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  • 1. Unit06: Wide Area Networking
  • 2. Overview
    • Switching Method PSTN
    • Digital Telephone with ISDN
    • Fiber Optics
    • ATM
    • Frame Relay
    • SOnET
    • T-Carrier
    • 3G WiMax GPRS Edge HSDPA ADSL
  • 3. WAN
    • Provide data communications that traverse a broad geographic area
    • Utilize the transmission infrastructure provided by a third party
    • Services such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), cable modems, or even the plain old telephone
    • Point-to-point is an important concept in wide area networking
  • 4. WAN
    • WAN is not a typical direct connection
    • it’s a pre-established path from one site to another that passes through a carrier network
  • 5. Digital Telephone with ISDN
    • To run over the existing telephone copper wiring
    • ISDN allows subscribers to transmit data, voice, and multimedia digitally
    • two types of ISDN services available:
      • Basic Rate Interface (BRI) 64bit /1 line
      • Primary Rate Interface (PRI) 1544 bit / 24 line
  • 6. Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
    • Used for home and small office connectivity
    • BRI services include two B channels and a single D channel
    • A B channel offers 64 Kbps and carries user data
    • A BRI D channel operates at 16 Kbps and carries control and signaling information
    • Through these two channels, a home connection can reach 128 Kbps of data throughput
  • 7. Primary Rate Interface (PRI):
    • Used for WANs and runs across leased lines
    • The PRI service is composed of 23 B channels at 64 Kbps each for user data
    • A single D channel, also operating at 64 Kbps to handle control information
    • The PRI service provides a throughput rate of 1.544 Mbps
  • 8. ISDN Equipment
    • The ISDN specification includes several types of equipment
      • Terminal adapter (TA)
      • Terminal equipment type 1 (TE1)
  • 9. Using Fiber Optics with FDDI
    • Fiber optics offer great advantages over copper wiring
    • As a result, fiber optics offer an enormous number of benefits to both WAN and LAN technologies
    • 100-Mbps token-passing dual ring network
    • Both multimode and single mode fiber optics transmit light signals
    • Single mode fiber depends on lasers
    • FDDI’s dual ring structure enables traffic to flow on each ring
    • One of the rings is considered primary, the other secondary
    • Fiber optic cables are brittle, the secondary ring acts as a backup in case of a break in the primary ring
    • These are called single attachment stations (SAS)
    • Single attachment concentrators (SAC) also connect only to the primary ring
  • 10. Fiber Optics with FDDI
  • 11. Fiber Optics with FDDI
    • FDDI is a physical and data-link layer protocol
    • Upper-layer protocols such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX can run across a FDDI ring
    • The FDDI frame is similar to a token ring frame format
    • The FDDI data frame can become as large as 4500 bytes in length
  • 12. The frame fields
    • Preamble: Identifies the incoming data as a new frame.
    • Start delimiter: Specifies the beginning of a frame.
    • Frame control: Includes control information such as the size of the address fields.
    • Destination address: A 6-byte–long physical address of the destination device.
    • Source address: A 6-byte–long physical address of the source device.
    • Data: Variable-length field containing the transmitted data.
    • Frame Check Sequence (FCS): The value of the cyclic redundancy check (CRC), which is an algorithm used to determine whether the frame has an error. In the case of an error, the frame is discarded.
    • End delimiter: Indicates that the frame is completed
  • 13. WAN Speed with ATM
    • WANs are typically slow
    • They are transmitted across long distances over networks that traditionally were unreliable
    • As public networks gained in reliability, WAN technologies became mismatched
    • Demand for greater data throughput was one of the driving forces behind Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).
    • Demand for bandwidth is driven by multimedia
  • 14. Need for Speed with ATM
    • The International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) and ANSI developed ATM for high-speed data transfer within public networks
    • ATM is a network made up of a series of ATM switches
    • Any ATM node can communicate with any other ATM node by transmitting data across the ATM network
  • 15. ATM network to other types of LANs
  • 16. The ATM Model
  • 17. Frame Relay
    • Frame relay is a widely applied WAN protocol that uses packet switching
    • The frame relay protocol provides an efficient data transmission, even though the packets vary in length
    • Frame relay supplies data-link and physical layer services
    • permanent virtual circuits (PVC) and switched virtual circuits (SVC) can be used
    • Although all customer networks connect to the same carrier network, the maximum rate of data throughput is determined by the customer’s point-to-point link into the frame relay cloud
  • 18. Frame Relay
  • 19. Frame Relay
  • 20. SONET/SDH
    • The Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
    • The SONET topology can be either a dual ring architecture or a star
    • SONET is a global standard focusing on synchronous communications that are multiplexed
  • 21. Optical Carrier Signaling (OCx)
    • The signals used to transmit across SONET are framed as Synchronous Transport Signals
    • SONET’s basic transmission rate, Synchronous Transport Signal level 1 (STS-1), also considered Optical Carrier 1 (OC1), is 51.84 Mbps
  • 22. T-Carrier System
    • The T-carrier system is a series of data transmission formats developed by Bell Telephone for use in the telephone network system in North America and Japan
    • The base unit of a T-carrier is DS0, which is 64 Kbps
    • T1/E1
      • T1 and E1 lines are each multiples of DS0 signals. The T1 line provides 1.544 Mbps, while the E1 line provides 2.048 Mbps
    • T3/E3
      • T3 lines are digital carriers, equivalent to 28 T1 lines, that can transmit at the rate of 44.736 Mbps. E3 lines provide 16 E1 lines, with a transmission rate of 34.368 Mbps