
Adjustment Policies on the
Environment Project

IMAPE Research Paper No. 08
Resources Analysis, Province of Palawan

Provincial Planning and Development Office
Province of Palawan
October 2001

This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.

IMAPE Project. Policy and Development Foundation, Inc.
Unit 7B Vernida I Condominium, 120 Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village, Makati City, Metro Manila Philippines

Telephone: (632) 813-6178/79 Fax: (632) 813-6179
Email: mimap@pacific.net.ph

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Resources Analysis - Province of Palawan, Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies on the Environment Resources Analysis - Province of Palawan, Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies on the Environment Document Transcript

  • IMAPE Projec E ct Phili ippines Impa of M acts Macroec conomicc Adju ustment Policies on the s Environm E ment Prooject IMAAPE Reseaarch Paper No. 08 r Resource Analysis Province of Palaw es s, wan Provinncial Planning and Developm Office ment Provinc of Palawan ce Octoober 2001 This work was carried out with th aid of a gra from the In w he ant nternational Develop pment Researc Centre, Ott ch tawa, Canada. IMAPE Proje Policy and Developmen Foundation Inc. ect. d nt n,Unit 7B Vern I Condom nida minium, 120 A Amorsolo Stre Legaspi Vi eet, Village, Makati City, Metro Ma anila Philippines Telephon (632) 813-6 ne: 6178/79 Fax: (632) 813-617 79 Email: mima ap@pacific.ne et.ph
  • IMAPE Project Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies on the Philippines Environment ProjectIMAPE Research Paper No. 08Resources Analysis, Province of PalawanProvincial Planning and Development OfficeProvince of PalawanOctober 2001This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the InternationalDevelopment Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.IMAPE Project. Policy and Development Foundation, Inc.Unit 7B Vernida I Condominium, 120 Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village, Makati City,Metro Manila PhilippinesTelephone: (632) 813-6178/79 Fax: (632) 813-6179Email: mimap@pacific.net.ph
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisResources Analysis, Province of Palawan - Project Concept - Final Documentation, Oct. 2001 Prepared by: Provincial Planning & Development Offie (PPDO) Geographic Information System (GIS) Unit Provincial Capitol Puerto Princesa City Palawan Province of Palawan 1
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisResources Analysis, Province of PalawanList of ContentsIntroduction 3Objectives and Principles of the Resources Analysis 5Data Sources 7Implementation and Project Activities 17Project Partners and Cooperation 18Limitations of the study 19List of TablesTable 1: Environmentally Critical Area Network (ECAN) 9Table 2: Existing land uses by type and definition 13List of MapsMap 1: Environmentally critical Area Network (ECAN) 10Map 3: Palawan Land Management Units 12Map 3: Palawan Existing Land Uses (1988, based on LMU) 14Map 4: Existing Infrastructre 16 Province of Palawan 2
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Resources Analysis, Province of Palawan - Project Concept - Introduction Palawan: The Province of Palawan is reportedly rich in land and marinea province rich in land and resources. About 25% of the total land area or roughly 375,000 has marine are potentially suitable for agricultural and livestock production, resources ranging from irrigated rice land to upland farming and agroforestry1. The remaining or potential forest areas (together about 1,100,000 has) are a valuable source for minor forest products and, where it is permitted by the Environmentally Critical Area Network (ECAN), controlled logging and forestation2. The estimated provincial water bodies of around 49,408 sq. km provide a wealth of marine resources3. Fishing and exploitation of marine products has become of increasing importance for household livelihood. The value of fish production doubled between 1993 and 19984. In the year 2000, around 21.38% of all employed persons (a total number of around 42,131) reported fishing as their major livelihood activity. With an average family size of 4.98 persons, this amounts to 210,655 out of the total 755,412 people depending on fishing as main source of income5. Poverty However, socio-economic data on the development situation of incidence households and communities in Palawan indicates that resource and economic availability and utilization so far did not translate into a significantlyperformance increasing economic welfare of the population6. In the year 2000, only about 30,73% of the 150,983 households in Palawan had an income higher than the poverty line defined by the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). This means that a total number of 104,586 households in the Province did not have sufficient financial 1 Based on the Protected Areas for Agriculture (NPAA/NAAD) map, BSWD, 1988 2 The ECAN permits the latter activities in the controlled buffer zone and the traditional use zone 3 figure taken from the Provincial Development Plan 2001 - 2005 4 Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), figure taken from the Provincial Development Plan 2001 - 2005, Value in 1993 = 1,636,054, Value in 1998 = 3,058,878 (in 1,000 pesos) 5 Demographic data based on NSO Census 2000 Province of Palawan 3
  • Project concept Resources Analysis resources to satisfy all their basic needs. The high poverty incidence can be explained by looking at employment figures. With 80.43% of all persons aged 15 - 64 in gainful work, the employment rate in the year 2000 was below the national average of 86.10%. But even more significant is the fact that 64.19% of the employed persons reported to be underemployed, which means that their work did not give them sufficient income to support their families. Employment About 62.60% of the labor force population is employed in the primary distribution sectors agriculture, fishery and forestry while it is only 8.85% in theby sectors and Municipalities industry sector and 28.03% in the trade sector. It is noted that those Municipalities with the highest proportion of employment in the primary sector are also among those with the highest poverty incidence. Examples are Linapacan, Cagayancillo and Rizal. On the opposite, the Municipalities with higher proportion of employed persons in industry and trade sectors (like Aborlan, Magsaysay and Cuyo) do better in terms of household income (refer to annex 1 for comparison by municipality). Low The summary above points out that the