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  • Illustrate modeling effects of light upon the face by demonstration:From a straight on position in line with the camera,direct a key light only upon a subject’s face from angles of 60, 45 and 30 degrees from the horizontalNote the generally uncomplementary shadows under the eyes, nose and chin at the steeper anglesStart with basic key back and fill light. Alternately take out and then put back one or two of these basic light sources. Use different subjects so that the variations created by hair, skin color, clothes can be noted. Set the key light at the 30 to 45 degree vertical angle straight on with the subject’s face. Strart with camera in line with direction of light. Subject turn face left to right while camera moves in same direction, keeping a full front face shot. Observe how shawdows created by various lighting angles model the shape of the face. Note how the lines of the subject’s forehead, nose cheek and so forth are much more definite than with straight on front lightning.
  • Onlocation

    1. 1. On Location (pages:60-72)Light!Without light, there would be no video.And without good lighting, there would be no good video.Light comes in two somewhat different forms:Directly from a light source such as the sun, a light bulb or acandle. This is call incident light.A second kind of light, which has been reflected from and, as aresult, altered by the surface of a material substance, isreflected light.It is the way we shape and control reflected light thatdetermines what the TV camera perceives as a picture.
    2. 2.  Lighting has three main purposes: ◦ To define shape and texture of physical forms ◦ To imitate quality of light characteristics of a situation or setting in reality ◦ To establish and enhance the mood of a performance or setting ◦ Think about it: You view TV on a flat surface. The illusion of depth is created by the effects of light and shadow. ◦ This artificially produced dimension of depth allows the eye to reconstruct for the brain the real or intended shape and texture of an object.Lighting objectives: Creative Purposes
    3. 3.  It is the manipulation of shadows, rather than adding more light, that most effectively adds form and texture. Light from the same direction as the camera can eliminate rough shadows while side lighting exaggerates shadows. Off-camera lighting effects help to pinpoint a setting: low-angle lights indicates a campfire or fireplace; continually flashing red light indicates presence of emergency vehicle.Lighting objectives: Creative Purposes
    4. 4.  Mood: can be reinforced by quality of light and its abundance or absence ◦ Comedy is bright and usually a fully lit background. (high-key lightning) ◦ Conversely, tragedy or fear are communicated when the area surrounding an actor is dark or dim. (low-key lighting) Special dramatic moods may be used: a flashing neon sign outside a motel suggests a seedy part of town Cameo lightning is where the performer is lit but the background is completely dark. And, performers in complete darkness against a brightly lit background creates a silhouette effect.Lighting objectives: Creative Purposes
    5. 5. Equipment for lighting Sun Gun – the name given to any on- camera, battery-powered lights mounted directly above the lens - Sun Guns are dangerous because therein lies a problem: Any light mounted on the camera will throw substantially more light on objects close to the camera, rendering them radically brighter than anything else in the frame. There’s no detail, no depth, just a white, shot-spoiling blob.The secret to using a sun gun well is about not making it look like a headlight in someone’s face.
    6. 6.  If there is not enough available light, there are some cheap reflectors – think white foam boards or mirrors – but the best equipment is expensive. ◦ Kino Flo: The company Kino Flo produces a constant lighting system made from compact florescent tubes ranging from 4- to 2-foot lengths. ◦ Good because they are compact and constantLighting equipment
    7. 7. ◦ Dedo: Four light heads, four stands, a power unit and cables in one box  Each light head has a lens system  Halogen lamps are easily changed and last longer than tungsten lampsLighting equipment
    8. 8. ◦ Chimera: collapsible, lightweight fabric boxes that deliver a big, soft, pleasing light.  Recognized as the lighting industry standard ◦ The bigger the source, the more ◦ flattering the lightLighting equipment
    9. 9.  Lighting on a budget: ◦ China ball: a flimsy paper lantern that provides effective soft source lighting and less heat  These are perfect to place between two actors that are talking to each other, or they just create a nice soft wrapping light source for your main talent. The paper provides a nice diffusion for the light and the sphere creates an omni pattern – something that will provide light in all directions.
