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PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
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PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status

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PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY: …

PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY:
Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status
A.C. Alcala, E.L. Alcala, I.E. Buot Jr.,
A. Diesmos, M.L. Dolar
E.S. Fernando, J.C. Gonzalez and
B. Tabaranza

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  • Palawan is a super-sized province in terms of tourism, rich wildlife and biodiversity. Please support eco-tourism and no to mining in Palawan. There are many other sources of income rather than mining which devastates our God-given paradise.
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  • YES TO LIFE
    AGRICULTURE & ECO TOURISM
    No to mining in Palawan AND other
    Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs)
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  • Ang yaman ng Palawan ay yaman ng Pilipinas It is known as the Philippines’ Last Ecological Frontier. It has 40% of our country’s remaining mangrove areas, 30% of our coral reefs, at least 17 Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), 2 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and 8 declared Protected Areas (PAs). It is unmatched anywhere in the country
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  • 1. PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY:Ecological Roles, Uses, and Conservation Status A.C. Alcala1, E.L. Alcala1, I.E. Buot Jr.2, A. Diesmos3, M.L. Dolar4 E S Fernando5, J C Gonzalez6 and B Tabaranza7 E.S. J.C. B. 1 Silliman University-Angelo King Center for Research and Environmental Management, 2/F SU Marine Lab., University- Silliman Beach, Dumaguete City, 6200 2 Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines – Los Baños, g , g , y pp , College, 4031 Laguna 3 National Museum of the Philippines, Padre Burgos Ave., Ermita, Manila 4 Tropical Marine Research for Conservation, 6363 Lakewood St., San Diego, CA 92122, USA 5 Department of Forest Biological Sciences, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines – L B ñ Phili i Los Baños, C ll College, 4031 LLaguna 6 Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences, and Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines – Los Baños, College, 4031 Laguna 7 Haribon Foundation, 140 Kalayaan Ave, Diliman, Quezon City
  • 2. Introduction• The Philippines is a mega-biodiversity center mega-g y of the world• Insular nature equable and nature, tropical conditions Geographic isolation with sea g p barriers Diverse microhabitats Mountain areas with high endemism rates Rise of sea level to 120m after lowest level 18 000 20 000 yr 18,000-20,000 Pleistocene Ice-age islands ago was attained 6,000 yr ago of the Philippines
  • 3. Introduction• Socio-economic/ecological Socio-economic/ importance of p biodiversity y © NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Variety of human uses -- medicines, food, natural A products, source of income Promotes/stabilizes natural productivity of ecosystems d ti it f t © JASPE MAYPA Sources of genetic material for bio-technology ER i • Specific information included in discussion of various taxonomic groups
  • 4. Introduction presentation deals with the followingThis hotos: E Fernando I Buot E Alcala, L Dolar J Maypa, J Gonzaleztaxonomic groups: o, G Flowering Plants and Ferns -- E.S. Fernando, I.E. Buot Ph Fishes -- A.C. Alcala Amphibians and Reptiles -- A.C. Alcala, A. Diesmos Birds -- J.C. Gonzalez Mammals --L.M.Dolar, E.L.Alcala, B.Tabaranza
  • 5. PhilippineFlowering PlantsFl i Pl by E.S. Fernando Department of Forest Biological Sciences College of Forestry and Natural Resources University of the Philippines – Los Baños f
  • 6. Plants are the primaryproducers and provide th habitat d the infrastructure for f many ecosystems. t
  • 7. © NATION GEOGRAPHIC Plants are an NAL food important source for us and our wildlife. Ptenochirus jagori feeding on fruits of Ficus nota GRAPHICPlantsPl t have great © NATIONAL GEOG economicimportance andi t potential
  • 8. Plants play a key role in maintainingth b i ecological b lthe basic l i l balance and d ecosystem stability. Plants provide ecological goods and services, i . d i.e clean air, potable water, fertile soils.
