Philippine Development Plan (PDP) - 2011-2016


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Chapter 10
Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources
pages 303 - 337

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  • ,32% of the 9 million high potential areas are actually being operated/mined.
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  • ‎’NO TO MINING IN PALAWAN, and other Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), Island Ecosystems, Natural Forests and Agricultural Lands.’
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Philippine Development Plan (PDP) - 2011-2016

  1. 1. Hundred Islands National Park, Alaminos, PangasinanPhoto by: Annbee G. Tiangson 10 Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 303
  2. 2. Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources The country is widely acknowledged as having an outstanding endowment of natural resources, which could provide essential ecosystem services to the population. Demands arising from development and utilization activities, population expansion, poor environmental protection, and external factors such as climate change, however, have placed the country’s environment and natural resources under grave threat. For the medium-term, an environment that is healthy, ecologically balanced, sustainably productive, climate change resilient, and one that provides for present and future generations of Filipinos is envisioned. This vision will be pursued through an integrated and community-based ecosystems approach to environment and natural resources management, precautionary approach to environment and natural resources, sound environmental impact assessment (EIA) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA). These, then, are all anchored on the principles of shared responsibility, good governance, participation, social and environmental justice, intergenerational space and gender equity, with people at the core of conservation, protection and rehabilitation, and developmental initiatives. Assessment Luyang, Sapangdaku, Cagayan de Oro and Balili) are already within State of the Environment standard and BOD levels of rivers and Natural Resources have improved. However, waterways in major urban centers, especially The degraded state of the country’s esteros, are unfit for human activity, environment and natural resources is felt despite recent clean-up efforts. most intensely by the poor, especially The cost of medical treatment and the rural communities given that they loss of income from water-borne depend on these resources for their diseases total PhP6.7 billion per year, primary source of living. On the other according to a WB report (2007). At hand, poverty frequently aggravates least six rivers in the NCR, Region 3 environmental stress as the marginalized and Region 4-A fail in terms of both population presses upon limited resources, dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biological such as unregulated activities and upland Oxygen Demand, namely: the cultivation. Parañaque, San Juan, Marikina, Pasig, Meycauayan, and Ylang-Ylang rivers. Major urban centers are polluted… The Supreme Court in December 2008 issued a continuing mandamus With regard to water pollution, the for the government to clean up the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) waterways, especially those emptying levels of 10 rivers (Bocaue, Anayan, into Manila Bay, in order to improve Malaguit, Paniqui, Calapan, Iloilo,304 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  3. 3. the water quality in the bay to “SB only 70 percent is collected. For thelevel”. 1 whole country, only half of the garbage generated is collected. UncollectedIn Metro Manila, up to 58 percent garbage ends up mostly in rivers, esteros,of groundwater has been found to be and other water bodies, clogging thecontaminated with coliform.2 drainage system and leading to floods and the pollution of major water bodies.The problems posed by hazardouswastes are also beginning to be a Water is becoming scarcer…priority concern due to the increasingnumber of large companies that The country is endowed with abundantgenerate wastes considered hazardous water resources. It experiences an averageto health and the environment. annual rainfall of 2,400 mm. and has 421Like most developing countries, river basins, of which 20 are major riverthe Philippines still has inadequate basins ranging from 990 to 25,000 sq. and technical expertise to The country’s watersheds and aquifers, ifdeal with these wastes despite steps to fully functional, could supply 146 billiondefine the regulatory and enforcement cubic meters (BCM) of water annually The Philippines generatesresponsibilities of various government for domestic, industrial and agricultural 30,000 tons of garbage per day.agencies. Currently, the Philippines uses. Total water availability is estimated Metro Manila alone produceshas no large-scale treatment and at 126 BCM per year from surface water 8,000 tons per day, of which onlydisposal facilities for hazardous such as rivers or streams, and an estimated 70 percent is collected.wastes. 20 BCM per year groundwater potential (NWRB 1998).…solid waste remains a majorsource of pollutants Although water is still abundant in certain areas, the country faces theUncontrolled dumping of raw sewage threat of emerging water scarcity. Lackin coastal areas, particularly those that of urban planning, indiscriminateare thickly populated or used heavily urban development, lack of investmentby tourists, contributes to dangerous in water, problems of water resourcewater contamination levels. The lack management, and the impact of climateof point-source and nonpoint-source change threaten water security andpollution controls are the main factors sustainability. Deforestation and lackthat contribute to the degradation of of effective management of forest andwater quality in the Philippines. freshwater ecosystems have led to the further deterioration of watersheds,The problem of solid waste limiting aquifer recharge and increasesdisposal is most serious in urban water runoff and soil erosion. Aroundcenters, particularly Metro Manila, 267 watersheds with a total area of 10.6because of high population density, million hectares have been identified ashigh consumption rates, and the needing immediate rehabilitation. Theseconcentration of packaged goods, and priority watersheds support nationalpackaging materials, some of which irrigation systems and are the majorare toxic and nonbiodegradable.3 The source of domestic water supply. StoragePhilippines generates 30,000 tons of and distribution of water to deficient areasgarbage per day. Metro Manila alone and proper water-resources managementproduces 8,000 tons per day, of which are also areas of concern.1 SB-areas regularly used by the public for bathing, swimming, skin diving, etc.2 European Commission (EC), Country Environmental Profile, 2005.3 DENR, National State of Brown Environment, 2009. Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 305
