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Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
Grammar basics a c
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Grammar basics a c

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Working with words

Working with words

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  • 1. It’s easier to lower your standards once you’ve learned higher ones than it is to raise them if you’ve never learned more formal ones.
  • 2. Examples: A person should mind their own business. (his or her) Several employees had to go outside and lay down after the fire. (lie) Hopefully, the snow will miss our area. (Hopefully doesn’t say who is hoping)
  • 3. 8 parts of speech Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections Parts of speech refer to what words ARE
  • 4. Parts of a sentence Subject, predicate, predicate complement (predicate nominative and predicate adjective), direct object, indirect object, noun of direct address, appositive, sentence adverb, prepositional phrase, subject of an infinitive, and so on. Parts of a sentence refers to what words DO or how they are used in a sentence.
  • 5. And then there are… Verbals: infinitives, gerunds, participles Groups of words: phrases, clauses, sentences Rather than define all of them right now, let’s look at them as they come about so you take in only as much terminology as is necessary.
  • 6. Common mistakes a/an:  a is used before a word that begins with a consonant sound when pronounced  an is used before a word that begins with a vowel sound when pronounced ○ Abbreviations: the choice is determined by the initial sound ○ …an FBI inquiry (initial sound is ef) ○ …a historical event (initial sound is hih)
  • 7. Other “a” mistakes “A lot” is always two words Adjective-adverb confusion: adjectives modify nouns or pronouns Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs  Everything was running smoothly – modifier describes the manner in which something was running – it modifies the verb  Or say, everything was smooth, because smooth would be the adjective modifying everything
  • 8. Adopt/pass You adopt a resolution. You pass an ordinanceAffect/effect Affect is a verb meaning “to influence” Effect is a noun meaning “result” and a verb meaning “to cause”
  • 9. Other “a” mistakes As/like  As is a conjunction and should be used to introduce a clause  Like is a preposition and should be used to introduce a word or phrase Among/between  Use between for two items; among for three or more Alleged and allegedly  Avoid these as modifiers, for they don’t offer the legal protection many would think.  Don’t write, “He is an alleged rapist.” Just say, “He is charged with rape.”
  • 10. B Blond/blonde Brunet/brunette  The forms without the final e are used when applying to a man only.  The forms with the e are used only as nouns applying to a woman.
  • 11. C Centers around – change to centers on or revolves around because the center is in the middle Colon – capitalize the first word after a colon if what follows is a complete sentence  He said you could summarize the message in three words: Love thy neighbor.
  • 12. Comma Put a comma before a conjunction such as “and” and only if what follows could stand alone as a complete sentence Or, if the “and” could be confusing reading as linking the last two items as one rather than leaving them separate:  Corn, pork, and beans
  • 13. Comma-splice sentences A comma alone is not enough to connect two independent clauses. Add a conjunction such as “and” after the comma, change the common to a semicolon, or change the comma to a period and capitalize the next word.
  • 14. Compare to/compare with Use compare to when similarities are stressed Use compare with when differences are stressedCompose/comprise/constitute The whole is composed of the parts or comprises the parts. The parts constitute the whole
  • 15. Conditional mood Use could, not can Might not may Should not shall Would not will  Don’t write, “The bill will make gun owners…”  Write, “The bill would make gun owners…”
  • 16. Contact Avoid as a verb. Use call, write, visitConvince/persuade You’re convinced that or convinced of something. You’re persuaded to do something.

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