  • 9. Estimated number of species of plants (including algae, fungi, & lichens) currently known from the Philippines Plant Group Estimated Number of Endemic p Species Species p Angiosperms 8,120 5,800 (71%) Gymnosperms y p 33 6 (18%) ( Pteridophytes 1,100 285 (26%) Bryophytes yop ytes 1,271 , 195 (15%) 95 ( 5 Algae 1,355 ? Fungi, slime molds, 3,555 ? & water molds Lichens 789 ?(data from Gruezo 1979; DENR-UNEP 1997; Villareal & Fernando 2000; Barcelona 2002) Fernando et al. (2006)
  • 10. Threatened plants of the Philippines (2005 assessment by the Philippine Plant Conservation Committee) Plant Group CR EN VU OTS OWS PE All Categories C t i Angiosperms 85 142 124 56 71 2 480 Gymnosperms G - 9 2 - - - 11 Pteridophytes 9 35 51 8 99 1 203 Bryophytes - 2 - - - - 2 All Taxonomic 94 188 177 64 170 3 696 GroupsCR – Critically Endangered; EN – Endangered; VU- Vulnerable; OTS – Other Threatened Species;OWS – Other Wildlife Species; PE – Possibly Extinct. Fernando et al. (2006)
  • 11. CENTERS OF PLANT DIVERSITY in the Philippines areas rich in plant species, large number of endemic species, diverse range of habitats.1 Sierra Madre Mountains 11 Southern Samar 7 Luzon Island Samar Island 12 Mt Guiting-guiting Guiting- 22 Mt Pulag Luzon Island Sibuyan Island 13 Mt Arayat Luzon Island 13 Mt Kanlaon Negros Island 3 14 Mt Talinis + Lake Balinsayao 44 Mt Makiling Luzon Island 5 6 Negros Island* 8 125 Lobo, Batangas 9 15 Mt Baloy Panay Island* B l 11 Luzon Island* 15 136 Mt Isarog Luzon Island 16 Mt Kitanglad Mindanao Island 10 14 177 Mt Iraya Batan Island 17 Agusan Marsh Mindanao Island 16 188 Mt Halcon Mindoro Island* 18 Mt Apo Mindanao Island9 C Coron Island I l d10 Palawan Island Fernando et al. (2006) Cox 1988, DENR-UNEP 1997
  • 12. Philippines88ConservationPriority Areas yfor Plants~I Important t tPlant Areas a t easBased on presence of endangeredspecies, endemism and taxonrichness, habitat diversity, degree i h h bit t di it dof exploration Fernando et al. (2006)
  • 13. Philippine Ferns“Non Seed-bearing Vascular Plants” Seed- by I.E. Buot Jr. Institute of Biological Sciences College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines – L Baños U i it f th Phili i Los B ñ
  • 14. Pteridophytes ot Photos by J Maypa & I Buo1100 species y144 genera39 families(Barcelona 2002) Buot (2006)
  • 15. Fourty-nine (49) species are Threatened (Tan et al 1986, Madulid 2000) loggingslash and b rn farming burn over collection etc. Buot (2006)
  • 16. All the 26 endemic Cyathea species arevulnerable or potentially endangered (Madulid 2000) Trunks of Cyathea spp. harvested for Ornamental Use Buot (2006)
  • 17. Cyathea croziers yharvested from Mt. Mayon as Teddy bears Lycopodium spp. collected from the ll t d forests of Quezon Buot (2006)
  • 18. Overcollection of Platycerium coronarium from the wilderness of ildQuezon, Laguna, Albay, etc Buot (2006)
  • 19. Why Conserve the ferns and their allies? allies? FoodOrnamental Medicine Handicraft etc. (Zamora and Co 1986) Buot (2006)
  • 20. Philippine F h tPhili i Freshwater & Marine Fishes by A.C. Alcala Silliman University - Angelo King Center for Research and Environmental Management Silliman Beach, Dumaguete City
  • 21. Freshwater FishesFlock ofresult of explosive evolution ofCyprinids 18 species i 5 genera encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com encyclopedia thefreedictionary com Cyprinus carpio 17 species in 4 genera are endemic p g -George Myers (1959) Probably, Probably only 34 3-4 species Exist! A.C. Alcala (2006)
  • 22. Phot by J Maypa & B StockwellTOP CARNIVOROUSMarine Fi h Fishes 69 species tos i 4 Families SerranidaeCarangidae Lutjanidae Lethrinidae A.C. Alcala (2006)
  • 23. Photos by J Maypa The top Mcarnivorous fish isfirst to disappear and last to appear in exploited reefs A.C. Alcala (2006)
  • 24. The carrying capacity is probably reached forSpecies richnessbut not for Biomass. 30 35 Diversity y Biomass 25 30 ) 2 y = -0.0493x + 2.0024x + 3.0381 -2 25 Recovery is 2 00m 20 R = 0.9692 ies No. of speci B iomass (K g·50 20 slow and only when 15 15 protected. 10 2 10 5 y = 0.0781x - 0.0234x + 0.5005 5 2 R = 0.9777 ockwell 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Photos: J Maypa & B Sto Years of Protection Recovery of top carnivorous fish in 4 F Families in MPA ili MPAs : (source: B Stockwell, APCRS 2006) A.C. Alcala (2006)
  • 25. The original species g p richness beforeintense exploitation is unknown.MPAs are useful to Photo by J Maypashow patterns of tt b h recovery oncoral reefs only -- slow, decades A.C. Alcala (2006)