  4. 4. Figure 10.1 Philippine Forest Cover, 1934-2003The quality of land resourceshas deteriorated steadily Source: World Bank (2009) and Forest Management Bureau (2010)because of erosion, pollutionand land conversion. Twenty- Increasing water demand has resulted inone percent of the country’s a number of regions and at least nine key …quality of farm land isagricultural lands and 36 urban centers experiencing water stress deteriorating and forestedpercent of nonagricultural lands (NWRB 1998). These include Metro lands are shrinkingare moderately or severely Manila, Metro Cebu, Davao, Baguio,eroded. Cagayan de Oro, Bacolod, Angeles, Iloilo, The quality of land resources has and Zamboanga. These highly urbanized deteriorated steadily because cities rely mostly on groundwater for of erosion, pollution and land water supply, resulting in uncontrolled conversion. Twenty-one percent of withdrawal from groundwater aquifers the country’s agricultural lands and 36 in recent years. Rapid and uncontrolled percent of nonagricultural lands are urban development has reduced aquifer moderately or severely eroded.4 Soil recharge and has eventually resulted in erosion has affected the productivity the decline of groundwater levels as well of land, limited the rehabilitation as saltwater intrusion. or restoration of degraded lands, lowered the quality of surface water, The 2010 Philippines’ MDG Progress and modified hydrologic conditions Report shows the proportion of the by changing land resources and Philippine population with access to land management. Moreover, the safe water has risen at a moderate rate, changing weather patterns have increasing from 73.8 percent in 1991 brought about prolonged droughts to 81.4 percent in 2008. If the trend and excessive rains. Farmers have continues, the 2015 target (86.9%) may to endure lower yields and lower be attainable. These favorable results, income from farming. however, hide the fact that almost one in five (or 15.73 million) persons is Of the country’s total land area of still unable to access safe water despite 30 million hectares, 47 percent (14 abundant water resources. million hectares) has been classified as alienable and disposable (A&D) 4 ADB, Country Environmental Analysis: Philippines, 2009306 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  5. 5. lands while 15.9 million hectares The country’s unique biodiversity(52%) are classified as forestlands. is under severe pressure…Some 2.7 million hectares of totalclassified forestlands have been either The Philippines is rich in biological andestablished or considered as protected genetic resources or biodiversity and isareas, making up a total of 238 one of the 18 megadiverse countries inprotected areas. Of the 15.9 million the world. The majority of plant andhectares of forestland, only 6.43 animal species in the country are uniquemillion hectares or 41 percent were and cannot be found anywhere else. Thestill forested in 2003, a significant country’s species are among the world’sdecline from the 17 million hectares top 10 in terms of endemism. Givenrecorded in the 1930s.5 Figure 10.1 the land density and the density of bothshows the decline in forest cover flora and fauna, the Philippines may evenfrom 1934 to 2003. be considered to be the world’s most megadiverse country.An analysis of satellite-based mapselaborated by the EU’s Joint Research The country’s forests and coastal andCentre ( JRC) in 2007 revealed that marine ecosystems, inland water bodies, Located within the Coralpossibly, only 19 percent of the wetlands and caves are also home to Triangle, at the center of highcountry’s land area remains forested. a wide variety of flora and fauna. The marine diversity, the country’s wetlands are home to one of the largest vast, rich and diverse coastalThe main threats to Philippine assemblies of microorganisms, reptiles, and marine resources areforests come from the collection of amphibians, fish, birds, and mammals that composed of coral reefs,fuel wood, settlements in forestlands, live within or near waters. Over 1,500 sea grass beds, mangroveconversion to agricultural uses, caves have been recorded in the country and beach forests, fisheries,kaingin and forest fires, and illegal since 1994 with a significant number invertebrates, seaweeds, marinelogging. There are approximately yet to be discovered and mapped. These mammals and many others.20 million people living in upland caves are considered unique, natural andwatershed areas, half of whom are nonrenewable resources with importantdependent on shifting cultivation scientific, economic, educational, cultural,for their livelihood6. Inequitable historical and aesthetic distribution, insecure tenureand rural poverty are often cited as Biodiversity in the Philippines, however,causes of deforestation and forest is also among the most endangered indegradation in the Philippines, linked the world. As of 2008, 221 species ofto increases in rural populations fauna and 526 species of flora have beenboth as a result of high fertility included in the list of threatened species.and in-migration7. Deforestation The continually increasing demands forhas made many poor communities food, energy, and other goods, coupledmore vulnerable to natural calamities with the pressures exerted by rapidsuch as of typhoons, flash floods and development and economic growth,landslides8. have put much stress on the country’s natural environment resulting in the destabilization of ecosystems, destruction of natural habitats and an alarming rate of biodiversity loss. The introduction of invasive alien species (IAS) has threatened biodiversity and destabilized ecosystems.5 DENR-FMB estimate based on 2003 satellite images6 Cruz and Zosa-Feranil, 1998.7 Kummer, 1992; Liche, 1997.8 EC CEP, 2009 Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 307
  6. 6. …coastal and marine resources Bay in Luzon, Palawan, Cuyo Islands, are under threat the Cebu-Bohol-Siquijor area, Zamboanga, and Davao. About half of The Philippines has one of the world’s the country’s seagrass beds have been longest coastlines, a total of 36,289 lost due to coastline development and kilometers. The country’s marine blast fishing. The mapping of seagrass jurisdiction extends up to 200 nautical bed distribution remains limited, and miles from the baseline (Exclusive the management of seagrass resources Economic Zone) and up to the limits of has not received priority. the continental margin where it extends beyond 200 miles (Extended Continental Mangroves protect the coast from Shelf ). Located within the Coral waves, tidal currents, and typhoons Triangle, at the center of high marine and provide habitats, shelter, breeding diversity, the country’s vast, rich and sites, and food sources to various diverse coastal and marine resources are groups of fish and other coastal composed of coral reefs, sea grass beds, wildlife. The ecological functions mangrove and beach forests, fisheries, of mangroves as land builder and invertebrates, seaweeds, marine mammals coastline stabilizer are also widely and many others. About 60 percent of the known. Mangrove cover, however, has total Philippine population live in the declined from 450,000 hectares in coastal zones and depend on these coastal 1918 to only about 140,000 hectares in resources for livelihoods. 2008.11 The development of mangrove swamps into aquaculture ponds, salt Some unsustainable human activities, beds, reclamation areas and other however, cause great stress to coastal and agricultural activities has extensively marine resources. Coastal development degraded this resource. A total of and climate change impacts such as 62,834 hectares of mangrove forest sea-level rise and increasing sea-surface area were issued Fishpond Lease temperature add to the stress on these Agreements (FLAs) between 1973 resources. Sedimentation in coastal areas and 2002. Logging concessionaires due to unsustainable land use in upland generally have not left behind mother areas continues to threaten coastal trees to replenish the area, and several ecosystems. The productivity of the cases of illegal logging cutting occur country’s coral reefs, mangrove forests, even in protected reserves. sea grass, and algal beds and fisheries is declining at an alarming rate. Of the … mineral resource 27,000 sq km. of coral reef, over 70 development is delivering percent are of poor or fair quality and only mixed results five percent are in excellent condition.9 The Philippine reefs may already be in a The mining industry in the steady state of decline from 5 percent to Philippines has rebounded due to 3 percent to less than 1 percent (Nanola the promotion and revitalization of et. al., 2004). The country’s coral reefs responsible mining and recognition of are considered to be one of the highly the industry’s possible contribution in threatened reef areas in the world.10 inducing economic growth, attracting investments and reducing poverty in Major distributions of seagrass beds in the countryside. Challenges remain the Philippines are found in Bolinao on the emerging framework of 9 Gomez et. al., 1994. 10 Burke et al., 2002 11 WB, 2009308 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  7. 