utilization of resource isproductivity in the primary characterized by low productivity with only marginal benefits to farmers sectors and fishermen. This situation is commonly associated with a lack of infrastructure, poor market linkages, low technology and skills levels and absence of investment capital. Increase in The Provincial Government of Palawan has given attention to this productivity problem. On the assumption that employment in the primary sector will and income generation continue to be the main source of livelihood, the Governor has prioritized poverty alleviation through increased productivity and the promotion of income generating industries as the major converns of the current administration7. The creation of Special Development areas (SDA) is expected to bring employment opportunities in 6 information below is taken from the draft Human Development Report for Palawan, PPDO 2001 7 ‘State-of-the-Province Address’ delivered by Hon. Joel T. Reyes on July 1, 2001 Province of Palawan 4
  • Project concept Resources Analysis resource-based industries8. Part of this effort will be the identification of growth clusters for five major development sectors (Fisheries, Livestock, Crops, Agroforestry and Tourism) and the designation and promotion of resource based industrial developments. This strategy gives attention to enhance production and at the same time to develop the viable schemes for the processing of resources. Objectives and Principles of the Resources Analysis Identification of The project on resources analysis is designed to assist in the locations for generation of data for potential locations, areas and production levelsresource-based development for those resources, that will justify investments for the establishment of resource based industries. The study is also conceptualized to assist in the decision making for the selection of growth clusters. Marketing of It is intended to provide documentation on the promotion and resources marketing of resource-based industrial development. Framework for The analysis is also an instrument to control and direct land uses and environmental to plan management intervention. If conducted on a regular basis, it monitoring can be vital source to monitor land use changes. In summary, the study consists of three main steps: Analytical • Delineation of potential suitable locations for the development of steps different resources (land and marine uses) • Identification of development opportunity areas, where different resource / land uses can be developed and intensified in a sustainable manner • Comparison of different locations for development in terms of the existing frame conditions based on a set criteria pertaining to socio-economic parameters, infrastructure and utilities, farm technologies and others 8 The following information is taken from the Terms of Reference on the Preliminary Study on Growth Area Master Planning, PPDO, undated Province of Palawan 5
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Step 1: The suitability analysis is done by cartographic overlay of potential and Suitability analysis existing land uses, aided by Geographic Information (GIS) technology. The land resources or land uses that will be examined are rice, cultivated annual crops, trees and vines, pasture and grazing, agroforestry/ forest plantation and extraction of minor forest products. Information will be provided on following aspects: • The suitable geographic location for resource developed • The size of the land area • The potential volume and value, based on current production levels The following criteria have been selected for suitability analysis9 1. Slope 2. Ersoion hazard 3. Hydrological properties 4. Soil: Alluvium 5. Elevation 6. Presence of protected, endangered ecosystems and species Step 2: The analysis of the different land uses further compares the potentialSustainability land suitability with the existing land uses. The guiding principle in this analysis analytical step is that of sustainability. Any particular resource or land use is only recommended in those locations, where its requirements will satisfy the geo-physical characteristics of the land, without causing deterioration. The analysis will provide information on: • The area and location, where a current land use is in conflict with the suitability criteria and where land is being overused (unsustainable). This information is useful in preparation of management interventions (such as measures to prevent soil erosion) 9 Based on a joint assessment with GIS section of PCSDS/PTFPP on July 16, 2001 Province of Palawan 6
  • Project concept Resources Analysis • The area and location, where the intensity of current land use is below the suitability level. This land is a potential development opportunity • The area and location where the current land use are meeting the suitability criteria (sustainable use of land) Step 3: The identified sustainable areas for the different land uses / resourcesComparisonof identified are clustered and then linked to additional information such as the locations presence of infrastructure (road density, power and water availability), socio-economic indicators (employment patterns, educational levels etc), the presence of technology ( post harvest facilities, farm and fishing technologies, agricultural extension) and accessibility of markets. This will allow a comparison of different clusters in terms of the frame conditions for their development and the required intervention levels, such as the provision of addition infrastructure, skills development etc.) Data Sources The study uses a set of spatial data, each of them imposing conditions or restriction on the potential and existing land use. They are: • Environmentally Critical Area Network, PCSDS • Land Management Units, BSWD/LREP, 1988 • Existing Land Use (Municipal and Provincial Governments) • Climatic maps • Biodiversity data • Infrastructure and utilities • Socio-economic parameters Province of Palawan 7
