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Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development
 

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Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development

Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development

Plaridel Institute of Strategic Studies
Angeles University, Pampanga
Aug. 26, 2005

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  • Ring of Fire / Rim of Fire– a geological faultline encircling the Pacific that is associated with rich deposits of copper, gold and other minerals; intensed volcanic a ctivity at the margins of the tectonic palates and well-known for epithermal gold, porphyry copper-gold and volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits.

Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development Presentation Transcript

  • Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development Plaridel Institute of Strategic Studies Angeles University, Pampanga Aug. 26, 2005
  • Outline
    • Philippine Natural Resources: A Broad View
    • Forests & Wildlife
    • Wetlands and Marine Eco-System
    • Protected Areas
    • Mineral Lands
    • Summary Threats / Issues
    • Some Recommendations
  • Philippine Natural Resources: A Broad View
    • Floral Diversity:
    • 13,500 species
    • 5% of world’s flora
    • 22.5% of Malesian flora
    • 25% are endemic to the Philippines
    • 5-8% are believed to be still unidentified
  • Philippine Natural Resources: A Broad View
    • Faunal Diversity:
    • 1,084 species of terrestrial vertebrates
    • 20,000 species of insects, only 5 are fully inventoried
    • Endemism of invertebrates is generally poor known, between 44% and 87%.
    • 86 species of birds are threatened
    • 30 species of terrestrial mammals are threatened (Tamaraw and Philippine Eagle)
  • Philippine Natural Resources: A Broad View
    • Wetlands & Marine Diversity:
    • 2 nd longest coastline in Asia
    • 9,875 species of flora and fauna
    • 28% are economically important
    • 145 threatened species, 15 ENDANGERED
    • # 2 in coral reef diversity
    • # 2 in seagrass richness
  • Philippine Natural Resources: A Broad View
    • Protected Areas:
    • Composed of watershed, forest, mangroves, marine and other categories
    • 1997 – 290 areas (4.06 million has.)
    • 2003 – 209 areas (2.6 million has)
    • Difference of 1.46 million has. in 6 years
  • Philippine Biodiversity: A Broad View
    • Minerals:
    • Spanish times: small-scale mining
    • American period: Small-scale but covered large areas and heavy volumes
    • 1960s-1980s, RP among top ten producers of gold, nickel, copper, and chromite
    • 1990s –dropped to 19 th
  • MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL
    • 9 million hectares are high potential sites for copper, gold, nickel, chromite, etc.
    • Only 1.4% covered by mining permits
    • Has the potential to be among the 10 largest mining powers in the world
    Mineral Land Distribution (As % of Total Philippine Land Area) 30% or 9 Million Hectares 1.4% Covered w/permits High-Potential Low-Medium Potential 70%
  • Uses and Value of Forest Resources
    • Filling sustenance needs
      • Food, clothing and shelter
      • Medicines
      • Wildlife sanctuary
    • Commercial production demands
      • Timber
      • Processed forest products
    • Carbon sink
  • State of Philippine Forests
    • The Philippines needs an ideal 54% of forest cover to maintain its natural ecological processes (Sajise, 1996)
    • The Philippines has 23% of forest cover left (NAMRIA, 1988)
    • 8.02% of remaining Philippine forest cover is under existing mining permits* & active timber license agreements**
    • 37% will potentially be opened to mining if the mining industry is revitalized
    State of Philippine Forests * as of 29 February 2004 ** as of 30 November 2004
  • Important Biodiversity Areas
    • 95 important biodiversity areas
    • (81% of total 117 IBAs)
    • are found on forest habitats
    • 18 IBAs are threatened by existing mining permits*, 17 by active TLAs**, and 2 by both
    • 82 potentially threatened by revitalized mining industry
    Threats to IBAs * as of 29 February 2004 ** as of 30 November 2004
    • The Philippines has 18 identified major river basins
    • 13 out of 18 major river basins have forest cover below 20% of its total area
    Major Watersheds
  • Rate of Deforestation
    • Philippine Forest Cover
    • 1900 70%
    • 1920 60%
    • 1960 40%
    • 1970 34%
    • 1987 23.7
    • 1998 22.2
    • 2003 23%
  • Causes of Deforestation
    • Logging
    • Upland Migration
    • Agricultural Expansion
  • Fisheries
    • Significant contributor to Philippine economy (5% of GNP)
    • Provides 2/3 of national protein consumption
    • Employs about 1 million fisherfolk
    • 12% of the population depend on fisheries-related activities
    • Steady dollar earner (+ value net export)
  • Fisheries Employment, 1990
  • 1948-1994 Data reveal…
    • Catch per unit effort (CPUE) has steadily fallen
    • By 1984, it was only a third of 1965 figure
    • “ more effort has been dedicated to catching fish, but the yield per unit has declined”
    • (Israel & Banzon, 2002)
  • Philippine Fisheries
    • The marine fisheries sectors is already over-fished
    • Models of efficiency and sustainability have established that “peaks” were reached between early 80s and early 90s
    • Unemployment is a likely serious side effect (466,000)
