Hist 4710 Week 5 (Nursing Professionalization)

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  • 1. Professionalizing Nursing1893-1918
  • 2. A. Professional Organizations
  • 3. Organizations (Education) Chicago World’s Fair, 1893 Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philosophy Paper by Florence Nightingale presented, on need for scientifictraining of nurses 1893: American Society of Superintendents of TrainingSchools for Nurses (ASSTSN) Goal: Improving nursing education Becomes National League of Nursing Education (1912) 1896: Nurses’ Associated Alumnae of the U.S. & Canada Goal: Enhancing collaboration among practicing nurses andeducators Becomes American Nurses Association (1911)
  • 4. Organizations (Registration) 1899, International Council of Nurses First meeting September 1901, at World Exposition in Buffalo,New York Passed resolution in favor of nurse registration 1900: American Journal of Nursing Editor, Sophia French Palmer, was one of the first nurses tocampaign for state licensing Palmer assisted in formulating much of nursing registrationlegislation
  • 5. Organizations (Support) 1901: State Nursing Associations (Illinois, New Jersey,New York, and Virginia ) 33 state associations by 1909 (out of 36 states) ANA urged nurses to join ANA and state associations• High membership but low participation in state organizations• Many did not want to belong 1908 National Association for Colored Graduate Nurses(New York) Achieve higher professional standards Break down discrimination Develop leadership
  • 6. B. Regulatory Laws
  • 7. Nurse Registration 1891, First nurse registration law (South Africa) 1899, Natal 1901, New Zealand 1902, Great Britain 1901, International Congress of Nurses resolution in favorof nurse registration 1903, first American registration laws
  • 8. State Registration Laws (1903) North Carolina first state legislature to passregistration law Lobbying by the state medical society weakened bill Only requirement for registration was passing examadministered by state board (comprised of 2 physicians& 3 nurses) New Jersey, New York, and Virginia sign nurseregistration laws
  • 9. New York Nurse Registration NY State Nurses’ Association held meeting to discusspotential Act (1902) 100 nurses from across state William S. Ely, president of Academy of Medicine of Rochester(note: SUNY) attended Susan B. Anthony attended, and spoke in favor Support assured from Senator William Armstrong
  • 10. What’s in a Name? “Registered nurse” (Rochester contingent, able to vote) Only for graduates of gen’l hospitals and mental hospitals “Trained nurse” (Buffalo contingent) Public was familiar with that term Available for “all nurses,” not just prestigious institutions Other suggested terms: “nurse” and “registered graduatenurse”
  • 11. NY Nurse Registration Act (1903) To be designated "registered nurse," applicant needed toprove her graduation from an approved school Minimum standards (type & length of training) Not a restrictive law -- nurses could practice without thiscertification Changes across East Coast in practical & theoretical trainingso schools’ graduates could meet NY requirements For example: Led to new obstetric courses being offeredthroughout East
  • 12. State Registration laws All states by mid-1920s Not rigidly enforced No licensing laws First mandatory licensing law passed in 1938 (New York);most laws would remain weak until after WWII.
  • 13. C. Education Reform
  • 14. State of Nursing Education In 1900, ~3500 graduates from nurse training programs Nightingale-style training schools 2-3 years training Other schools unregulated & nonstandard 1900, Philadelphia County Medical Society & College ofPhysicians of Philadelphia announced plans for 10-weekschool of nursing. Correspondence courses available
  • 15. Flexner Report for Nursing? 1911, American Society of Superintendents of TrainingSchools request funding from Carnegie Foundation Request was denied Legal, dental, and teacher education received fundingfrom Carnegie Foundation for Flexner-like studies 1918, Adelaide Nutting (Johns Hopkins School ofNursing) approached Rockefeller Foundation Established Committee for the Study of NursingEducation Goal: Investigate “the proper training of the publichealth nurse” Would lead to 1923 Goldmark Report, “Nursing andNursing Education in the United States”