    10. 10.  To start, look for natural light. ◦ Put someone in the brighter part of the room, letting the background be darker – place them near the window. ◦ Then, control the light: use a black jacket to get rid of some light reflecting back. This is called negative fill. A white poster board or “bounce card” is positive fill. ◦ The larger you can make the source of the light, the more flattening the light and the more real. This is why the Kino Flos are good because they are big.Lighting techniques
    11. 11.  Key Light Fill light Backlight ◦ They differ from each other in direction, intensity and degree to which they are focused or diffused. Most likely, your video will not look “right” without adding lighting, especially if there is too much light. Sometimes, natural light is the perfect light. (Think sunlight pouring in the kitchen window.) Remember, you have to develop a good eye for lighting. What do you want to say?Three types of light
    12. 12.  You’re creating the illusion of a third dimension – the formula for basic lighting is three- point lighting ◦ The first light set up in the system is the most important: key light – this is the brightest light at the front of your subject, about 45 degrees from the line drawn between your subject and the cameraThree-point lighting
    13. 13. Think of key light as the apparent source of light hitting the talent. (A spotlight is normally used.)  The key light shapes the face and features, including the eye itself and should be placed off to the side of the talent, between 30 and 45 degrees.  Should be placed high enough to give some shadow under the chin and nose, but low enough to get the light directly in the eye socket.Key light
    14. 14.  Fill light is used to fill in on the dark side. ◦ Fill light also softens some of the harsher shadows created by the bright key light.  Outdoors, when the sun is your key light, you often use a reflector or bounce card to create a fill light.  The fill light is placed 45 from the camera, opposite the key light and set at half intensity.  Creates subtle and pleasing effects  Should not be as strong as key light  The key and fill light should normally be placed 30 to 45 degrees from a line drawn straight in front of the talentThree-point lighting
    15. 15.  Backlight is for separation: ◦ Backlight accentuates features such as hair, shoulders, so don’t put a person with dark hair on a dark background. You need color separation. ◦ Without backlight, the subject appears flat and tends to blend into the background ◦ The China ball is the cheapest, easiest source for light and easy way to deliver subtle lighting. ◦ Keep the China ball close to the subject – the more you back away, the harder the light becomes and the more shadows you get.  You can see the round China ball in the subject’s eyes when it is close to the person. It’s flattering.Lighting techniques
    16. 16.  Third in the three-point setup. Smaller, lower-wattage light placed directly behind subject and in line with the camera Creates a visual separation between the subject and the background Light should be aimed at the person’s neck to create a subtle rim around the subject ◦ Blondes and old folks with thin hair often need a bit less backlight. No back lightBack light
    17. 17. ◦ In this assignment, you will have to function as the producer-writer-director as well as serve in the basic production positions. ◦ Get 10 to 20 second segments – sometimes, this is totally out of story sequence.Interview setup
    18. 18.  Tips Monitor VU or volume unit meter Wear headphones Use viewfinder not LCD screen Use microphones for interviews Get a-roll and b-roll
    19. 19.  Always wear headphones when you’re shooting. It’s the only way to troubleshoot sound issues before it’s too late. ◦ Tips: Keep all doors and windows closed when you’re recording. Silence phones (vibrate makes noise, too.) ◦ Turn off appliances that cycle – fridge, A/C ◦ Pause when planes pass overhead ◦ Make sure everyone knows there is no talking allowed when the camera is rolling: quiet on the set! ◦ Keep blankets to muffle noise!Sound
    20. 20.  The goal in recording is to make it clean, crisp, free of noise and interference. ◦ You’ll need an ear for trouble ◦ The quality of your recordings will depend on how well you manage the location, which mics you use and where they are placed and how you nip problems in the bud ◦ The most common problem is the difference between the line level and mic level feeds, so monitor the audio going into the cameraSound
    21. 21.  The on-camera mic is often sufficient, unless you want to be recognized as a professional. ◦ Shotgun mics – Limits the sounds to what’s in front of the camera ◦ Records in one direction – the direction it’s pointed ◦ The long-barreled design of the mic cancels and rejects most audio that approaches from the sides.Mics
    22. 22.  Lavaliere mics ◦ Tiny mics designed to be used close to the sound source – tie pin or clip on mics ◦ For broadcast and talk shows – 6 to 8 inches from a person’s mouth ◦ Can be wireless, or run off the camera but often needs batteries of its ownMics
    23. 23.  Stick mics ◦ Basic mics that resemble lollipops or icecream cones ◦ The darlings of the news business ◦ Chosen not for sensitivity and fidelity but ruggedness. ◦ Can add an air of immediacy and journalistic integrity to your productionMics
    24. 24.  PZM – pressure zone mics The boundary effect mic ◦ Not the most common or conventional, but can be used to pick up the entire room ◦ It’s commonly suspended upside-down just above the surface in its housing. ◦ It relies on reflected sound and offers a better response than putting a couple of stick mics around the table.Mics
    25. 25.  Choosing the proper place for a mic is just as important as choosing the right mic. Some are designed for distance, some are designed for balancing extraneous sound. Sound changes over distance and minor changes can alter the mic’s sound. Be aware of noisy clothing like silk, and noisy bracelets. The best sound is obtained when the speaker speaks across the mic’s pickup, rather than directly into the mic.Mics
    26. 26.  A boom is used with the shotgun or any other mic and mounted at the end of a telescoping arm. Silence: Silence is not silent. Room tone or ambient noise is needed. Try to remember to keep the talking and extraneous noise to a bare minimum when recording soundMics
    27. 27.  It’s considered bad journalistic style to fake it or ask for a do-over; the challenge is getting things right the first time. ◦ Lean, brace, prop, hang, do whatever is necessary to steady your shots ◦ Use horizons and strong vertical elements near the center of the screen to be sure your shots are level. ◦ Bracket your moves. Hold the shot for at least 5 seconds before the move starts and after the finish. ◦ Don’t use the LCD screen – they are super sensitive to light and often give the wrong impressionRolling tape
    28. 28.  Shoot sequences: the man typing, the computer screen, his fingers on the keyboard, his hand picking up the pone, the man talking. Think in terms of shots that will edit together smooth. Shoot people in transitions from one place to the next. Shoot USEFUL cutaways: it’s a connector. Don’t just follow the action: let the actions of the people and objects move into or out of the frame.Rolling tape
    29. 29.  Take stills of the location before you start moving things around. Spiking means laying down a piece of tape to mark the spot Walk your actors and crew through the shot, then walk them back to their start positions Ask if anyone had a problem with the take. Decide if it’s worth doing another. Don’t rewind. You might overrecord. Eject immediately. Lock it. Label it and put it in a safe place.Basic tips for shooting
    30. 30.  Shoot sequences: the man typing, the computer screen, his fingers on the keyboard, his hand picking up the pone, the man talking. Think in terms of shots that will edit together smooth. Shoot people in transitions from one place to the next. Shoot USEFUL cutaways: it’s a connector. Don’t just follow the action: let the actions of the people and objects move into or out of the frame.Rolling tape