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Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
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Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines

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Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines …

Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines

1.Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine Closure
2.The Philippine Policy on Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation
3.The State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation
4.Challenges for Philippine Open Pit Mines

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  • 1. Mining Philippines 2010REHABILITATION OF OPEN PIT MINES bmp Environment & Community Care, Inc. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 2. Mining Philippines 2010 Rapu-Rapu Minerals, Inc.’s Open Pit bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 3. Mining Philippines 2010Overview of the Presentation bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 4. Mining Philippines 2010Overview of the Presentation 1. Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine Closure 2. The Philippine Policy on Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation 3. The State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation 4. Challenges for Philippine Open Pit Mines bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 5. Mining Philippines 2010Adverse Impacts ofOpen Pit Mining at Mine Closure bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 6. Mining Philippines 2010Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine Closure “Open pit mining wreaks havoc to the environment; not only does it deforest, it also leaves wildlife homeless, and erodes the soil which upland communities and lowland farmers depend on for their livelihoods” (HARIBON, www.indcatholicnews.com). bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 7. Mining Philippines 2010Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine Closure Onsite environmental impacts 1. Physical – Change in landform; pit wall instability; creation of pit lakes 2. Chemical – Metals; metalloids, AMD 3. Biodiversity – Loss of vegetation and wildlife/ aquatic habitats 4. Aesthetics bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 8. Mining Philippines 2010Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine Closure (Castendyk and Eary, 2009) bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 9. Mining Philippines 2010Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine ClosureDownstream environmental impacts 1. Surface and groundwater contamination 2. Biodiversity – River corridor, coastal, and near- coast bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 10. Mining Philippines 2010Adverse Impacts of Open Pit Mining at Mine Closure Social impacts 1. Resettlement 2. Livelihood impacts – agriculture and fisheries 3. Loss of cultural/recreation sites 4. Public safety and health impacts bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 11. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 12. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation Classified as “environmentally critical”, open pit mining projects need an ECC prior to development. An ECC is a document issued by the DENR after a positive review of the project’s EIA. It certifies that, based on the representations of the proponent and the commitment to implement the approved Environmental Management Plan (EMP), the proposed project will not cause significant environmental impacts. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 13. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation The DENR requires the inclusion of “policies and generic procedures” on mine decommissioning and rehabilitation in the EMP. The detailed activities, timetable, and costs are to be provided in the Final Mine Rehabilitation and Decommissioning Plan (FMRDP) which will be submitted after the grant of ECC prior to project construction. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 14. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation The FMRDP Guidelines of the MGB prescribe as one of two specific goals: “To prevent or eliminate long-term environmental impacts by returning mining- disturbed land to a physically and chemically stable, visually acceptable, productive or self- sustaining condition, taking into consideration the beneficial uses of the land and the surrounding areas and as agreed with stakeholders.” bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 15. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation “Physically stable shall mean that the mine component does not pose a hazard to public health and safety as a result of failure or physical deterioration … it should not erode or move from its intended location under the extreme events or perpetual disruptive forces to which it will be subjected after closure.” bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 16. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation “Chemically stable shall mean that a mine component should not release chemicals (contaminants) into the environment. Using proven techniques, the production of contaminants should be controlled at source using a system of containment, collection, and treatment systems in order to meet regulatory standards. However, the use of effluent- treatment facilities should not be considered as rehabilitation but a temporary measure … bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 17. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation Stakeholder involvement is crucial to the preparation of the FMRDP. This is to ensure that their interests, concerns, and local knowledge are considered in the Plan. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 18. Mining Philippines 2010The Philippine Policy on Open Pit MineRehabilitation Once the FMRDP is approved by the MGB, its total cost becomes the Final Mine Rehabilitation and Decommissioning Fund. The mining company makes annual deposits on the Fund based on a formula such that the full amount is accrued a year before mine closure. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 19. Mining Philippines 2010The State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 20. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation State-of-the-art open pit mine rehabilitation acknowledges that assuring good water quality of pit lakes poses the greatest challenge. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 21. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation Facing up to this challenge entails three interrelated planning tasks: 1. Evaluation of the likely water quality of pit lakes after mine closure 2. Formulation of any long-term mitigation program and 3. Evaluation of the lake’s social or environmental beneficial end uses. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 22. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine RehabilitationPit lake water quality is a function ofhydrologic, biogeochemical, geologic, andlimnologic processes (Castendyk and Eary,2009). bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 23. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation (Castendyk and Eary, 2009) bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 24. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation Mitigation program (Eary and Castendyk, 2009): 1. Prefilling – Backfilling, perpetual pumping, wall- rock covers, runoff collection, excavation of reactive material, expansion of the littoral zone 2. During filling – Density-driven meromixis, surface water flooding 3. Postfilling – In situ chemical treatment, biochemical treatment, structurally imposed meromixis, discharge management bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 25. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation (McCullough, Hunt, and Evans, 2009) bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 26. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation Examples of post-mining end uses of pit lakes (McCullough, Hunt, and Evans, 2009): 1. Recreation and tourism 2. Wildlife conservation 3. Aquaculture 4. Irrigation 5. Potable water 6. Industrial water 7. Chemical extraction 8. Educational facility bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 27. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation Pit wall geotechnical stability after closure is influenced by (Van Zyl, 2009): 1. Hydrogeological changes 2. Stress relief or relaxation 3. Shear strength changes of pit wall materials bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 28. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation A better understanding of the long-term behavior of jointed rock masses after unloading, analysis of pit walls following closure, and analysis of the effects of large failures on wave development and dissipation in pit lakes are needed. Currently, not much attention is being given to these areas (Van Zyl, 2009). bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 29. Mining Philippines 2010State of the Art of Open Pit Mine Rehabilitation Major activities of open pit mine rehabilitation: 1. Removal of structures, wastes, PAF materials 2. Earthworks, recontouring, and revegetation 3. Lake filling bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 30. Mining Philippines 2010 Challenges forPhilippine Open Pit Mines bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 31. Mining Philippines 2010Challenges for Philippine Open Pit Mines The burden is on open pit mines to show that the depleted pit wall and pit lake do not become long-term liabilities. Instead, they are developed for social, economic, and environmental end uses. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 32. Mining Philippines 2010Challenges for Philippine Open Pit MinesNo less than a concerted government-industry-consultancy-academic effort is required. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 33. Mining Philippines 2010Challenges for Philippine Open Pit Mines Areas of collaboration: 1. Use of predictive models to evaluate potential impacts to water quantity and quality of pit lakes. A range of likely outcomes can be determined on which risk assessment and management should be based. 2. Collection and dissemination of observations of pit lake water quality over time from a variety of geologic and climatic settings. The data can be used to validate the model predictions. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines
  • 34. Mining Philippines 2010Challenges for Philippine Open Pit Mines Areas of collaboration: 3. Research on the postclosure stability of open pits and inclusion of slope stability considerations in the FMRDP. 4. Use of community-based benefit-cost studies for the open pit during the EIA. bmp Rehabilitation of Open Pit Mines