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisExample: Identification of areas for irrigated rice cultivationStep 1: Suitability analysisData sources:• LMU, ECAN, Biodiversity dataCriteria:1. Slope: Nearly level to gently sloping, 0-3%, up to 8% if terraced2. Ersoion hazard: no to slight erosion3. Hydrological properties: poorly to moderately drained4. Soil: Alluvium, collu-alluvium (clay, loam)5. Elevation: below 100 m6. Absence of protected, endangered ecosystems and speciesOutput:• Map showing the locations which are suitable for the cultivation of irrigated riceStep 2: Sustainability analysisData sources:• Suitability map by resource (land use), Existing land use mapCriteria:• If current use is irrigated rice and suitable use is of lower intensity (i.e. forest), then the area is overused (unsustainable use)• If current use is rice and suitable use is rice, then the use is sustainable• If current use is of lower intensity then rice and suitable use is rice, then the area is a development opportunity area for irrigated riceOutput:• Sustainability map for the land use type ´irrigated rice`• Cluster of development opportunity areas for land use type ´irrigated rice`Step 3: Examination of existing facilities / socio-economic conditions bylocationData sources:• Sustainability map for the land use type ´irrigated rice`• Infrastructure map• Facilities map (post harvest, market places, extension services)• Socio-economic parameters by barangay breakdownCriteria (examples):• Road density per area of development opportunity land• Capacity of post harvest facilities• Distance (travel time) to markets• Farm technology levels used• Access to sources of energy (% rates)Output:• Comparative analysis of different locations by the selected indicators Province of Palawan 8
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Environmentally The ECAN establishes a graded system of protection andCritical Area Network (ECAN) development control over the whole province, to ensure forest protection and conservation, watershed protection, preservation of biological diversity, maintenance of maximum sustainable yield and others10. Table 1: Environmentally Critical Area Network (ECAN) ECAN Zone Definition Criteria Suitable land uses Core Zone Fully and strictly protected and above 1,000m; Forest, maintained free of human virging forest or first growth; gathering of forest intervention steep gradient, > 50% slope; species for medicinal peaks of mountains with purposes elevation > 500m; Buffer Zone, Generally surrounds the core elevation > 500m < 1,000 m; Forest, restricted use area zopne and provides a slope 36 - 50%; limited and non protective barrier critical watershed; consumptive elevation < 500m >300m to activities protect the remaining forested peaks of watersheds; adjacent to critical ecosystems elevation <500m, 10km belt surrounding core zone; Buffer Zone, Encircles and provides the elevation 100 - 500m; Forest, controlled use outer buffer to the core slope 18 - 35%; controlled forest and restricted zones extraction (minor forest products, strictly controlled logging and mining Traditional use Edges of intact forest where slope > 18% but elevation upland farming thraditional land use is below 100m; systems, social already stabilized or being open brushland or grassland, forestry stabilized still classified Timberland; industrial tree Timberland/Public Land plantation <100m; Multiple/manipulativ The area where the landscape areas classified as A&D; no restrictions Use zone has been modified for areas with slope < 18%; different forms od land uses Mangrove Forest (1) Mangrove forest Buffer strips along 20m along rivers Forest, vegetative rivers and cover escarpments (1) 10 Republic Act 7611, Adopting the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan, 1992 Province of Palawan 9
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisMap 1: Environmental Critical Area Network(Source: Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff, PCSDS)Province of Palawan 10
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisLand Management The LMU were established by the Bureau of Soils and Water Units (LMU) Management (BSWM) in 1988 to define land suitability. Land suitability is a classification of land into categories based on the degree to which the characteristics of the land can satisfy the environmental requirements of specific crops, without deterioration. A particular area of land may have a high suitability for irrigated rice but low suitability for growing fruit trees because of the poor soil drainage11: 11 AUSAID/NEDA, PPFP Training Program, 1996, p. 76 Province of Palawan 11
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisMap 2: Palawan Land Management UnitsProvince of Palawan 12
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Existing Existing land use data contains information on the way an area of landLand Use is actually being put to use, e.g. to grow rice or to build houses on. The different types or classes of lan d use reflect the impact of people upon the land, ranging from intensive uses with high impact (built-up areas) to extensive uses with low impact (protected forest). Table 4: Existing land uses by type and definition Land use type Definition Built-up area Concentration of buildings and infrastructure used for urban activities Urban Center residential dwellings and commercial establishments Large institution hospitals, schools, churches. Which occupy considerable portions of land (around 1 ha and above) Tourism area locations, where tourists come for leasure, recreation and boarding / lodging Irrigated rice lands rice growing area served by irrigation facilities or dependent on occurrence of rain Cultivated annual crops crops that need annual cultivation: corn, peanut, upland rice, vegetables (mungbean, tomato, squash), rootcrops (sweet potato, cassava) Perennial Trees and cashew, jackfruit, clove, abaca, coconut, mango, banana vine crops Pasture grazing animals, commercial cattle raising Forest plantation, Integrated Social Forestry, Reforestation, Industrial tree Tree farming, plantation, catchment Community-based forest Hillside farming, management, upland farming Production forest Minor forest product Gathering of forest products like rattan, almasiga, extraction in protection bamboo, etc Forest Protected Forest, Forest no extraction Mangroves Mangrove forest Fishponds, saltbeds Mining, quarrying extraction of minerals, sand and gravel Other uses, not classified above Province of Palawan 13
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisMap 3: Palawan Existing Land Uses (1988, based on LMU) Province of Palawan 14
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Infrastructure A series of spatial data is used with information on the road network in and utilities potential areas for resource development initiatives as well as the location and type of available facilities (post harvest, extension services) and utilities (power, water). The sources are maps, which are available at the Provincial Government Offices, particularly the PPDO.Socio-economic Socio-economic information for Palawan is made available through the parameters Community-based Monitoring System (CBMS), a household survey conducted in the year 2000. A set of indicators is used to document the human development situation and conditions in the area. These indicators pertain to educational levels and attainment, employment by sector, health conditions, peace and order, economic activities et. Province of Palawan 15