7. responsible mining specifically on Data show that the share of mining incorporate accountability, voluntary GDP and employment is increasingcompliance among companies and and there are considerable of due recognition to local However, target investments and exciseautonomy and indigenous peoples’ tax from mining in 2004-2010 have notrights. been fully achieved due to the financial crisis, among others. In addition, anOf the country’s 30 million hectares assessment report of a mining projectof land area, 9 million hectares (30%) has indicated that the fair share of theis considered as having high mineral government from mining has not beenpotential. Only 2.7 percent of this achieved due to the existing incentivehigh-potential area is covered by mechanism.13 Issues have been also raisedmining permits or contracts and only on sharing of the mining industry with0.32 percent is in the development or regard to foreign companies as well as theoperating stage. The mining industry’s undesirable environmental conditionspotential as a driver of economic which the Filipino communities willgrowth has led to the revitalization have to deal with.of the sector in the last six years.12As a result, investments in priority In separate researches, it was found thatmineral exploration, development and mining permits or contracts were withinprocessing projects from 2006-2009 half the number of titled and claimedhave reached US$2.2 billion, and the ancestral domains.production of gold, copper, and nickelhas also increased. Nickel production A number of mining projects, however,increased by 651 percent, buoyed have been alleged to have causedby favorable prices, while copper environmental degradations, physicalproduction rose by 141 percent in the displacement of indigenous peoples,same period. The value of mineral and cultural dislocations. In 2005, aproduction increased by 46.34 percent European Union (EU)-commissionedfrom PhP72.5 billion in 2006 to study reported that legal and illegalPhP106.1 billion in 2009. Mining mining operations posed serious threatcontributed 1.3 percent to GDP, to the forest and to local rivers because ofor a gross value added of PhP97.1 forest clearing and the release of toxins.14billion in 2009 (at current prices). Metallic mine waste generated from 1990With the expected operation of five to 1999 amounted to 131 million metricmetallic mines and one cement plant, tons (MT), while mine tailings wereoutput value is projected to increase about 136 million MT.15 Many of theseby 30 percent to PhP138.5 billion in concerns stem from the failure of many2010. For the period 2006 to 2009, small and large-scale mining companiesemployment in mining and quarrying to adhere to stringent, globally-definedincreased from 141,000 to 166,000 standards for responsible mining.(0.50 %), while taxes, fees and royaltiesfrom the minerals industry rose by Ensuring the equitable and just93.7 percent, from PhP6.39 billion in distribution of benefits from extracted2006 to PhP12.38 billion in 2009. mineral resources remains to be a challenge.12 DENR-MGB, Mining Industry Statistics, 201113 DENR, Assessment of the Rapu-Rapu Polymetallic Project, 2006.14 EU, Commission Country Environment Profile, 200515 EU, Commission Country Environment Profile, 2005 Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 309
  8. 8. Currently, there is no standard resource earthquakes with Magnitude 6 or and environment valuation. There is a more and when the associated ground need to have a cost-benefit analysis and shaking is at Intensity 6 or higher. The standard parameters that will consider country has 300 volcanoes, of whichThe country’s vulnerability all relevant values (including nonmarket 22 are natural hazards cost the values).government an average of The country also lies along thePhP15 billion annually in direct Extreme vulnerability to typhoon belt of the Western Northdamages, or more than 0.5 environmental hazards and Pacific where 66 percent of tropicalpercent of GDP. The indirect climate-related risks… cyclones originate. About 20 tropicaland secondary impact of cyclones enter the Philippine Area ofdisasters further increases this Owing to its location and natural Responsibility (PAR) every year, ofcost. attributes, the country is prone or which seven to nine make a landfall. vulnerable to natural hazards such as Tropical cyclone season is from tropical cyclones, floods, earthquakes May to December; peak months are and volcanic eruptions. Active faults and July to September with an average trenches line the country (Figure 10.2). of three or more occurrences. Their The longest of these, the Philippine Fault, movements follow a northwesterly is one of the major active faults in the direction, frequently hitting northern world. On the average, the Philippine Luzon and provinces in the eastern Institute of Volcanology and Seismology seaboard (Figure 10.3). Mindanao is (PHIVOLCS) records 20 earthquake usually spared from being directly hit occurrences every day, but damage by majority of the typhoons that cross is normally caused by shallow-focus the country. Figure 10.2 Distribution of Active Faults Figure 10.3 Frequency of Tropical Cyclones in the and Trenches Philippines, 1948-2006 Source: PHIVOLCS Source: PAGASA310 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  9. 9. Table 10.1 Top 20 Provinces Susceptible to Floods Table 10.2 Top 20 Provinces Susceptible to Landslides Provinces Rank Area Provinces Rank Area Susceptible to Susceptible to Flooding (%) Landslides(%) Pampanga 1 79.5 Misamis Occidental 1 90.3 Nueva Ecija 2 51.2 Quirino 2 87.1 Pangasinan 3 48.1 Bulacan 3 86.7 Tarlac 4 47.1 Basilan 4 84.7 Maguindanao 5 42.5 Bukidnon 5 84.7 Bulacan 6 39.9 Surigao Del Norte 6 82.6 Metro Manila 7 33.2 Quezon 7 82.1 Cotabato (North Cotabato) 8 30.1 Camarines Sur 8 78.6 Oriental Mindoro 9 28.7 Lanao Del Norte 9 77.6 Ilocos Norte 10 27.9 Camarines Norte 10 77.4 Iloilo 11 26.7 Zamboanga Del Norte 11 77.3 La Union 12 26.3 Northern Samar 12 74.5 Cagayan 13 25.5 Pampanga 13 74.4 Sultan Kudarat 14 24.4 Metro Manila 14 72.9 Ilocos Sur 15 23.4 Pangasinan 15 71.5 Bataan 16 23.1 Davao Oriental 16 70.9 Leyte 17 20.8 Southern Leyte 17 70.1 Davao Del Norte/Compostela Valley 18 20.2 Aurora 18 68.9 Compostela Valley/Davao Del Norte 19 20.2 Cotabato (North Cotabato) 19 67.9 Camarines Sur 20 19.2 Sulu 20 67.4Source: DENR-Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB), 2010. Source: DENR-MGB, 2010.Data from the DENR-Mines and and communities, disasters have alsoGeosciences Bureau (MGB) show that derailed social and economic eight provinces, at least 30 percent A WB 2005 study reported that theof provincial land area are susceptible country’s vulnerability to natural hazardsto floods (Table 10.1). The same report cost the government an average of PhP15shows 68 provinces are more susceptible billion annually in direct damages, or moreto rain-induced landslides, affecting at than 0.5 percent of GDP.16 The indirect andleast one-third of the total land area of secondary impact of disasters has furthereach province (Table 10.1). increased this cost. This was surpassed in 2009 when typhoons Ondoy and PepengAside from the direct impact of natural inflicted damage equivalent to 2.7 percentdisasters on human lives, their properties, of GDP.1716 WB, Natural Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines: Enhancing Poverty Alleviation through DisasterReduction, 2005.17 WB, Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng Post-Disaster Needs Assessment, 2009. Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 311