    • (Israel & Banzon, 2002)
  • Coastal Resources
    • Between 1976-1981,
    • Philippine Coral Reefs:
    • 32 % POOR
    • 38% Fair
    • 24% Good
    • 6% Excellent
    • (UP-MSI, OneOcean.Org)
  • Coastal Resources
    • EarthWatch, 1998
    • 30% of Philippine Reefs are DEAD
    • 39% are dying
  • Philippine Coastal Resources
    • 4.3% coral reefs are in GOOD condition
    • 95.7% are in a VERY BAD STATE
    • ( Phil Dustan, College of Charleston
    • Using LandSat 7)
    9th International Coral Reef Symposium (Bali Indonesia, 2000)
  • Protected Areas
    • Recognizes the importance of ecological biodiversity as an element of sustainable development
    • Comprises of forests, tourist zones, marine reserves, other landscapes/ seascapes
  • Uses & Values of Protected Areas
    • Sustenance of local ecology and economy
    • Wildlife sanctuary
    • Tourism
    Ancestral Domain
  • Threats to Protected Areas
    • Increasing Human Population Demands
    • Changes in Land Use Preference
    • Commercial Tourism
  • Philippine Mining Industry – At a GLANCE
    • Gross Production Value : US$ 764 m
    • GDP Contribution : 1.62%
    • Value Added Contribution: US$ 327 m
    • Value of Mineral Exports : US$ 638 m
    • Exports Contribution : 1.8%
    • Direct Employment : 104,000
    • Wages & Benefits : US$ 91 m
    • Taxes & Fees : US$ 38 m
    • Mineral Resources : Nickel, Cobalt, Silver, Gold, Copper
    • Multiplier Effect : For each mining job, 4 to 10 additional jobs upstream &/or downstream created
    • Source: Chamber of Mines of the Phils.
  • RP’s COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Natural Mining Endowments
    • Located in the “Ring of Fire”
    • 5 th most mineralized country in the world
      • 2 nd in Gold
      • 4 th in Copper
      • 5 th in Nickel
      • 6 th in Chromite
    • Established reserves of 13 known metallic & 29 non-metallic minerals (source: Mines & Geosciences Bureau)
    • RP has 9 million hectares of mineralized land
      • Only 420,000 hectares – with mining permits
      • THUS, 8.6 million hectares – still waiting to be tapped!
  • RP’s COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Incentives to Mining Projects
    • 4 to 8 years Income Tax Holidays
    • Special 5% tax rate after the lapse of ITH (for ecozone locators)
    • Tax & duty-free exemption of imported capital equipment
    • Unrestricted use of consigned equipment
    • Additional deduction for labor expense of 50%
    • Additional deduction for training expense of 50%
    • Exemption on wharfage dues
    • Employment of foreign nationals
    • VAT exemption (for ecozone locators)
  • RP’s COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Government Support & Initiatives
    • Supreme Court ruling allowing 100% foreign ownership of mining companies
    • Policy-shift from “tolerance to promotion” of mining operations
    • Establishment of Mining Investment Assistance Center (MIAC)
    • Implementation of Mineral Action Plan (MAP)
    • Streamlining of procedures for issuance of mining permits (e.g. MAP – from 3 years to 7 months processing)
  • ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MINERALS SECTOR (FY 2003) P 2.1 Billion (CY 2002) Taxes and Fees Estimate For each mining job, 4 to 10 allied jobs created upstream and downstream Multiplier Effect P 4 to P5 Billion Wages and Benefits 104,000 Employment P 367 Million (CY2002) Paid-up Investments US$ 638 Million or 1.8% of total Phil. Exports Exports P 18.0 Billion or 1.6% of Phil. GDP or 1.52% of the Phil. GNP (CY 2003) Value Added Contribution P 41.5 Billion or 19% increase from CY 2002 Production Value
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES Outright violation of ancestral lands rights, socio-political systems and self determination of indigenous peoples! Violation of the PFIC: subversion of consent, manipulated consultations, one-sided information, empty promises *** IPRA useless to defend IP rights! Some NCIP officials become negotiators of companies
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES Pollution and destruction of water bodies: Agno river, Abra river, Mogpog river and Boac rivers, others
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES
            • Destruction of agricultural lands due to siltation and water pollution--- hundreds of thousands of peasants lossing their livelihoods
            • MINING THREAT TO FOOD SECURITY!
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES
    • Systematic violation of the rights of mine workers: low wages, union-busting, denial of benefits, high risk working conditions, poor safety standards and facilities
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES
    • Health problems due to
    • Water and air pollution
    • Respiratory diseases
    • Skin problems
    • Reproductive health of women
    • others
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES Destruction of land and creation of massive mine toxic waste: 6-7 tons of toxic waste per ounce of gold
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES Denudation of our forests
  • CONCRETE IMPACTS OF CORPORATE MINING IN THE PHILIPPINES MILITARIZATION OF MINING AREAS RESULTING TO MASSIVE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS OF PROTESTERS AND AFFECTED COMMUNITIES:
    • intimidation and harassment, arrest and detention, charging of fabricated criminal offenses, killings and others
    • use of divide and rule tactics thru formation of paramilitary forces