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisMap 4: Existing Infrastructure facilitiesProvince of Palawan 16
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Implementation and Project Activities Pilot sites: It is proposed to pilot the land resources analysis in two locations. One Brooke’s Point is Brookes Point (with Espanola), the other is Taytay (with El Nido). and Taytay The selection is based on the criteria that Taytay and Brooke’ Point have been identified as alternative growth centers to Puerto Princesa City 12. Activities for The first activity to implement the resource analysis will be thestep 1 of project generation of digital data needed for the suitability analysis. While the implementation Land Management Units are being digitized by the GIS Unit of PPDO, the ECAN and biodiversity needs to be obtained from the PCSDS and other sources. Once, all data sets are available, the suitability classes per resource (land use) need to be identified (using the criteria mentioned above) and suitability profiles for each resource generated. Activities for Crucial to the sustainability analysis is the availability of recent andstep 2 of project valid information on existing land uses. While digital data is available implementation for parts of El Nido and Taytay (through the NIPAP) and Espanola, where the Municipal Government was assisted by the Palawan Tropical Forestry Protection Programme (PTFPP) in generating land use maps, the Brooke’s Point data is both not yet digitized and does not have the required accuracy/validity. For areas in EL Nido and Taytay that are not covered by the NIPAP survey, the existing land use map needs to be procured from the Municipal Governments, validated and converted into digital format. Once the data is available, sustainability profiles for each resource can be performed by overlaying land suitability and existing land use for each respective resource. Based on this analysis, priority opportunity areas for resource development can be identified. Province of Palawan 17
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Activities for For the comparison of identified development opportunity areas, moststep 3 of project of the required data is available at the PPDO. In terms of economic implementation data (like production cost, markets, farm-gate prices), some field validation will be necessary. The first activity is to cluster the development opportunity areas (output of step 2). In a second activity, the set of criteria to be used in the analysis needs to be finalized and applied to find preferred development clusters. Finally, the results of the analysis will have to documented and presented for decision making. Project Partners and Cooperation It is proposed to undertake the project as a collaborative effort of the Provincial Planning and Development Office, concerned provincial departments, the municipal government agencies and PTFPP/PCSDS. Plans and The analysis and documentation itself can be performed by staff from ProgramsDivision (PPDO) the GIS Unit of the Provincial Planning and Development Office. As the output is expected to assist the Plans and Programs Division of the Office in preparing feasibility studies on the Special Development Areas, each step needs to be closely coordinated with staff from the Provincial Line Division. A number of provincial offices, in particular agriculture, agencies: Agriculture, environment and economic enterprise development, should also be Environment, involved. Their expertise is needed in validation and refinement of Economic Enterprise criteria for suitability analysis. As main users of the results, they should development also contribute to project implementation Municipal It is further advised to involve the municipal governments to an extent Governments that goes beyond the role of providing land use data in map format. The project can deliver results that may be of great value to the municipal planners. For this purpose, the project should be presented and discussed to representatives of the Local Government Units. 12 Provincial Physical Framework Plan 200 - 2010, Province of Palawan Province of Palawan 18
  • Project concept Resources Analysis PCSDS and The Provincial Government of Palawan has established a cooperation PTFPP for data exchange on land use with the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff (PCSDS) and the Palawan Tropical Forestry Protection Program (PTFPP). The cooperation is specified in a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) among the parties, that includes the resources analysis. Therefore, the PCSDS and PTFPP should be consulted. Limitations of the study Quality of land The main limitation of the analysis is its dependency on the quality of use data existing land use data. Field validation is too costly and in the absence of other sources (like recent satellite images), the existing land use maps from the Municipalities have to be used, which are not all of satisfactory quality. Degree of detail The selected resources / land uses comprise of general categories for resources / only. It is noted that more detailed information is also required for land uses particular crops (for example Cashew under the tree crop land use type). It is suggested that the results from the analysis will be examined and detailed further as the need arises. This will require additional agricultural knowledge and interpretation of the conditions for specific crops. Fisheries and In terms of the development areas to be studied, there are limitationsTourism sectors on the fisheries sector. While information is available for the general location of fishing grounds, more detailed data (area, extent, resources etc.) is not existing. Given this situation, the assessment of possible development clusters will be rather general. The question of sustainability levels cannot be addressed. This would need further scientific research. The tourism sector is not part of the analysis, simply because an extensive research has been conducted by the Government of the Philippines in cooperation with JICA. Province of Palawan 19
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisAnalysis also excludes mineral resources. Like for the aquaticresources, this would need a separate study.PPDO GIS UnitOctober 15, 2001Province of Palawan 20