  10. 10. Table 10.3 Hazard Susceptibility of Selected Provinces by Poverty Incidence Province/Region 2006 Pov. Inc Susceptibility to hazards Typhoon (% of area) frequency % Rank Flood RIL Tawi-Tawi 78.9 1 0.8 5.7 1 in 50 yrs Zamboanga Del Norte 63.0 2 3.2 50.1 1 in 50 yrs Maguindanao 62.0 3 42.5 23 1 in 50 yrs Apayao 57.5 4 7.2 84.7 4 in 3 yrs Surigao Del Norte 53.2 5 9.8 35 1 in 1 yr Lanao Del Sur 52.5 6 7.6 41.4 1 in 30 yrs Northern Samar 52.2 7 14.9 49.6 4 in 3 yrs Masbate 51.0 8 5.7 28.8 1 in 1 yr Abra 50.1 9 7.6 82.1 4 in 3 yrs Misamis Occidental 48.8 10 3.5 50 1 in 30 yrs Agusan Del Sur 48.7 11 15.3 51.4 1 in 10 yrs Oriental Mindoro 47.1 12 28.7 54.6 1 in 1 yr Sulu 46.5 13 no data 10.4 1 in 50 yrs Occidental Mindoro 46.5 13 18.3 63.5 1 in 1 yr Kalinga 45.8 15 7.2 84.7 2 in 1 yr Surigao Del Sur 45.4 16 11.1 48.3 1 in 3 yrs Mountain Province 45.0 17 0.8 87.1 2 in 1 yr Sarangani 44.8 18 5.3 67 1 in 50 yrs Lanao Del Norte 44.1 19 11.7 54.9 1 in 30 yrs Negros Oriental 43.7 20 5.6 51 1 in 3 yrs Sorsogon 43.5 21 13.7 47 4 in 3 yrs Antique 43.0 22 13.6 74.5 1 in 2 yrs Eastern Samar 42.7 23 8.5 62.1 4 in 3 yrs Aklan 42.6 24 18.3 66.5 1 in 2 yrs Romblon 41.9 25 10.7 58 1 in 1 yr Camarines Sur 41.2 26 19.2 38 1 in 1 yr Davao Oriental 40.8 27 7.9 70.1 1 in 30 yrs Palawan 40.8 27 10.3 43.7 1 in 3 yrs Marinduque 40.8 27 10.6 78.6 1 in 1 yr Sultan Kudarat 40.7 30 24.4 52.1 1 in 50 yrs Leyte 40.5 31 20.8 49.5 1 in 1 yr Samar 40.2 32 6.2 68.9 1 in 1 yr Sources: NSO, NSCB, MGB, PAGASA, UNDP312 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  11. 11. The degradation of the environment with maximum temperature in excess ofaggravates the impacts of disasters 35oC is expected to increase in all partsand climate change. Deforestation of the country within the said period.19increases the chances of landslides.The Projected seasonal mean temperaturesrisk of drought and poor availability in the Philippines are expected to riseof water are aggravated by the loss by about 0.5oC to 0.9oC for 2020 andof forest cover.18 Depleted mangrove 1.2oC to 2.0oC by 2050. Extreme rainfallreserves deprive coastal communities is also projected to increase in Luzonof natural protection from storm and Visayas, while a decreasing trend issurges. Uncontrolled urban growth projected in Mindanao.coupled with poor land use planningresults in encroachment on protectedforests or danger zones like riverbanks. ChallengesTogether with shortfalls in basicservices such as proper waste disposal Policy Responsesand decent housing, these result inclogged waterways and increased In line with RA 9003 or the Ecologicalflood risk. Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, The degradation of the technical assistance was provided to 1,325 environment aggravates theOf the 32 provinces with poverty LGUs for the closure and rehabilitation impacts of disasters andincidence of at least 40 percent, 16 are of open or controlled dumps, while climate change. Deforestationhit by typhoons at least once a year technical assistance for the establishment increases the chances of(Table 10.3). Provinces in extreme of sanitary landfills was extended to landslides. The risk of droughtNorthern Luzon (Apayao, Abra, 236 LGUs. Despite closure orders and and poor availability of waterKalinga, and Mt. Province) and on technical assistance, there were still 838 are aggravated by the lossthe eastern seaboard (Surigao del open dumpsites and 396 controlled of forest cover. DepletedNorte, Northern Samar, Masbate, disposable facilities that need to be mangrove reserves deprivesAgusan del Sur, and Surigao del Sur), closed or rehabilitated. Only 338 of 1,610 coastal communities ofwhere typhoons are more frequent, cities and municipalities (20.9%) have natural protection from stormare among the 20 poorest provinces. completed their solid waste management surges. Uncontrolled urban plans. In Metro Manila, only eight out growth coupled with poor landClimate change has exacerbated of 17 cities and municipalities have use planning results in thethese hazards. In the last six decades, complete plans. encroachment on protectedthe annual mean temperature has forests or danger zones likeincreased by about 0.57oC. Extreme Hazardous wastes have been an increasing riverbanks. Together withevents and severe climatic anomalies concern because of the increasing number shortfalls in basic services suchhave been recorded, such as heat waves, of transnational companies that generate as proper waste disposal andintense rains and floods, droughts, and hazardous wastes. A core inventory of decent housing, these resultan increasing frequency of typhoons 38,000 legally allowable substances under in clogged waterways andand tropical storms. The Department the Philippine Inventory of Chemicals increased flood risk.of Science and Technology- and Chemical Substances (PICCS) hasPhilippine Atmospheric, Geophysical been prepared. The Toxic Substances andand Astronomical Services Hazardous and Nuclear Waste ControlAdministration (DOST-PAGASA) Act of 1990 (RA 6969) already bans thescenarios for 2020 to 2050 project consumption, storage or transport of toxicwidespread warming in most parts of or nuclear waste into or within the country.the country, with longer hot days and However, the country lacks adequateshorter cold days. The number of days18 OCD-NDCC, Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction of the Philippines: Strategic National Action Plan(2009-2019)19 MDGF-1656, PAGASA GCM Scenarios, 2010 Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 313
  12. 12. equipment and technical expertise to Mines in Western Samar included the deal with these wastes, although steps are implementation of interim structural being taken to define the regulatory and measures, phytoremediation and enforcement responsibilities of various revegetation of disturbed areas. Rapid government agencies. risk assessment of other abandoned and inactive mines has also been With respect to mining, several conducted by the following companies: environmental safeguards and social Basay Mining Corp (Negros Oriental); development programs have been Thanksgiving Mine-Benguet installed in mining projects, including Exploration, Inc. (Benguet); Black the 97 Environmental Protection and Mountain (Benguet); Consolidated Enhancement Program (EPEP), 23 Mines, Inc. (Marinduque); Palawan Final Mine Rehabilitation and/or Quicksilver Mines (Palawan); Western Decommissioning Program (FMR/DP), Mine Corp (Benguet); and Dizon 387 Social Development Management Mines (Zambales). Program (SDMP) and IEC Campaigns. Mining companies have committed While some case studies20 presentA cost-benefit analysis is to inculcate the following in their examples of economic valuation of therequired that considers all environmental and social programs: environment and natural resources,relevant (including nonmarket) other sectors contest the validity of thevalues pertinent to the project. a. the implementation of some 400 parameters used. Issues of transparencyWhile some case studies approved five-year SDMPs for the have also cropped up, with somepresent examples of economic host and neighboring communities sectors and support groups pointing tovaluation of the environment amounting to PhP1.89 billion difficulties in accessing information onand natural resources, other benefitting over 700 barangays mining contracts.sectors contest the validity of nationwide;the parameters used. As for forest lands, approximately b. the implementation of environmental 78,000 hectares were reforested during management and protection activities the period 2004-2010 although this through the EPEP amounting to only 60 percent of the total target of PhP25 billion and for mine closure 130,000 hectares. More than 14 million through the FMR/DP worth PhP600 hectares of untenured forestlands have million; been protected. As of end of 2009, 41 of the 78 target provinces for forest c. a mining forest program with 79 boundary delineation21 have completed participating companies reforesting boundary surveys. Seventeen of these or afforesting 10,319 hectares of mine are ready for legislation. A total of affected and nonmining disturbed areas 336 municipalities were also covered with 9.3 million seedlings; and by public land survey (partial cadastre only) while 770,835 hectares were d. payment of royalties to indigenous covered by patents issued from 2004 peoples of at least PhP330 million to 2010. As of 2010, both government between 2007-2009. and nongovernment sectors reforested a total of 1,958,928 hectares22. The The assessment and rehabilitation of government, through projects of abandoned or inactive mines have also the DENR, contributed a total of been started. The rehabilitation of Bagacay 1,368,645 hectares or 70 percent, 20 Galang, Angelina P., The Philippine Environment in the Ecozoic Age, 2009. 21 The delineation of forestland boundary is the first and an important step in the management of the country’s forest areas. Section 4, Article 12 of the Constitution provides that the congress, shall, as soon as possible, determine by law the specific limits of forest lands and national parks marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. 22 DENR-Forest and Management Bureau314 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  13. 