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Thyroid mass
 

Thyroid mass

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thyroid mass

thyroid mass

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    Thyroid mass Thyroid mass Presentation Transcript

    • Thyroid mass
      Presented by
      Dr- Hayam M. AL-moutary
    • Case
      A 42-year-old woman presents with a palpable mass on the left lobe of thyroid gland
      How to deal with these case?
    • She has no neck pain and no symptoms of thyroid dysfunction.
      The patient has no family history of thyroid disease and no history of external irradiation.
      physical examination reveals a solitary, mobile thyroid nodule, 2 cm by 3 cm, without lymphadenopathy
    • Which investigations should be performed?
      Assuming that the nodule is benign ,which, if any, treatment should be recommended?
    • Content
      • Anatomy& physiology of thyroid gland
      • Type of thyroid mass
      • Approach patient with thyroid nodule
      • Type of thyroid malignancy
      • Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD)
      • Management
    • Thyroid Anatomy
      a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland, located on the anterior (front) side of the neck
      Composed of right & left lob connecting by isthmus
      supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery and the inferior thyroid artery
    • Thyroid physiology
    • Thyroid mass
      Nodule
      cancer
      goiter
    • Epidemiology
      In the United States, 4 to 7 percent of the adult population have a palpable thyroid nodule.
      Nodules are more common in women and increase in frequency with age and with decreasing iodine intake.
      The prevalence is much greater with the inclusion of nodules that are detected by ultrasonography or at autopsy.
      Malignant nodule corresponds to approximately 2 to 4 per 100,000 people per year, constituting only 1 percent of all cancers and 0.5 percent of all cancer deaths.
    • Causes of thyroid nodules
      Benign
      Multi noduler goiter
      Hashimotosthyrioditis
      Simple or hemorrhagic cysts
      Follicular adenomas
      Sub acute thyrioditis
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • Causes of thyroid nodules
      Malignant
      Papillary carcinoma
      Follicular carcinoma
      Hurthie cell carainoma
      Medullary carcinoma
      Anaplastic carcinoma
      Primary thyroid lymphoma
      Metastatic malignant lesion
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • History
      o Age
      o Family history of thyroid disease or cancer
      o Previous head or neck irradiation
      o Rate of growth of the neck mass
      o Dysphonia, dysphagia, or dyspnea
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • History
      o Symptoms of hyperthyroidism or
      hypothyroidism
      o Use of iodine-containing drugs or supplements
      • Most nodules are asymptomatic, and absence of symptoms does not rule out malignancy
    • Physical Examination
      A careful physical examination of the thyroid gland and cervical lymph nodes
      o Location, consistency, and size of the nodule(s)
      o Neck tenderness or pain
      o Cervical adenopathy
      The risk of cancer is similar in patients with a
      solitary nodule or with MNG (Grade B )
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • Factors suggesting increased risk of malignant potential (grade C):
      History of head and neck irradiation
      Family history of MTC or MEN2
      Age <20 or >70 years
      Male sex
      Growing nodule
      Firm or hard consistency
      Cervical adenopathy
      Fixed nodule
      Persistent hoarseness, dysphonia, dysphagia, or dyspnea
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • Laboratory Evaluation
      TSH Assay
      Serum Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine
      Calcitonin Assay
    • Laboratory Evaluation
      • Serum TSH should be tested (grade B)
      • If TSH level is low (<0.5 μIU/mL), measure free T4 and T3; if TSH level is high (>5.0 μIU/mL), measure free T4 and TPOAb (grade C)
      • Serum calcitonin should be measured if FNA or family history suggests MTC (grade B)
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • Ultrasound
      • Indication of thyroid ultrasound(grade C)
      Palpable thyroid nodule
      History of neck irradiation
      Family history of thyroid carcinoma orMEN2
      Patient with unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy
      Not indicated as screening exam
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy
      •Thyroid FNA biopsy has been established as reliable and safe and has become an integral part of thyroid nodule evaluation
      •Clinical management of thyroid nodules should be guided by the results of ultrasonographic evaluation and FNA biopsy
      • Sensitivity 83 %
      • Specificity 92 %
    • Result of FNA
    • Thyroid Scintigraphy
