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Organizations (Education) Chicago World’s Fair, 1893 Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philosophy Paper by Florence Nightingale presented, on need for scientifictraining of nurses 1893: American Society of Superintendents of TrainingSchools for Nurses (ASSTSN) Goal: Improving nursing education Becomes National League of Nursing Education (1912) 1896: Nurses’ Associated Alumnae of the U.S. & Canada Goal: Enhancing collaboration among practicing nurses andeducators Becomes American Nurses Association (1911)
Organizations (Registration) 1899, International Council of Nurses First meeting September 1901, at World Exposition in Buffalo,New York Passed resolution in favor of nurse registration 1900: American Journal of Nursing Editor, Sophia French Palmer, was one of the first nurses tocampaign for state licensing Palmer assisted in formulating much of nursing registrationlegislation
Organizations (Support) 1901: State Nursing Associations (Illinois, New Jersey,New York, and Virginia ) 33 state associations by 1909 (out of 36 states) ANA urged nurses to join ANA and state associations• High membership but low participation in state organizations• Many did not want to belong 1908 National Association for Colored Graduate Nurses(New York) Achieve higher professional standards Break down discrimination Develop leadership
Nurse Registration 1891, First nurse registration law (South Africa) 1899, Natal 1901, New Zealand 1902, Great Britain 1901, International Congress of Nurses resolution in favorof nurse registration 1903, first American registration laws
State Registration Laws (1903) North Carolina first state legislature to passregistration law Lobbying by the state medical society weakened bill Only requirement for registration was passing examadministered by state board (comprised of 2 physicians& 3 nurses) New Jersey, New York, and Virginia sign nurseregistration laws
New York Nurse Registration NY State Nurses’ Association held meeting to discusspotential Act (1902) 100 nurses from across state William S. Ely, president of Academy of Medicine of Rochester(note: SUNY) attended Susan B. Anthony attended, and spoke in favor Support assured from Senator William Armstrong
What’s in a Name? “Registered nurse” (Rochester contingent, able to vote) Only for graduates of gen’l hospitals and mental hospitals “Trained nurse” (Buffalo contingent) Public was familiar with that term Available for “all nurses,” not just prestigious institutions Other suggested terms: “nurse” and “registered graduatenurse”
NY Nurse Registration Act (1903) To be designated "registered nurse," applicant needed toprove her graduation from an approved school Minimum standards (type & length of training) Not a restrictive law -- nurses could practice without thiscertification Changes across East Coast in practical & theoretical trainingso schools’ graduates could meet NY requirements For example: Led to new obstetric courses being offeredthroughout East
State Registration laws All states by mid-1920s Not rigidly enforced No licensing laws First mandatory licensing law passed in 1938 (New York);most laws would remain weak until after WWII.
State of Nursing Education In 1900, ~3500 graduates from nurse training programs Nightingale-style training schools 2-3 years training Other schools unregulated & nonstandard 1900, Philadelphia County Medical Society & College ofPhysicians of Philadelphia announced plans for 10-weekschool of nursing. Correspondence courses available
Flexner Report for Nursing? 1911, American Society of Superintendents of TrainingSchools request funding from Carnegie Foundation Request was denied Legal, dental, and teacher education received fundingfrom Carnegie Foundation for Flexner-like studies 1918, Adelaide Nutting (Johns Hopkins School ofNursing) approached Rockefeller Foundation Established Committee for the Study of NursingEducation Goal: Investigate “the proper training of the publichealth nurse” Would lead to 1923 Goldmark Report, “Nursing andNursing Education in the United States”