13. while the nongovernment sector Table 10.4 Forest Tenurial Instruments Implementedaccomplished 590,283 hectares or 30 No. LTI Type Number/a Area (has)percent. As of 2010, approximately11.6 million hectares of forestlands 1 Timber License Agreement 4 252,510were covered by some form of 2 Integrated Forest Management Agreement 145 1,017,654community forest managementunder various government programs 3 Socialized Industrial Forest Management Agreement 1,822 36,941(Table 10.4). Despite the rise in the 4 Agroforestry Farm Lease Agreements 17 4,776distributed number of these tenurialinstruments, few protected areas have 5 Tree Farm Lease Agreement 88 9,742been declared, while deforestation 6 Forestland Grazing Management Agreement 364 97,019continues.23 7 Special Land Use Permit 198 2,063Biodiversity conservation and 8 Special Land Use Lease Agreement 18 98protection measures have been takenin the form of cave and wetland 9 Forest Land Use Agreements for Tourism Purposes 31 967management, proclamation of 10 Special Forest Land Use Agreement 11 2,580protected areas and critical habitats,and establishment of protected 11 Community-Based Forest Management Programareas and zones. An Updated CBFM Agreement 1,790 1,633,892 Other CBFM Tenure 3,314 3,200,024National Wetlands Action Plan forthe Philippines (NWAPP) to be 12 Approved CADT and CALT 414 4,276,639implemented from 2011-2016 hasbeen prepared. RA 9072, otherwise 13 PACBRMA 58 22,240known as the National Caves and 14 Areas under Management ArrangementsCave Resources Management and Philippine National Oil Corporation 266,326Protection Act of 2001, provides National Power Corporation 337,721the backbone for managing and National Irrigation Administration 153 22,243 Co-Management Agreement with LGUs 485,536protecting caves in the country. TheDENR Memorandum Circular TOTAL 8,427 11,668,9742007-04 or the Procedure in CaveClassification has been issued to (Footnotes) /a Accumulated from the start of the implementation of each tenurial instrument.assess the status and values associated Source: DENR- Forest Management Bureau (2010)with a particular cave and assign itsmost beneficial use. A Cave StrategicAction Plan has been developed with (NIPAS) Act in 1992, covering 3.53cave stakeholders for implementation million hectares. Terrestrial areas coverwithin the period 2011-2016 to 2.16 million hectares or 7.2 percent ofguide the priority actions on cave the land area, and marine areas covermanagement and conservation. 1.371 million hectares or 0.69 percent of the total sea area of the country. Of these,Biodiversity protection has been 13 protected areas covering 894,262.16expanded and intensified. A total hectares have been established throughof 111 protected areas (terrestrial specific laws, namely: (a)Batanesand marine) have been proclaimed Protected Seascape, (b) Northernsince the passage of the National Sierra Madre in Isabela, (c) BanganIntegrated Protected Areas System Hill National Park in Isabela, (d) Mts.23 Caucus of Development NGO Networks (CODE-NGO), The Freedom from Debt Coalition (FDC) andUnited Nations Development Program (UNDP). Citizen’s Roadmap for Poverty REduction and Achieving theMDGs, Recommendations for the 2010-2016 MTPDP, and Kalikasan People’s Network for the Environment.Philippine Environmental Situation 2001-2009. Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 315
  14. 14. Box 10.1 Women and the Environment and Natural Resources Women, especially the poor, are most vulnerable to changing environmental conditions and economic shifts. The roles of women in the management of the environment and natural resources management have not been duly recognized. Women’s initiatives that include establishment of women-managed areas illustrate women’s enhanced role in effective implementation of coastal resources management. Yet, women are still less recognized particularly in existing policies. One of the critical challenges is the implementation of the Magna Carta of Women (RA 9710), of which an increase in the number of women participating in Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils and other bodies are mandated. In terms of access to productive resources, women enjoy less benefits than their male counterparts. There is differential access among men and women to forest resources. DENR data in 2002/2003 show that women beneficiaries make up only 30 percent of the total holderThe Philippines passed the of community-based forest management agreements (CBFMAs).Climate Change Act of 2009 Source: Philippine Council for Women and Women Network of Aksyon Klima, 2010(RA 9729) to incorporateclimate change in governmentpolicy formulation and establishthe framework strategy for Banahaw-San Cristobal in Quezon and management as a national strategy toclimate change. The National Laguna, (e) Tubbataha Reefs in Palawan, ensure the sustainable developmentFramework Strategy on Climate (f ) Mt. Kanlaon and Sagay in Central of the country’s coastal and marineChange was formulated in Visayas, (h) Mt. Malindang, Misamis; resources. The protection of the2010 to ensure and strengthen (i) Mt. Mimbilisan, Misamis, (j) Mt. whale shark has been intensified withthe adaptation of the country’s Apo, Davao, (k) Mt. Hamiguitan Range, the issuance of AO 282 (March 16,natural ecosystems and human Davao, (l) Mt. Kitanglad, Bukidnon. 2010), providing for the followingcommunities to climate change, There are also protected areas outside added protection for whale sharks:charting a cleaner development the NIPAS such as those proclaimed by mapping of their migratory pathways,path for the country in the LGUs and People’s Organizations (PO). mandatory rescue, intensifiedprocess. This is reinforced by Unfortunately, most of these protected investigation and prosecution, andthe enactment of RA 10121, areas do not have sufficient budgets, staff provision of rewards. EO 797, onthe Philippine Disaster Risk or capacity for effective self-management. the other hand, adopts the CoralReduction and Management Act Triangle National Plan of Action,of 2010. The operating policies and strategies which contributes to the attainment for these laws are provided in various of the goals and targets agreed by the issuances. EO 578 established six Coral Triangle countries under the national policy for protecting, the Regional Plan of Action. During conserving and sustainably utilizing the Ministerial Meeting held in the biological diversity. It also revitalized Solomon Islands in December 2009, the management of rich fishing grounds the six countries officially recognized like the Sulu-Celebes Seas and Verde the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Island Passage, which are considered as the First Priority Seascape under the center of marine shore fish diversity the Coral Triangle Initiative-Regional in the world. The Philippines has signed Plan of Action. an agreement with Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands These initiatives have contributed and Timor Leste on the protection to the protection and conservation and sustainable management of the of threatened species and their Coral Triangle. Through EO 533, the habitats. Among others, the tamaraw government adopted integrated coastal population in the wild has increased316 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  15. 