  • Project concept Resources Analysis Annex 1: Employment data for Palawan ( based on CBMS survey year 2000)Location Employment Income above Underemployed Employment by Sector (%) rate (%) poverty line (%) persons (%) Agric./Fish./For. Industry ServicesPhilippines 86,10 68,20 25,10 37,30 16,10 46,60Palawan 80,43 30,73 64,19 62,60 8,85 28,03Aborlan 75,68 38,44 81,85 56,38 8,40 35,22Agutaya 69,43 19,97 48,93 80,28 5,23 14,49Araceli 90,38 24,16 96,36 74,66 10,46 14,88Balabac 88,79 82,78 57,15 76,83 4,85 18,31Bataraza 82,71 23,15 65,44 70,01 9,41 20,50Brookes Point 82,07 69,85 76,70 71,70 3,98 24,32Busuanga 85,61 20,49 82,52 56,20 10,48 18,42Cagayancillo 81,64 11,75 29,70 68,79 3,67 26,93Coron 74,89 13,93 52,08 56,96 11,02 32,02Culion no data no data no data no data no data no dataCuyo 73,34 29,65 70,89 42,73 14,42 42,86Dumaran 85,96 15,19 99,34 72,59 8,51 18,86El Nido 84,60 28,66 65,35 78,08 9,99 13,44Española 52,84 27,09 74,10 58,49 11,36 30,15Kalayaan no data no data no data no data no data no dataLinapacan 62,85 9,76 94,85 83,33 1,71 14,94Magsaysay 79,87 36,02 50,87 48,61 11,40 39,99Narra 82,75 21,67 57,59 42,31 12,64 45,04Quezon 93,81 19,52 61,88 61,82 5,85 32,32Rizal 95,30 0,31 73,98 80,57 7,43 12,00Roxas 77,78 25,19 72,92 52,10 11,82 36,08San Vicente 78,67 30,52 50,04 63,32 6,09 30,78Taytay 80,97 20,40 64,39 72,52 8,08 19,39PPCity no data no data no data no data no data no data Province of Palawan 21
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisAnnex 2: Land Management Units (BSWD, LREP 1988) LIMITATION LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LANDCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 1 Fishpond level, 0-1 percent moderately deep to very deep, fluvio soil ph 3.4 extremely acid, high OM Under water, very poorly Fishpond Tidal flooding, slope, elevation 0-1 marine deposit,dark gray dark brown, content medium phosphorus; trace drained salinity m. dark grayish brown, grayish brown, potassium; high base saturation yellowish brown, nudulain by partly percentages and CEC; high Ca and decomposed or decomposed plant Mg, low fertility residues 2 Mangrove/ nipa level to nearly level, moderately deep to very deep, fluvio soil ph 3.4 extremely acid, high OM Under water, very poorly Mangrove/ Nipa Tidal flooding, 0-3 percent slope marine deposit,dark gray dark brown, content medium phosphorus; trace drained salinity elevation 0-2 meter dark grayish brown, grayish brown, potassium; high base saturation above sea level yellowish brown, nudulain by partly percentages and CEC; high Ca and decomposed or decomposed plant Mg, low fertility residues 3 Beach level to nearly level, poorly develop profile moderately deep soil ph 3.4 extremely acid, high OM Well drained Built up area, Tidal flooding ridges/swales 0-3 percent slope to deep coarse texture with AC content medium phosphorus; trace coconut elevation 0-2 meter horizon, gray dark brown grayish potassium; high base saturation above sea level. brown, dark grayish brown percentages and CEC; high Ca and Mg, low fertility 6 River level level to nearly level deep, alluvial deposit, dark brown, soil ph 4.0 to 4.6 low Dm content Moderately well drained to Coconut, corn, Seasonal flush flood 0-3 percent slope brown to dark brown, light brownish and available phosporous, medium to somewhat poorly drained, vegetable, elevation 3-6 meter gray, yellowish brown, silt loam to silty low exchangeable potassium; high moderately slow, peanut and above sea level clay loam calcium and manganese; low permeability water holding bamboo inherent fertility. capacity is medium. 7 River terrace level to nearly level, deep alluvial deposit dark brown, soil ph is high, OM, nitrogen and Moderately well drained to Paddy rice Slight seasonal 0-3 percent slope brown, light brownish gray, yellowish available phosporous is somewhat poorly drained, rainfed, coconut, flooding flush flood elevation 5-8 m. brown and strong brown silty clay loam exchangeable potassium is medium hydraulic conductivity is corn, vegetable above sea level silty clay loam to clay loam. to low, base saturation percentages moderate and water and kaingin and cation exchange capacity is high, holding capacity is medium electrical conductivity is favorable; inherent fertility is high to moderateProvince of Palawan 23
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 9 Broad alluvial level to nearly level, Deep alluvial consist of fluvialtile soil ph 3.9 to 6.7 OM & nitrogen Moderately well drained to Coconut, pri, prn, Seasonal flooding plain 0-3 percent slope materials sand, silt clay and sometimes content medium to low available poorly drained, water corn, kaingin, nutrient toxicity. elevation 5-10 m. gravel, dark gray, gray, light gray, phosporous and exchangeable holding capacity medium; vegetble and above sea level greenish gray, dark grayish brown potassium is to calcium and permeability is moderate. cashew, grayish brown, sandy clay loam, loam magnesium is high base saturation grassland, to clay percentage medium to high; cation pasture and build exchangeable capacity medium and up general fertility is low and possible toxicity of micro-nutrient. 10 Inland swamp, Concave, 0-3 percent Deep depression or shallow lake; soil ph 5.0 high to low OM content; Very poorly drained Hydrophetic Severely flooded tree type slope, elevation 4-8 recent alluvium sand, silt and clay and phosporous high to medium, BSP low trees m.above sea level decomposed plant residue; bluish gray, CEC high, to medium, K low Ca and dark gray, light gray to gray and strong Mg low fertility level is low. brown and yellowish brown. 11 Inland swamp, Concave, 0-3 percent Deep depression or shallow lake; soil ph 5.0 high to low OM content; Very poorly drained Hydrophetic Severely flooded grassy type slope, elevation 4-8 recent alluvium sand, silt and clay and phosporous high to medium, BSP low grasses m.above sea level decomposed plant residue; bluish gray, CEC high, to medium, K low Ca and dark gray, light gray to gray and strong Mg low fertility level is low. brown and yellowisj brown. 16 Infilled valley Level to nearly level; Collu-alluvium, dark gray to gray, light soil ph 4.1 to 6.8; OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Pri, prn, Slighty flooded low elevation is from 0- gray to gray, dark grayish brown and content is medium to low, available poorly drained, hydraulic vegetable, fertility and possible 100 m. above sea strong brown mottles; silty clay loam to phosphorous is low, exchangeable conductivity, slow and coconut, cashew toxicity of level clay. potassium medium, Ca and Mg is water holding capacity is kaingin, grass, micronutrient high, BSP & CEC to medium salinity medium. shrubs and is favorable and inherent fertility forestProvince of Palawan 24