  • Sustainable Mining?
    • Sustainable Mining myths…
    • It has a small footprint
    • Communities want mining
    • The government will protect
    • Enormous economic benefits
    • Environmental Integrity
  • Why is sustainable mining a myth?
    • Mining has a small footprint?
      • No, its not just a small hole in the ground.
      • Mills, processing plants, tailings dams, wastes It’s a major user of water
    • Communities want mining?
      • Disinformation
      • Division of communities
      • Harassment and threat
      • Questionable consultations
    • The government will protect us and the environment?
      • Corruption
      • Weak enforcement
      • DENR is SCHIZOPHRENIC
    • Economic benefits are enormous?
      • Unverified financial data
      • Mining dependent countries are lagging behind
      • Employment is limited casual, unskilled, contractual
      • Tax holidays, 100% repatriation, 100% foreign ownership
    Why is sustainable mining a myth?
    • Environmental Integrity?
      • 53% of ancestral domains are threatened
      • 60% of protected areas are threatened
      • Agricultural lands are threatened
      • Coastal areas are threatened
    Why is sustainable mining a myth?
  • Responsible Mining
    • Is there such a thing?
    • Self-regulation, not government supervision
    • The “best practice” is fragmented, not yet completed in one site
    • We do not a have a plan to develop the downstream industry!
  • The WB EIR
    • "Not only have the oil, gas and mining industries not helped the poorest people in the developing countries, they have made them worse off . Scores of recent academic studies and many of the banks own studies confirmed our findings that countries which rely primarily on extractive industries tend to have a higher level of poverty, child morbidity, civil war, corruption and totalitarianism than those with more diversified economies".
  • The TRUTHS…
    • One gold wedding ring leaves between 6 to 20 tonnes of waste rock.
    • A citrus farm in Nueva Vizcaya earns a farmer 1.2 million pesos per hectare
    • Timuay Boy Anoy (a Subanon) from Zamboanga cannot enter his ancestral land and their sacred grounds.
    • 40,000 hectares from the Samar Island National Park will be extracted.
  • The CARAGA region : a review of existing resource management regimes
  • CARAGA
    • 1997 in the Caraga region, the average income of indigenous peoples was 42% lower than the national average
  • CARAGA
    • There are seven (7) Watersheds/Forest reserves;
    • 10 sites are under the initial components of the NIPAS act;
    • 1 Site has been officially legislated as a National Park
  • TLAs w/in the CADC areas in CARAGA
    • Three (3) active Timber Lease Agreements are currently operating w/in five (6) NMCRMP-CADCs;
    • The recently awarded CADT 002 has a 100% overlap with an existing TLA;
    • Areas of the TLAs range from 5,000-100,00+ hectares;
  • IFMAs and CADCs in CARAGA
    • Seven (7) active IFMAs overlap with four (4) CARAGA-CADCs;
    • Areas covered range from 5,000-50,00 hec.
    • 1 IFMA covers 100% of a CADC;
    • Corporate IFMA holders include local and multi-national groups.
  • Mining Activities/Applications
    • There are forty two (42) pending Mining applications that overlap or are in the same area with eight (8) CADCs in CARAGA;
    • Two (2) MPSAs have been approved;
    • One (1) EPA has also been approved.
  • Issues/problems
    • Overlapping coverages of LTIs;
    • There is no clear delineation of resource management priorities;
    • Conflicts in jurisdiction, management prerogative/structure and objectives;
    • Most existing multi-sectoral bodies for are underutilized, lack credibility or non-functioning.
  • Issues/problems
    • Lack of an institutional arbiter/facilitator that can be viewed as impartial, objective and acceptable to all stakeholders ;
    • Lack of a common framework and venue for dialogue to resolve conflicts;
    • Lack of transparency in information regarding resources. (kanya-kanya)
  • Results on the ground
    • Very high propensity for violence;
    • Polarization of stakeholders and marginalization of ICCs/poor communities; (wala nang nag-uusap)
    • Difficulty in implementing developmental activities/projects due to jurisdictional problems (NMCRMP of IFAD has yet to take off)
    • Demoralization and loss of faith w/ Government;
  • Summary Threats & Issues
    • Habitat Destruction
    • Overexploitation
    • Pollution
  • Millennium Development Goals
    • Goal 7: Environmental Sustainability
    • The Philippine SusWatch Network (2005) concluded that the growth-oriented approach of the present administration is unsustainable and aggravates environmental destruction and poverty because:
    • it supports an enterprise system that appropriates community resources which deprives local communities of the benefits of their resources.
    • its continuing emphasis on globalization pushes the local communities to shift the use of their resources from domestic consumption and development to meeting quotas set by commitments to international trade.
  • Some Recommendations
    • Reject the growth-led model of development
    • Adopt the sustainable development framework
    • Comply with international commitments
    • Alternative Lifestyle: Low consumption
    • Thank You Very Much!
  • Depletion of Natural Resources: Threats to Sustainable Development Plaridel Institute of Strategic Studies Angeles University, Pampanga Aug. 26, 2005