  • 26. Philippine Amphibians pp p and Reptiles by A C Alcala1 A.C. and A Diesmos2 A. 1Silliman University - Angelo King Center for Research & Environmental Management E i t lM t Silliman Beach, Dumaguete City 2NationalMuseum of the Philippines Padre B P d Burgos Ave., E it Manila A Ermita, M il
  • 27. ypa, E & A Alcala J MayEstimated number of species of amphibians in the Phili Philippines i Amphibian # Species # in Forest Caecilians 3 3 100.0 % Frogs & Toads 99 84 84.9 % TOTAL 102 87 85.3 85 3 % More than 100 species, will increase with refinements in systematics t ti 7 Families, mostly Ranids & Rhacophorids Up to 63% determined to be near threatened to 63% h d endangered AC Alcala & A Diesmos (2006)
  • 28. Photo J Maypa os:Estimated number of species of reptiles in the Phili Philippines i Reptile # Species # in Forest Lizards 107 82 76.6 % Snakes 85 62 72.9 % Turtles 3 2 66.7 % Crocodiles 2 1 50.0 % TOTAL 197 147 74.6 %14 FamiliesLizards & snakes are predominant Species of sea snakes (H d hiid )15 S i k (Hydrophiids) are excluded AC Alcala & A Diesmos (2006)
  • 29. 85%85% of the Amphibians and 75% of the Reptiles are associated with Forests. Photo by J MaypaAmphibiansA hibi - indicators of climate change - 28 to 63% Threatened to Critically 63% y Endangered gReptiles - Probably 30% Threatened to Endangered 30% AC Alcala & A Diesmos (2006)
  • 30. Photo J Maypa os:Our study in SW Negros shows 20% species 20% locally extinct in 50-60 years 50- (Alcala, E. al. 2004, (Alcala E et al 2004 Environmental Conservation journal)Key Activity for conservation: Protected areas by local stakeholdersRole of l large species of A hibi Amphibians & Reptiles: nutrient cycling, leather industry p y g, y AC Alcala & A Diesmos (2006)
  • 31. Philippine Birds by J.C. Gonzalez Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological SciencesCollege of Arts & Sciences, and Museum of Natural History University of the Philippines – Los Baños
  • 32. Philippines is a global hotspot forAVIAN diversity and endemism. ez Photo by JC Gonzale576 species os192 are endemic (Collar et al., 1999) JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 33. tos: JC Gonzalez PhotAt least 5 new species recently described Bukidonon Woodcock (Scolopax bukidnonensis) Calayan Rail (Gallirallus calayanensis) Camiguin Hanging Parrot (Loriculus camiguinensis) Lina s Lina’s Sunbird (Aethopyga linarabori) Pygmy Frogmouth (Batrachostomus pygmaeus) JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 34. tos: JC Gonzalez PhotTaxonomy of Philippine BirdsDivided into two groups Morphological (Gill 1990) Biochemical Systematics (Sibley & Monroe 1991) Bi h i l S t tiChecklist follows two sources Kennedy et al., 2000 - 572 species BirdLife International - 576 species Bi dLif I t ti l i JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 35. tos: JC Gonzalez Phot Threatened Philippine Bird Species Year 1988 1994 1999 2006CriticalC i i l 49 16 13 13Endangered 32 13 12Vulnerable 45 43 43Data Deficient - 4 4Near-Near-threatened 40 48 49 56 Collar & BirdLife SOURCE Andrew Collar et al al. Collar et al. al International JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 36. Photos: JC Gonzalez Extinct or Extirpated BirdsSome species are likely to be extinct, having not been recorded for several years. • Negros Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus arcanus) Fruit- -not seen since 1953 t • Sulu Bleedingheart (Gallicolumba menagei) -not seen since 1891 i • Cebu Flowerpecker was reported extinct in 1901, but 1901 b t was rediscovered iin 1992 JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 37. otos: JC Gonzalez PhoExtinct or Extirpated Birds Two subspecies are known to be functionally extinct f ti ll ti t• Ticao Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini ticaensis)• Si ij Hanging Parrot Siquijor H i P t (Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis) JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 38. tos: JC Gonzalez Phot Major Threats j Photo by J Maypa• Habitat loss & conversion y• D f Deforestation t ti• Collection of secondary forest products• Large scale land conversion• Encroachment of permanent & f shifting agriculture (kaingin)• Hunting and Poaching JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 39. tos: JC Gonzalez Phot Why conserve birds?• rich avifauna and center for global Exceptionally avian endemism• Biological indicators for diversity and environmental health• Keystone species and form large congregations ti• Agents for both pollination and seed dispersal and controlling pest populations JC Gonzalez (2006)
  • 40. Philippine M iPhili i Marine Mammals by M.L. Dolar Tropical Marine Research for Conservation 6363 Lakewood St., San Diego, California