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 17 Enclosed valley Level to gently Deep collu-alluvium. Light gray to gray soil ph 4.2 to 4.7 OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Pri, prn, Slighty flooded low sloping 0-3 percent. grayish brown with strong brown medium to high available poorly drained, hydraulic vegetable, fertility and possible Elevation 80-100 m. mottles, light clay to clay texture. phosporous low to medium, high conductivity, slow and coconut, cashew toxicity of above sea level available phosporous low to medium, water holding capacity is kaingin, grass, micronutrient K is medium to high; Ca & Mg is high, medium. shrubs and BSP medium CEC is high salinity is forest favorable and moderate fertility. 18 Collu-alluvial Level to gently Moderately deep to deep collu-alluvial Soil ph 4.7 to 6.6 OM and nitrogen Somewhat poorly drained Pri, prn, upland Toxicity and metalic plain sloping 0-8 percent light gray to gray grayish brown with content is medium exchangeable K is to poorly drained water rice, coconut, element present of slope, 90-100 m. strong brown yellowish brown mottles medium to low, Ca & Mg is high, BSP holding capacity is corn, cashew, surface rock. elevationv comprise of sand, silt and clay with and CEC is high salinity is favorable medium, permeability is grasses, shrubs, gravel and moderate fertility. moderate. bamboo and forest 19 Narrow alluvial Level to gently Deep alluvium consist predominantly of Soil ph 4.6 to 5.9 OM nitrogen is Somewhat poorly drained Pri, prn, upland Slight to moderate plain sloping 0-3 percent sand silt and clay, gravel and coral, medium to low available phosporous to poorly drained; water rice, coconut, flooding possible slope, 2 to 4 meters shells near the seashore, dark gray to and exchangeable potassium is low holding capacity is low, cashew grasses, toxicity of metallic above sea level gray, dark grayish brown and light gray Ca and Mg high, CEC & BSP permeability is slow. corn, kaingin, element. to gray silty clay loam to clay. medium, salinity in favorable low shrub and forest fertility. nipa and built areas. 20 Broad alluvial Level to gently Colu-alluvium compose of fine Soil ph 4.2 to 5.6 OM nitrogen Somewhat poorly drained Pri, prn, upland Slight to moderate valley sloping, 0-3 percent sediment with few gravel, stone and content is medium to low available to poorly drained hydraulic rice, coconut, seasonal flooding slope, 3-10 meters boulders deposited on valley floor by phosporous is low exchangeable conductivity to moderate cashew, possible toxicity of above sea level water, gray, dark gray to gray, light potassium is medium to low Ca & Mg and water holding is grasses, corn, metallic element. gray to gray, dark grayish brown to is high, CEC & BSP medium, salinity medium. vegetable, greenish gray, sandy clay loam to clay is favorable low fertility. kaingin and built under low or fine and coarse material. areas.Province of Palawan 25
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 21 Alluvial terrace Nearly level to gently Collu alluvium compose of fine Soil ph 5.0 to 5.4 OM and nitrogen Somewhat poorly drained Pri, prn, upland None to slight sloping 0-8 percent sediment sandy clay with occasional content, available is high to poorly drained, rice, coconut, erosion, present of slope 50 to 10 m. gravel, stone and boulders deposited exchangeable potassium is medium hydraulic conductivity is cashew, stone and possible above sea level through the current of water and to low, Ca & Mg is high, BSP, CEC is moderately slow and water grasses, corn, toxicity of metallic gravity. medium , salinity is favorable, low holding capacity is vegetable, element. fertility level. medium. kaingin and built areas. 22 Residual terrace Level to gently Derived from sedimentary, volcanic, Soil ph 5.0 to 5.4; OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Prn, corn, Slight erosion. sloping 0-3 percent metamorphic and ultrabasic rock or content is medium, available somewhat poorly drained, peanut, slope 5 to 10 m. from the weathering of unconsolidated phosporous is high exchangeable hydraulic conductivity is vegetable, elevation complex rock, sandy clay loam to clay, potassium is low Ca and Mg is high moderately slow and cashew, dark brown with strong brown and CEC is medium and BSP is high water holding capacity is coconut, fruit yellowish brown mottlers undrlain by salinity is favorable, general fertility is medium. trees, grasses, fine and coarse material. low. shrubs, bamboo, forest and kaingin. 23 Residual terrace Gently sloping to Derived from sedimentary, volcanic, Soil 4.0 to 5.9, OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Prn, corn, None to slight undulating slope 3 to metamorphic and ultrabasic rock or content is medium, available somewhat to poorly peanut, erosion 8 percent, elevation from the weathering of unconsolidated phodporous is low exchangeably drained, water holding vegetable, is to 40m. complex rock, sandy clay loam to clay, potassium is medium, Ca & Mg is capacity is medium cashew, dark brown with strong brown and high, CEC to BSP percentage is hydraulic conductivity is coconut, fruit yellowish brown mottlers undrlain by medium; salinity is favorable natural moderate low. trees, grasses, fine and coarse material. fertility is low. shrubs, bamboo, forest and kaingin. 24 Residual terrace Undulating rolling 8 Shallow to moderately deep sandy clay Soil ph 4.2 to 6.9, OM and nitrogen Well drained to moderately Cassava, Slight to moderate to 18 percent slope; loam to clay derived from content is medium available well drained, hydraulic cashew, kaingin, erosion elevation 20 to 60 m. unconsolidated complex rock, grayish phosporous is low exchangeable K, conductivity moderate and shrubs, grasses, brown to dark grayish brown, brown to Ca, Mg, CEC and BSP are high slow water holding and forest. dark brown, strong brown, yellowish salinity is favorable general fertility is capacity is medium. brown and yellowish red. moderate.Province of Palawan 26