      •Perform thyroid scintigraphy for a thyroid nodule or MNG if the
      • TSH level is below the lower limit of the normal range (grade B)
      • In iodine-deficient areas (grade C)
      AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
    • Thyroid Scintigraphy
      On the basis of the pattern of radionuclide uptake, nodules may be classified as
      • Hyper functioning (“hot”)
      • Hypo functioning(“cold”)
    • Thyroid Scintigraphy
      Hot nodules almost never represent clinically significant malignant lesions, whereas cold nodules have a reported malignant risk of about 5% to 15%.
    • Hot & cold nodule
    • Thyroid nodule
      History& physical examination
      High or normal
      TSH
      Low TSH
      scintigraphy
      U/S guided FNA
      cold
      hot
      Suspicious
      Inadequate
      Benign-ve
      Malignant +ve
      Perform FNA
      benign
      Observe and repeat FNAC
      1 year
      Or levothroxin
      Repeat FNA
      Surgery
      Surgery
    • Thyroid Malignancies- Papillary
      Most common
      30% have node metastasis at diagnosis
      Radiation related
      Histologically, psammoma bodies distinguish from benign adenoma.
    • Thyroid Malignancies-Follicular
      20 % of malignancies
      Distinguished from normal follicular adenomas by invasion of capsule or blood vessels.
      May be difficult to determine on FNA
    • Thyroid Malignancies- Medullary
      5-10% of cases
      arise from the C cells which produce calcitonin
      diagnosis based on elevated thyrocalcitonin levels and thyroid nodule (cold)
    • Thyroid Malignancies- Anaplastic
      < 10%
      Highly aggressive with local extension at time of diagnosis.
      No suitable therapy
      Prognosis < 1 yr from diagnosis
    • Iodine Deficiency
      Iodine is a chemical element. It is found in trace amounts in the human body, in which its only known function is in the synthesis of thyroid hormones
      Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and/or thyroid enlargement (goiter).
      More common in female
    • iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), include
      • endemic goiter,
      • hypothyroidism,
      • cretinism,
      • decreased fertility rate,
      • increased infant mortality,
      • mental retardation.
    • pathophysiology
      Normal dietary iodine intake is 100-150 mcg/d.
    • Clinically
      History
      • Goiter - Patients with IDD most commonly present with goiter
      • Hypothyroidism - Individuals with severe iodine deficiency may also have hypothyroidism and may complain of fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation, or depression
    • Cretinism . Cretinism can be divided into neurologic and myxedematoussubtypes. Both conditions can be prevented by adequate maternal and childhood iodine intake.
      Neurologic cretinism is thought to be caused by severe IDD with hypothyroidism in the mother during pregnancy and is characterized by mental retardation, abnormal gait, but not by goiter or hypothyroidism in the child.
      Myxedematous cretinism is considered a result of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism in the fetus during late pregnancy or in the neonatal period, resulting in mental retardation, short stature, goiter, and hypothyroidism
    • Physical
      The first sign of iodine deficiency is diffuse thyroid enlargement, which becomes multinodular over time.
      In patients with hypothyroidism due to severe iodine deficiency, one might see signs such as dry skin, periorbital edema, and delayed relaxation phase of the deep tendon reflexes.
    • Laboratory Studies
      The kidneys excrete approximately 90% of ingested iodine
      median 24-hour urine iodine collection
      random urine iodine-to-creatinine ratio
      • 50-100 mcg of iodine per liter mild iodine deficiency
      • 20-49 mcg of iodine per liter moderate deficiency
      • less than 20 mcg of iodine per liter severe deficiency
    • Other Tests
    • Treatment
      non-pharmacological
      • Diet
      • The WHO recommendations for iodine intake are 150 mcg/d for adults and adolescents
      • 200 mcg/d for pregnant or lactating women,
    • Pharmacological
      • Potassium iodide (Lugol solution, SSKI, Pima)
      • Levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levothroid, Levoxyl)
      12.5-50 mcg/d PO and increase by 25-50 mcg/d PO q2-4wk, not to exceed 100-200 mcg/d PO
      Surgery
    • Summary
      Most nodules are asymptomatic, and absence of symptoms does not rule out malignancy
      The initial evaluation should include measurement of the serum thyrotropin level and a fine-needle aspiration, preferably guided by ultrasonography
      IDD are common in our region can be preventable by take recommended dose of iodine from natural source
    • Reference
      • e medicine
      • AACE/AME Guidelines 2010
      • Swansons family medicine review 6th edition