  • 41. Marine Mammals Photos by L Dolar, B Pitman, WWF ,Order Cetacea 26 species Baleen Whales = 5 Toothed Whales/Dolphins = 21 Toothed Whales/DolphinsOrder Sirenia 1 speciesAll 26 are threatened! threatened! Sirenia Baleen Whales ML Dolar (2006)
  • 42. AllWhales & Dolphins are threatened byfish nets ( ill nets, ring nets, d ift nets, etc) (gill t i t drift t t ) often as by-catch of fishers by- ML Dolar (2006)
  • 43. Rarest and Critically endangered! gIrrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) • Only O l 77 Animals iin 2000 • Major threat – 70% of 22,878 people iin Malampaya Sound • Malampaya Sound – Protected Seascape since 2000 rom WWF-Phil. Website Fr .Geographic distribution ML Dolar (2006)
  • 44. Rarest and Critically endangered! g Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris)Best population estimate: 77 animals (CV= 27.4%) ML Dolar (2006)
  • 45. Threats to the Irrawaddy dolphins1. Burgeoning human population – 27, 828 people, 70% are fishermen , p p , – growth rate = 6.67% (birth & immigration)2. Entanglement in fishing nets and structures3. Heavy boat traffic4. Eutrophication ML Dolar (2006)
  • 46. SIRENIANS: Dugongs g g Note: IUCN Red Data List whale-like flukes (2000) Threatened Species – vulnerable to extinction at a global g scale DENR Administrative Order 55 (1991) – p protected dugongs in g g Philippine watersGeographic Di t ib tiG hi Distribution ML Dolar (2006)
  • 47. Threats to the Dugong Population1. Fishing nets (e.g. crab nets, hulbot-hulbot) hulbot-2. Entrapment in fish pens2 E t t3. Blast fishing g4. Habitat degradation – denudation of seagrass beds Hulbot-hulbot Fish pen Dynamite casualty in 2004 ML Dolar (2006)
  • 48. Philippine Land Mammals b E.L. Alcala1 by E L & B Tabaranza2 B. 1Silliman University-Angelo King University- Center for Research and Environmental Management2/F SU Marine Lab., Silliman Beach, Dumaguete City, 6200 2Haribon Foundation, 140 Kalayaan Ave Diliman, Quezon City
  • 49. Land Mammals179 species111 are endemic EL Alcala1 & B Tabaranza (2006)
  • 50. Red List Mammals Threatened SpeciesFamilies Species Endemic Endangered Critical Vulnerable 12 49 45 15 7 27 Thehighest number of endangered g g species in terms of per-unit area Thehighest number of new species discovered EL Alcala1 & B Tabaranza (2006)
  • 51. Strategies for Conservation
  • 52. Strategies for Conservation and for Preventing Extinction• Establish protected areas• Prevent alien species introduction• No introduction to new habitats• Re- Re introduction of llost species with R -i d i i safeguards
  • 53. Strategies for Conservation and for Preventing Extinction• Re-introduction of lost Re- species with safeguards• Preserve remnants of original forest, etc forest etc.• inventory and Practical domestication of usefull d i i f Philippine spotted deer, fruit bat, and plants Visayan warty pig breeding facilities at• Captive breeding Silliman University
  • 54. Strategies for Conservation and for Preventing Extinction• Ecotourism Now! Before Pamilacan Island, Bohol
  • 55. Summary & Conclusions
  • 56. Summary of Conservation Status Threatened to Critically Taxonomic Species Endemic Endangered as of 2006 Group Richness Species % of total Species % of totalPlants 10,524 6,286 59.73 696 16.6 18, ca 4Fish still 17 94.1 4 100(cyprinids) existing(?)Amphibians 102 76(?) ca 75 29(?) ca 28-63 28-Reptiles 197 138(?) ca 70 40(?) ca 20%(?) 576Birds 192 33% 128 22MarineM i 26 - - 26 (1) 100 (4)MammalsLand 179 111 ca 67.4% 49 27MammalsNote: Numbers for land vertebrates are approximate Total of 1,054 land vertebrates in 30 million hectares of land, but new systematics reveals there will be more additions to total about 1,100.
  • 57. Summary & Conclusions• ThePhilippines is indeed a country of very high biodiversity in terms of species y p• “hot spot” because of high rates of habitat But a destruction & extinction• 20% of amphibians and reptiles locally extinct 20% in 50- i 50-60 years due t forest destruction and to d fragmentation
  • 58. Summary & Conclusions• causes of decrease in abundance are heavy Other exploitation and hybridization with domestic species, e.g. wild pig on N i ild i Negros, crocodiles dil• Manyspecies of higher animals are threatened due to alien species invasion, e.g. Cyprinids of Lake Lanao• Many plant species are threatened with extinction for various reasons
  • 59. Looking to the Future g“At the end of the day, in a more democratic world, it will be the world ethics and desires of the p p people, not their leaders, who give power to government and the NGOs or take it away. They will decide… and choose ill d id d h whether particular species will live or die.” die - E.O. Wilson (2002)

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