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 36 Limestone plain Nearly level to gently Shallow to moderately deep light clay Soil ph 5.4 to 6.1 OM and nitrogen Somewhat poorly drained; Upland rice, Low fertility sloping, 0-8 percent to heavy clay derived from weather content is medium to high, water holding capacity is corn, cashew, slope elevation less limestone, dark grayish brown to exchangeable potassium and high, hydraulic conductivity coconut, grass than 500 m. grayish brown, brown to dark brown, available phosphorous is low, Ca & is low. pasture, dark reddish. Mg high, CEC and BSP medium, bamboo, forest salinity is favorable fertility level is and shrubs. low. 45 Undissected Nearly level to gently Shallow to moderately deep derived Soils ph 4.7 to 5.0; OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Cashew, fruit Slight erosion low plateau sloping 1-9, 100 to from metamorphic rock (slate, content is medium, available well drained, permeably is trees, bamboo, fertility 200 m. elevation quartzite) A horizon grayish brown phosphorous and exchangeable moderately slow, water shrubs, grasses sandy clay loam . B horizon, brown to potassium is medium to low Ca & holding capacity is low and forest dark brown and grayish brown, sandy Mg low; salinity is favorable general clay loam underlain by fine and coarse fertility is low material of a metamorphic rock. 46 Dissected Nearly level to gently Shallow to moderately deep, derived Soil ph 4.5 to 4.8; OM and nitrogen Well drained to moderately Cashew, fruit Slight erosion low plateau sloping 1-8 percent from unconsolidated metamorphic rock content is moderate to low, available well drained; permeability trees, bamboo, fertility slope elevation 100 meta volcanic and meta sedimentary phosphorous and exchangeable is moderately slow, water shrubs, grasses to 200 meters. rock, dark brown, dark grayish brown potassium low, Ca & Mg is low CEC I holding capacity is low. and forest to dark brown sandy clay loam to clay is low to medium, BSP is low, salinity loam. B horizon, brown to dark brown is favorable, material fertility is low. to yellowish brown. 52 Volcanic Gently sloping to Shallow to very shallow gravely clay Soil ph 4.5 to 4.8; OM and nitrogen Well drained to moderately Cashew, fruit Slight erosion low complex undulating volcanic loam derived from ultrabasic rock content is moderate to low, available well drained; permeability trees, bamboo, fertility shallowness complex plateau 8-18 (diorite peroditite) meta volcanic, phosphorous and exchangeable is moderately slow, water shrubs, grasses percent slope. 100 to sedimentation rock and metamorphic potassium low, Ca & Mg is low CEC I holding capacity is low. and forest 200 m. elevation dark grayish brown, brown to dark is low to medium, potassium low, Ca brown mottled by strong brown, & Mg is low CEC I is low to medium, yellowish brown. 64 Limestone hill, Gently sloping to Moderately shallow, gray, grayish Soil ph 7.1 to 7.3, OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Coconut, Moderate shallow low relief undulating limestone brown and dark grayish brown clay, content is medium available, Ca & somewhat poorly drained, cashew, kaingin, slight erosion hill 8 to 18 percent underlain by consolidated limestone Mg is high CEC is high. Salinity is water holding capacity is pasture, grass, slope, elevation less rock. favorable, general fertility is high shrubs and than 500 m. moderate. forestProvince of Palawan 27
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 65 Limestone hill, Rolling to moderate Moderately shallow to shallow, gray to Soil ph 4.9 to 7.3; OM and nitrogen Moderately well drained to Shrub, forest, Shallow soil rock high relief by steep slope 30 to dark grayish brown clay B Horizon content is medium to high, available somewhat poorly drained, kaingin, pasture outcrap in some 50 percent elevation yellowish brown, light yellowish brown, content medium to high, available, water holding capacity is upland rice and areas, slight to less than 500 meters. light gray to gray, underlain by phosphorous low, exchangeable medium corn moderate erosion consolidated limestone rock. potassium is high to low; Ca , Mg, & Moderately well drained to somewhat BSP high salinity is favorable, poorly designed. general fertlity is moderate to high. 69 Shale/sandston Undulating to rolling Moderately shallow, dark grayish Soil ph 5.8 to 6.1 OM, nitrogen Moderately well drained to Forest, shrub, Shallow, slight to e hills, low relief 18 to 30 percent brown, grayish brown, clay, loam to content is medium to low available somewhat poorly drained, pasture, kaingin, moderate erosio,n slope; elevation is clay. B horizon, light gray to gray, light phosphorous to medium, water holding capacity is coconut, corn, fertility level is low less than 500 m. brownish gray to light yellowish brown, exchangeable potassium is low, Ca, medium and hydraulic and upland rice silty clay loam to clay underlain by Mg, medium to high CEC, BSP is conductivity is moderate. consolidated shale And sandstone high, salinity is favorable, general materials. fertility level is low. 70 Shale/sandston Rolling to moderate Developed from shale/sandstone Soils ph is 4.5 to 5.0 OM; nitrogen Well drained, hydraulic Forest, shrub, Shallow soil, e hill, high relief by steep slope 30 to materials dark grayish brown, grayish content is medium to low available conductivity rapid, water pasture, kaingin, moderate to severe 50 percent elevation brown, brown to dark brown, clay loam phosphorous to exchangeabl e holding capacity is coconut, corn, erosion, low fertility less than 500 meters. to clay potassium medium to high, Ca, Mg, medium. and upland rice BSP, CEC high salinity is favorable, low fertility. 80 Unconsolidated Undulating to rolling Shallow soils, dark gray to gray, dark Soil ph 4.5 to 5.0; OM nitrogen Well drained soil, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low complex 18 to 30 percent grayish brown, grayish brown, brown to content is medium, exchangeable holding capacity is low grassland, fertility slope and sedimentary hill, slope, elevation, 100 dark brown, sandy clay loam to clay. B potassium is low, BSP is high, pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. low and high to 200 m. horizon brown to dark brown, dark salinityis favorable material fertility coconut and relief yellowish brown and strong brown level is low. upland rice. sandy clay loam to clay underlain by mixture of fine and coarse material of unconsolidated sedimentation rock.Province of Palawan 28