15. from 187 in 2001 to 314 heads a national strategy. Small MPAs arein 2010. In 1999, only about 20 unlikely to provide protection for larger,cockatoos were observed in the more mobile species25 and contributewild; at present about 239 cockatoos little to regional conservation objectives.have been recorded in Raza Island, Smaller MPAs must therefore be scaledPalawan alone. To date, 48 new up to become MPA networks and madespecies of plants and animals have resilient to climate change by developingbeen discovered in the Philippines, or redesigning them into “climate-smart”including new species of bats, birds MPAs.rodents, frogs, and rafflesia (world’slargest flower). The new species Effective and sustained enforcementwere discovered in the mountains of fishery and relevant environmentalof Cagayan, Camiguin, Cordilleras, laws have also been a major challenge.Quezon, Palawan, Mindoro, among There are notable achievements inother places. community-based law enforcement by local Bantay-Dagat groups and networksVarious actions have been taken to in Verde Island Passage and in theaddress threats to coastal resources. Visayas, working as composite teams inSeveral initiatives led to the cooperation with enforcement agenciesestablishment of marine protected and LGUs. Still there is an urgent needareas (MPAs) covering around 22,540 to strengthen, expand, replicate, andsq km. Of more than 1300 existing sustain these successful interventions.and proposed MPAs, however, only10-15 percent are effective. Many As long as coastal resources continueMPAs are either unmanaged or to be threatened by both human-nonfunctioning. Sixty percent are induced and natural disasters, the poor,located in the Visayas Seas region, particularly women, who are dependentin the most heavily-fished waters in on these ecosystems for their subsistencethe country. It is estimated that 4.9 will likewise be further disadvantagedpercent of coastal municipal waters (Box 10.1).are protected as MPAs, but only 0.5percent are within no-take areas. One To deal with disasters and extreme events,study shows that marine corridors are the country has adopted legislationalso not well represented by the current and policy dealing with DRRM andMPAs.24 Four of the nine identified CCA. Since the signing of the Unitedcorridors (namely, Babuyan Corridor, Nations Framework Convention onMindoro-Calavite Tablas Triangle, Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992,Balabac Strait Corridor, Sibutu the country has passed several lawsPassage-Sulu Archipelago Corridor, and localized various internationalTicao Pass-San Bernardino Strait- environmental commitments. Its policySamar Sea Corridor, Panay Gulf responses have evolved from approachesGuimaras Strait Corridor, Philippine focusing on greenhouse gas emissionsSea Corridor and Tapiantana to one that integrates mitigation andCorridor) have designated no MPAs. adaptation in practically all sectors. ItsThis implies that the development of policy and institutional reforms areMPAs has largely been dominated by implemented through broad-basedlocal initiatives rather than through platforms on sustainable development24 Weeks, R; Russ, GT; Alcala, AC; White, AT. Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines forBiodiversity Conservation. Conservation Biology, Volume 24 Issue 2 p. 531-540. April 201025 Sale, PF, et al, 2005. Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends in Ecology & Evolution20:74-80. Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 317
  16. 16. Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction Box 10.2 Environmental Education and Management Act of 2010. In 2008, the Philippines enacted RA 9512 or the “National Environmental The National Disaster Risk Awareness and Education Act of 2008”. This legislation concretized Reduction and Management Council the country’s support to the United Nations Decade of Education for (formerly NDCC) has been given Sustainable Development (2005-2014) and the ASEAN Environmental the mandate to protect the wellbeing Education Action Plan for Sustainable Development (2008-2012). This of people and safeguard the national law has reiterated the policy of the State to protect and advance the economy and environment through right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with more concrete financial investment the rhythm and harmony of nature. The law has further recognized in DRR. This paradigm shift is also the vital role of the youth in nation building, and the role of education in consonance with the country’s to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress and international commitment to the provide total human liberation and development. Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) of 2005, which seeks to build the In the DENR, the Environmental Education and Information Division resilience of nations and communities (EEID) and the 16 Regional Environmental Education and Information in the face of disasters. The National Sections of the EMB has been the agency’s lead arm in creating DRRM Framework and Plan environmental awareness. It has spearheaded year-round environmental utilizes the multihazard approach in events from World Water Day (March 22) and Philippine Water Week managing the impact of natural and (third week of March), International Earth Day (April 22), Philippine human-induced disasters. It calls for Earth Month (April), World Environment Day (June 5), Philippine building the disaster resilience of Environment Month (June), National Clean Up Month, and National communities and institutionalizing Ozone Protection (September), International Ozone Day (September arrangements and measures for 16), International Coastal Clean Up Weekend (third weekend of reducing disaster risks, and enhancing September), National Clean Air Month, and National Environmental disaster-preparedness and response Awareness Month (November), Global Warming and Climate Change capabilities at all levels. Since DRR Consciousness Week (November 19-24). is closely linked to poverty alleviation and development, it is necessary to EEID’s activities which include distribution of IEC materials, recyclables link it firmly to development planning collection, tree planting and environmental exhibits have contributed to at all levels. the increasing awareness of Filipinos in caring for the environment and natural resources of the country. Before the passage of RA 10121, Source: DENR-EMB, 2009 the government already initiated the development of a long-term master plan for disaster mitigation known as the Strategic National Action Plan such as multisector national plans and on DRR or SNAP. This document strategies, and special environmental proactively serves as a road map for management agenda. The Philippines the next 10 years and was formulated passed the Climate Change Act of through as inclusive participatory 2009 (RA 9729) to incorporate climate process of all stakeholders. SNAP was change in government policy formulation approved on June 17, 2010 through and establish the framework strategy EO 888 (Adopting the SNAP on for climate change. The National DRR). EO 888 explicitly adopts Framework Strategy on Climate Change the 18 priority programs/projects was formulated in 2010 to ensure on DRR and identified agencies and strengthen the adaptation of the with primary responsibility. The country’s natural ecosystems and human consistency of SNAP with RA 10121 communities to climate change, charting however still has to be reviewed and a cleaner development path for the reevaluated. country in the process. This is reinforced by the enactment of RA 10121, the318 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  17. 17. The GAA allocates specific amountsannually (PhP5 billion in 2011) forthe calamity fund, for use in aid, Box 10.3 Devolution of ENR Functionsrelief and rehabilitation services tocommunities or areas affected by man- The Local Government Code of 1991 placed LGUs at the forefrontmade and natural calamities, repair of environment and natural resources management. According to theand reconstruction of permanent League of Municipalities of the Philippines (LMP), the following ENRstructures, including other capital functions were devolved to LGUs in 2005:expenditures for disaster operation,and rehabilitation activities, although a. Regulation of environmental impacts of SMEs under Kalakalanit has a special provision allowing 20 Law;its use for predisaster activities. Onthe other hand, Section 22 of the b. Regulation of fishing in municipal waters;Philippine DRRM Act of 2010 (RA10121) also enumerates permissible c. Regulation of minor mineral extraction like small-scale mining anduses of the annual calamity fund, certain scales of quarrying and sand and gravel gathering;generally allowing support for awider range of activities. There is a d. Regulation of nuisance and pollution under the Clean Air Act;need to reconcile differences andarrive at a common interpretation of e. Solid waste management under the Ecological Solid Wastewhat DRR measures can be charged Management Act; andagainst the calamity fund. Moreover,a big financing gap exists between the f. Antismoke belching program.annual budget reserve of governmentfor calamities (average of PhP2 billion Likewise, the Code assigns municipalities the task