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Philippines - Social and Environmental Impacts

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Philippines - Social and Environmental Impacts …

Philippines - Social and Environmental Impacts

Presented by

Andy Whitmore

Indigenous Peoples Links

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • Ang yaman ng Palawan ay yaman ng Pilipinas It is known as the Philippines’ Last Ecological Frontier. It has 40% of our country’s remaining mangrove areas, 30% of our coral reefs, at least 17 Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), 2 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and 8 declared Protected Areas (PAs). It is unmatched anywhere in the country.
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  • ‎’NO TO MINING IN PALAWAN, and other Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), Island Ecosystems, Natural Forests and Agricultural Lands.’
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  • 1. Philippines –socialand environmental impacts Presented by Andy Whitmore Indigenous Peoples Links
  • 2. OutlineI. BackgroundII. Mining facts and figuresIII. Picturing the national situationIV. Issues and ConcernsV. Peoples ResponseVI. In summary
  • 3. Philippines
  • 4. I. Background Bad legacy on mining issues – Mankayan, Marinduque & Rapu Rapu Strong & vibrant civil society Some advanced legislation – such as IPRA, but poor implementation Despite years of promotion most large multi- nationals have withdrawn from the country (Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton, Anglo American…. Xstrata still have a concession)
  • 5. I. Background Original legislation 1995 Mining Act (proposed by GMA as a Senator) Under President GMA, policy shift in 2004 -> from tolerance to “aggressive promotion” Judicial decisions -> reversal of Jan. 2004 SC decision re constitutionality of certain provisions of Mining Act Roadshows by Chamber of Mines (2004-2006) DENR houses MGB
  • 6. Scope of Mining Operations (2009) 1. 29 operating metallic mines, which is an increase on last four years 2. 65 priority projects in 2009, up from 23 in 2005 and 62 in 2008 10 are in full operation 5 second-tier development stage 8 in construction stage 8 are in financing (fund-raising) 9 in advanced exploration 23 in early exploration 3. DENR-MGB states only 32 official priority in 2010 4. Over 2,000 small-scale mines and quarries (with legitimate records)
  • 7. No. of Operating Metallic Mines (DENR-MGB, Jan. 2010)302010 16 23 26 29 0 2006 2007 1 2008 2009
  • 8. No. of Priority Mining Projects (MGB, Jan. 2010)70 65 62605040 32 3230 23 2320100 1 2005 2 2006 3 2007 4 2008 5 2009 6 2010
  • 9. Mining Tenements (Sept. 2009) a) 4 FTAAs (80,502 has.) b) 297 MPSAs (480,524 has.) c) 47 EPs_ (183,172 has.) Total of 348 mining agreements d) 744,199 hectares mineralized lands, up from about 515,000 hectares in January 2007, and 722,691 in 2008
  • 10. Philippinemineralreserves:reserves:-Gold-Copper-Nickel-Chromite Quantity of Mineral-Iron Resources per unit area-bauxite-Marble 3rd in the world for gold-limestone 4th in the world for copper 5th in the world for nickel 6th in the world for chromite
  • 11. Minute Economic Contributions ofMining to Philippine Economy Mining gross production value in 2007 was valued at Php 101.5 billion pesos ($2.2 bn) Government tax collection (in 2007) was at Php 10.4 billion pesos ($0.23 bn) National Gov’t. (Agencies) collected Php 8.35 bn pesos ($0.18 bn) BIR collected Php 942 million pesos ($20.8 mn) DENR/MGB collected Php 774 million pesos ($17.1 mn) LGUs collected Php 357.9 million pesos ($7.8 mn) Contribution of mining sector to 2007 GDP was merely 1.4% (consistent in 3 decades)
  • 12. Crunching the Numbers Job creation was only at 158,000 in 2008 Actual tax collection was only at 11% GDP contribution is only 1% Agriculture GDP contribution is at 16.5%
  • 13. State of Philippine Forests The Philippines needs an ideal 54% of forest cover to maintain its natural ecological processes (Sajise, 1996) In 1999, DENR (unofficially) reported that Philippines had been reduced to about 18%- 19% forest cover In 2006-07, the unofficial data claimed that this has gone up to about 20%-21%
  • 14. Good News! [?]Actually no…Because DENR changed the official definition of what a FOREST is… 5,000 sq. meters (half-hectare) At least 10% cover
  • 15. Major Watersheds• The Philippines has 18 identified major river basins• 13 out of 18 major river basins have forest cover below 20% of its total area
  • 16. Other risks of mining in the Philippines• More than half of active concessions and two- two-thirds of exploratory concessions are located in zones of high seismic risk LRC-KsK, irlg 2005
  • 17. Peoples Response (local)1. Local alliances (Task Forces in Nueva Vizcaya, Masbate, CARAGA, Zambo Norte)2. Legal actions, such as in Gambang & Palawan3. Barricades have been set-up in 3 communities (Nueva Vizcaya, Masbate and Surigao del Norte)4. Moving towards an uprising of indigenous B’laan at Xstrata Tampakan mine
  • 18. Peoples Response(national/international)5. At national level is filing of an Alternative Mining Bill Research on “No-Go Zones” CERD complaint from community leaders in Zamboanga del Norte OECD Complaint through Norwegian NCP Complaints to UN Special Rapporteurs
  • 19. In Summary1. Mining will remain to be a government 2010 priority (although elections coming in May)2. Local resistance will increase…
  • 20. MaramingSalamat Po! LRC-KsK, irlg 2005