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 83 Basaltic hill low Undulating to rolling Shallow soils, dark brown, sandy clay Soils ph 4.9 – 5.2, OM nitrogen Well drained soils, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low relief 18 to 30 percent loam to clay, underlain by rock content is medium available holding capacity is grassland, fertility slope and slope; elevation is fragment, stone and boulders. phosporous is medium potassium, medium pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. less than 200 m. Ca, Mg, is high, CEC high, BSP coconut and medium salinity is favorable, general upland rice. fertility level is moderate. 84 Basaltic hill high Rolling to undulating Shallow soils, dark brown, sandy clay Soils ph 6.0 to 6.2, OM nitrogen Well drained soils, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low relief steep slope, 30 –50 loam to clay, underlain by rock content is medium, phosphorous is holding capacity is medium grassland, fertility slope and percent slope, fragment, stone and boulders. low, potassium, Ca, Mg is high, BSP, pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. elevation less than CEC is also high, fertility is moderate. coconut and 200m. upland rice. 89 Ultrabasic hill Undulating to rolling Shallow soils, dark grayish brown, dark Soils ph 4.4 to 6.0, CEC is high.M Well drained soils, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low low relief 18 to 30 percent brown, grayish brown and dark nitrogen content is medium, holding capacity is medium grassland, fertility slope and slope elevation less reddish brown clay loam to clay phosphorous, potassium is low, Ca, pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. than 500 m. underlain by rock fragment stone and Mg is high, BSP & coconut and boulder. upland rice. 90 Ultrabasic hill Rolling to moderately Shallow soils, dark brown, brown to Soil ph 4.7 to 6.0 OM, nitrogen Well drained soils, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low high relief steep slope, 30 to 50 dark brown, dark yellowish brown content is medium, phosphorous holding capacity is grassland, fertility slope and percent slope, reddish brown, strong clay, medium by potassium is low, Ca, Mg, and CEC medium pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. elevation less than rock fragment stone and boulder. is high, BSP is medium. Salinity is coconut and 500 m. favorable generalfertility level is low. upland rice. 104 Metamorphic hill Undulating to steep Shallow soils, dark grayish dark brown Soil ph 4.1 to 4.9, OM nitrogen Well drained soils, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low high relief slope 8 to 50 percent very dark brown, brown to dark brown content is medium to low holding capacity is medium grassland, fertility slope and slope, elevation is sandy clay loam to clay loam underlain phosphorous medium to low, pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. less than 100 m. by rock fragment. potassium, Ca, Mg, is medium CEC coconut and is low, BSP medium, fertility level is upland rice. low.Province of Palawan 29
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 105 Metamorphic hill Steep to very steep Shallow soils, dark grayish dark brown Soil ph 4.1 to 4.9, OM nitrogen Well drained soils, water Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low high relief slope 30 to 50 very dark brown, brown to dark brown content is medium to low holding capacity is medium grassland, fertility slope and elevation less than sandy clay loam to clay loam underlain phosphorous medium to low, medium CEC is low, BSP pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. 200 m. by rock fragment. potassium, Ca, Mg medium, fertility level is coconut and low. upland rice. 110 Metavolcanic hill Undulating to rolling Shallow soils, dark grayish dark brown Soil ph 4.9, OM nitrogen content is Well drained, water holding Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low low relief 18 to 30 percent very dark brown, brown to dark brown medium, phosphorous, low capacity is low grassland, fertility slope and slope elevation less sandy clay loam to clay loam underlain potassium, Ca, Mg, low CEC, low pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. than 200 m. by rock fragment. BSP is high, fertility is low. coconut and upland rice. 111 Metavolcanic hill Undulating to rolling Shallow soils, dark grayish dark brown Soil ph 4.9 to 5.0; OM nitrogen Well drained, water holding Forest, shrubs, Shallow soils low high relief 18 to 30 percent very dark brown, brown to dark brown content is medium, potassium. Ca capacity is low grassland, fertility slope and slope elevation less sandy clay loam to clay loam underlain high CEC low, BSP high. pasture, cashew, erosion is moderate. than 200 m. by rock fragment. coconut and upland rice. 118 Karstic Moderately steep to Metamorphic limestone, marbolize very Soil ph 5.4 to 6.1 Shrubs and Very shallow soil limestone very steep slope 30 shallow or their A horizon, underlain by forest. steep ,moderate to mountain rocky to 50 percent marbolize limestone. severe erosion highly elevation less than suitable for wildly 500 sanctuary 131 Metamorphic Moderately steep to Developed from schist state, chest, feldspar, near schist marble none Shrubs and Very shallow soil mountain very steep slope 30 forest steep ,moderate to to 50 percent severe erosion highly elevation less than suitable for wildly 500 sanctuary 132 Ultrabasic Moderately steep to Derived from peridotite and pyroxenite Soil ph 4.0 to 6.0 none Shrubs and Very shallow soil mountain very steep slope 30 forest steep ,moderate to to 50 percent severe erosion highly elevation less than suitable for wildly 500 sanctuaryProvince of Palawan 30
  • Project concept Resources Analysis LMU LMU PHYSIOGRAPHY SOILS SOIL CHEMISTRY HYDROLOGICAL PRESENT LAND LIMITATIONCLASS DESCRIPTION PROPERTY USE 136 Low meta Moderately steep to Derived from meta andesite and low none none Shrubs and Very shallow soil volcanic very steep slope, grade volcanic spilitic and basic flow forest steep ,moderate to mountain elevation is from 500 severe erosion highly to 1000 m. suitable for wildly sanctuary 169 Beach sand Level to nearly level, Farm by the action of wave fluvio Soil ph 3.5 extremely and OM high, none Coconut, Tidal flooding, narrow strip along the marine deposit, bluish gray dark phosphorous medium low fertility. grasses, salinity and low shoreline consist brown, dark grayish brown. bakawan and fertility, coarse mainly of sand, silt, nipa texture. gravel and stone. 170 Riverwash Level to nearly level, Consist of sand, gravel, stone and none none 0-3 percent slope boulders 172 Plateau none scarpment 174 Lakes none 178 Quarry none 182 Saltbed noneProvince of Palawan 31
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisAnnex 3: Sustainability Anaysis, using the Municipality of Espanola as SampleMap 1: Existing general land useMap 2: Existing Land Use Irrigated RiceMap 3: Land Management UnitsMap 4: Suitability for Irrigated and Irrigable RiceMap 5: Sustainability for Irrigated and Irrigable RiceProvince of Palawan 32
  • Project concept Resources AnalysisProvince of Palawan 33