File and printer sharing are the two main reasons that networks were created in the first place
Client/server and Peer-to-peer.
NOS has a much more secure method of authenticating users and resources
NOS includes utility applications that maintain and monitor the server
NOSs often include client applications that improve performance and access to the resources they share
Microsoft Windows Server
Windows NT Domains
Windows NT uses domains as logical boundaries that house servers, user accounts, and resources
Single domain: This model consists of a PDC, workstations, and users that are all members of the same domain. There might be one or more BDCs. There are no trust relationships.
Master domain: This model has at least two, and possibly more, domains—a master domain, which contains user accounts, and at least one resource domain
Multiple master domain:
This model builds on the master domain model in that it has two or more master domains and one or more resource domains. Each master domain contains user accounts and trusts the other master domain(s).
Complete trust domain
Each domain can contain user accounts or resources, or both.
Organizing Users into Groups
Windows NT domains use special groups to function between domains
There are two types of groups—global and local
Windows 2000 and Active Directory
Windows 2000 uses a much different method of managing users and computers—the Active Directory
The Active Directory provides a view overseeing one or more domains
From a DNS standpoint, domains, called domain trees, often share a contiguous DNS namespace
Originally developed to provide shared disk storage, NetWare grew into a robust, high-performance network operating system
The latest version is NetWare 6
servers are intended to be the only systems that share services
NetWare File System
NetWare file system is transparent to an end user
The NetWare file system’s features are designed to provide files to a variety of different client operating systems
The file system offers security for files through trustee assignments applied to files and directories
NetWare was developed to be an enterprise network operating system that can provide services to multiple and distinct client operating systems. These clients include all versions of Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, UNIX, and Linux
NetWare is capable of providing services using different protocol suites
Novell Directory Services
Through NetWare version 3.x, Novell used a flat-file database to hold user accounts and resources that were specific to each separate server
This database was called the Bindery. NetWare 4.x brought about the hierarchical directory service called Novell Directory Services (NDS).
maintain partitions and replicas (copies of partitions) of the database
NDS is a single hierarchical tree consisting of an organization (O) container that is then structured into organizational units (OUs)
NetWare Server Utilities
NetWare Utilities Used on Client Workstations
Networking among Apple computers began as peer-to-peer.
Each client could share its storage and printers with every other Macintosh
When Macintosh computer is dedicated to sharing files, printers, or applications on the network, it is called an AppleShare Server
Are located in the local zone, which is similar to a workgroup
Given the Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) and Name Binding Protocol (NBP) in AppleTalk, resources appear as members of the zone regardless of their physical location
The AppleTalk protocol provides a network address for each computer and network segment
The node addresses are available from 1 to 254 on each segment
Originally developed by Bell Laboratories
UNIX provides a peer-to-peer networking system and uses TCP/IP as its native protocol
UNIX is available on mainframes, minicomputers, and PCs
The largest hosts provide user access through terminal emulation
Most popular GUI are X Windows and Motif
The UNIX Network File System
NFS was created to be a networked service
When NFS is used, it is transparent to the end user because it’s based on Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs )
When a user opens a file through NFS, the UNIX client places an RPC call to the UNIX server.