of establishing aa year) and the damage typically solid waste disposal system or environmental management systemincurred in times of disasters. and services or facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation. Meanwhile, provinces are tasked to enforce forestry laws limited toRisk transfer mechanisms such as community-based forestry projects, pollution control law, small-scalemicroinsurance/finance, although mining law, and other laws on the protection of the environment; andavailable, need to be made more minihydro electric projects for local purposes.accessible. Health insurance is also Source: WB Country Environmental Analysis, 2009being made more widely accessible,but the uptake by poor ruralcommunities, which are the mostaffected in terms of disaster, remainslow.26 in the development of their disaster risk management programs, their localThe government has initiated various climate change action plans and in theprograms and projects to provide formulation of their land use plans.more up-to-date scientific and Vulnerability assessments, adaptationtechnical information and data scales tools and downscaling climate changeto be used in decision making. The scenarios and projections are beingDENR- Ecosystems Research and developed to equip decision makers andDevelopment Bureau (ERDB) has planners on how to adapt to climatecompleted vulnerability assessments change and disasters. IEC campaignof 43 priority watersheds nationwide materials and knowledge managementwith the aim of highlighting areas products are also being created to increasevulnerable to soil erosion, landslide, public awareness of climate change, itsbiodiversity loss, and forest fire. Such impacts and attendant risks, and DRR.information is critical for LGUs26 SNC Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 319
  18. 18. Institutional Issues in the implementation of various laws such as the Mining Act, NIPAS Act, Despite government efforts at IPRA and the LGC, among others. sustainably managing the country’s These conflicts, overlaps, or divergent environment and natural resources, interpretations have led to the delay environmental degradation continues. or suspension of some projects. The plethora of laws and policies, as well as the established agencies to manage, Government capacity for protect, and preserve the country’s resource management is environment and natural resources have wanting not sufficed or worked effectively enough to address the threats to ecological Overlapping jurisdictions. Due to integrity. Institutional issues need to be the large number of players in the addressed to ensure the sustainability of environment and natural resources the country’s fragile environment and sector, governance issues are natural resources. Policies, programs and inevitable. In some instances, conflicts existing institutional arrangements must arise between national and localFor CCA, putting in place be revisited in order to move forward governments in terms of the protectionadaptation measures also and deliver the promise of sustainable and utilization of natural resources.requires financial resources. development. This is apparent when LGUs initiateThe Philippines continues to the reversion of abandoned fishponds,uphold the UNFCCC principle Implementation is confused while it is the DENR who should leadof common and differentiated by overlapping and conflicting the process, following the Philippineresponsibilities to hold on to policies Fisheries Code of 1998 and severalthe agreement that Annex I joint administrative orders. Anothercountries will extend financial There is a need to review and harmonize concern is the national-local conflictsassistance over and above the a number of conflicting and overlapping in mining projects, specifically whenlevel of development assistance. policies. A case of policy conflict is LGUs pass local legislation rejectingDeveloped countries are that between forest protection laws, on or opposing the entry or expansionrequired under the Convention the one hand, and the Agriculture and of large-scale mining projects. Thisto provide new and additional Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA), contravenes the DOJ opinion thatresources, either through on the other. AFMA encourages local ordinances cannot undo a lawbilateral, multilateral or regional agriculture expansion into the uplands and should not run counter to nationalfunding mechanisms, to meet including forestlands through the policy; DENR memoranda alsothe agreed costs of developing creation of Strategic Agriculture and order its regional offices to continuecountries in complying with their Fisheries Development Zone (SAFDZs) implementing their mandate.27obligations as well. The country, that promote the production of highhowever, cannot be dependent value crops such as coconut, pineapple To ensure compliance in incorporatingon these funds. and sugarcane. While there is a need to CCA and DRRM management in improve the income of upland farmers, the development process, the roles of the identification of suitable upland agencies and their respective mandates areas for commercial high-value crop as provided by law must converge and production should be given priority and synchronize. The Climate Change closely undertaken together with DENR Act and the Philippine DRRM to avoid onsite and offsite negative Act of 2010 are significant strides externalities. The NIPAS Act is also in to include climate change and conflict with the Fishery Code on the DRR management in the planning municipal water income of municipalities process. Sectoral plans, including the within protected areas, as well as the LGC Environment and Natural Resources on the matter of the jurisdiction of LGUs Framework Plan, must be updated to within protected areas. Conflicts also exist include these concerns. 27 DOJ Opinion No. 8, Series of 2005320 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  19. 19. Technical expertise. Environment consolidation of data/information toand natural resources management deliver quality and timely statisticsrequires a skilled and competent in spatial and digital form. (Box 10.2workforce to implement professional summarizes current government effortsstandards of operation in on environmental education.)environment, but technical expertsand trained personnel at the national Enforcement of environmentaland local levels are in short supply. laws and policies is inadequateSome implementing agencieshave the capacity to implement Full and effective implementationprovisions of environment and of environmental laws, policies andnatural resources laws requiring the programs continues to be a challenge.application of new and sophisticated Governance issues, including corruption,technologies (e.g., highly technical are among the reasons for low complianceLAMTM technologies – geographic in these laws. The incomplete devolutioninformation system (GIS), global of mandates to LGUs has also hamperedpositioning system (GPS), valuation, their full implementation (see Box 10.3databases and online connectivity of for devolved functions). A DILG-information systems). Still others, commissioned study in 200528 calledhowever, particularly LGUs, still the state of environment and naturalhave to develop the competence to resource devolution “partial and at worst,implement their mandated tasks and minuscule and insignificant”. Devolvedto properly assume environment and functions were mainly peripheral,natural resources functions. unattractive to private investors, and were costly to perform. Among these functionsInformation systems. Integrated, were watershed regulation, greenbeltupdated and quality information and treepark development, farmer-levelfor ENR and climate change is integrated social forestry, and small-necessary for planning, management scale mining, all of which do not attractand decision making. The lack of significant investments from the privatea participatory and science-based sector or are limited to certain LGUs.baseline data creates discrepancies The control of smoke-belching vehicles,that can cause uncertainty and lead the management of solid wastes, andto serious errors in carrying out the coastal zone regulation and protection arepolicy and planning functions of devolved functions requiring substantialENR stakeholders. investments from LGUs. In 2007, ADB also commissioned a study on theA better system for gathering, devolution of DENR functions, to helpprocessing, storing, and sharing identify responsibilities in the Integratedinformation needs to be put in place. Coastal Resources Management ProjectThe DENR is currently implementing (ICRMP). The study pointed out thethe Information Systems Strategic institutional weaknesses in most of thePlan (ISSP) which aims to provide a 206 Protected Area Management Boardscoherent, integrated and decentralized (PAMBs) revealed by a 2003 UNDPset of data to every office, making study. Of these PAMBs, only five wereinformation to stakeholders available fully constituted boards backed by specificanytime. ISSP also aims to develop laws; the rest became interim boards.29information systems that will addressthe integration, collaboration and28 DILG/ADB, 2005. Local Government Financing and Budget Reform.29 ADB, Country Environmental Analysis, 2008. Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 321
  20. 20. Contributing to poor enforcement and their obligations as well. The country, compliance is the lack of knowledge however, cannot be dependent on of environmental laws, policies, and these funds. programs among LGUs, specifically in communities or barangays. There are The National Environmental still rural communities which depend on Economic and Development Study resource extraction for their livelihood. (NEEDS) 2010 on the inventory of Relevant environmental laws, specifically financial flows showed that grants those regulating the utilization of natural to the environment, agriculture, resources, e.g., NIPAS, Wildlife Act, etc. biodiversity, energy, CCA, health, and are poorly implemented. There is a need water supply and sanitation address to intensify information and advocacy only a given problem or requirement, campaigns on existing environmental like solid waste management, laws and policies among communities. resource conservation, production constraints, biodiversity loss, Absence of a financing strategy Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, for environment and natural institutional capacity, outbreakIn order to improve the resources programs and CCA of infectious diseases, and waterconservation, protection, shortages. The grants received haveand rehabilitation of the Government programs are hobbled by moreover been limited in scope andcountry’s natural resources, financial constraints. Funding support geographic coverage. The restrictedthe sector shall pursue their for watershed management has been project scale, for instance, could besustainable use and integrated insufficient to cover all important seen in an integrated area projectmanagement. Natural resources watersheds. It will take 280 years to covering at most only one or fewmanagement activities shall be reforest given the average budget cities or municipalities, a watersheddirected at enhancing the state allocation of about PhP300 million or ecosystem, or of a nationwide scaleof the different ecosystems and for reforestation in the past 10 years.30 but focused only on a few provincesthe natural resources within Thus, more funds should be allocated, or interregional areas. Limitedthem to provide resource- to prioritize watersheds that support geographical coverage result in projectdependent communities with irrigated lands. The implementation benefits being confined to particularsustainable livelihoods. of National Sewerage and Septage area niches, a project piloting mode Management Program by the DPWH of introducing change, an inability to has also been slow due to lack of funds scale up, and turfing among country to meet the large investment needed for donors and multilateral agencies infrastructure development. (EMB-DENR, 2010). As for CCA, putting in place adaptation The NEEDS study concluded the measures also requires financial resources. budgetary resources set aside by the The Philippines continues to uphold the Philippine Government for CCA have UNFCCC principle of common and been inadequate. The larger budgetary differentiated responsibilities to hold on share of disaster management from to the agreement that Annex I countries 2003 to 2008 did not represent proactive will extend financial assistance over and efforts to mitigate the expected damages above the level of development assistance. and risks from natural disasters but Developed countries are required under merely reflected the postdisaster relief the Convention to provide new and and rehabilitation expenditures. additional resources, either through bilateral, multilateral or regional funding The budget for DRR, particularly those mechanisms, to meet the agreed costs of appropriated as Calamity Fund in the developing countries in complying with GAA, still reflects the response-oriented 30 DENR-FMB322 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016
  21. 21. perspective of traditional disastermanagement. The DRRM Act (RA Strategic Framework10121) already explicitly provides for thechange in the nature of the calamity fund Consistent with Philippine Agendamaking it more appropriate for DRR 21 and its enhanced version and theuse as the NDRRMF. Government country’s commitments to multilateralbudget allocations for DRR should environmental agreements, thebe clearly delineated so that aid from Environment and Natural Resourceinternational financial institutions can Sector shall pursue the following goalsbe directed to where it is really needed. and strategies:It is also critical to determine the extentand manner of obtaining funding from Goal 1. Improvedother stakeholders and partners in order Conservation, Protectionto finance DRR activities, especially and Rehabilitation of Naturalcostly structural measures. ResourcesWhile good results from DRR In order to improve the conservation,projects and activities have provided protection, and rehabilitation of the The PNRPS aims to empoweropportunities for sound practices to take country’s natural resources, the sector forestland managers androot, existing organizational and societal shall pursue their sustainable use support groups that sustainablystructures do not necessarily allow and integrated management. Natural and equitably managingpositive values to thrive. Sustaining resources management activities shall forestlands and ancestralmechanisms such as making DRR a be directed at enhancing the state of domains with enhanced carbonregular budget item, strengthening PPP, the different ecosystems and the natural stock and reduced greenhousecreating incentives for disaster risk- resources within them to provide gasses emission. Besidesreducing behaviour, recognizing and resource-dependent communities with reducing forest degradationreplicating best practice, instilling risk sustainable livelihoods. Priority shall be and deforestation, the strategyawareness at all levels of government, given to the implementation of national alleviates poverty, conservesin households, firms and workplaces action plans on forest, biodiversity, coastal biodiversity, and improvesshould be part of a general strategic plan. and marine resources and wetlands. governance. Mechanisms and policies will be pursuedThe inadequacy of financing for the to rationalize the use of the country’s landenforcement of laws and policies is and mineral resources. In line with thean important continuing concern. National Framework Strategy on ClimateSeveral studies and initiatives have Change, integrated ecosystem-basedbeen undertaken to measure the costs management will continue to be adoptedof user’s activities on natural resources, as a major strategy for sustainable naturalassessing the feasibility of generating resource management as well as a meansfunds for their management. ENR to adapt to climate change scenarios. Asagencies however continue to rely a safeguard for all undertakings with alargely on administrative services for potential impact on the environmentregulation rather than on market-based and natural resources, a mechanism forinstruments. third party cost-benefit analysis31 and monitoring shall be enforced that takes environmental and social costs and benefits into account.31 WB, 2009 Conservation, Protection & Rehabilitation of the Environment & Natural Resources 323