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  • CIDR - Classless Inter-Domain Routing

Unit05 Unit05 Presentation Transcript

  • Unit05: IP Addressing
  • Overview
    • IP
    • Assigning IP Addresses
    • Creating a Subnet
    • IPv6
  • IP Addresses IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Address
  • IPv4
    • Each IP address is composed of two portions
      • one that identifies the network
      • the other that identifies the host
    • Class A addresses have a first octet value between 1 and 126.
    • Class B addresses have a first octet value between 128 and 191. The addresses beginning with 127 are reserved for loopback testing. You can test this by pinging on any computer.
    • Class C addresses have a first octet value between 192 and 223
  • Classes of IP Addresses Class C Network ID Host ID 1 1 0 x w y z Class B Network ID Host ID 1 0 x w y z Class A Network ID Host ID 0 x w y z
  • Dotted Decimal Notation 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 Bits 255 Decimal Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
  • Subnet Subnet 1 Main network Subnet 2
  • Using CIDR Subnet mask Subnet mask (binary) Network ID 11111111 11111110 11111 000 00000000 CIDR Entry Subnet mask Subnet mask (binary) Network ID 11011100 01001110 10101 000 00000000 Starting network ID 11011100 01001110 10101 111 00000000 Ending network ID Class C Example
  • Guidelines for IP Addressing When assigning network and host IDs
    • Do not use 127 for a network ID
    • Do not use all 1’s for network and host ID
    • Do not use all 0’s for the network ID
    • Use a host ID that is unique to the local network ID
  • IPv6
    • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to overcome the limitations of IPv4 addresses
    • An IPv6 address is 128 bits in length
    • Example : 402A:0:2F7C:1:8BB:FFE3:728D:95A
  • IPv6
    • Unicast
      • addresses identify a single interface and are used when a single host sends a message to another single host.
    • Multicast
      • addresses identify multiple interfaces when a single host is sending messages to many hosts.
    • Anycast
      • addresses identify a single interface among many interfaces and are used when a single host sends a message to the nearest interface available.
    • Site-local
      • addresses are available to any private network to use internally without the need to register the address. They are used for networks that aren’t connected to the Internet, or for networks that aren’t directly reachable because of a firewall.
    • The loopback
      • address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 (also written as ::1). Loopback addresses identify a logical loopback interface, which allows the node to send packets to itself for testing purposes
  • Default Gateways
    • Default gateway is an IP address of a router that is designated for any traffic for which the route is unknown
    • When a network router receives data, and it has an address for a default gateway, it follows this process:
      • The router looks at the IP header to determine the destination IP address.
      • The router determines whether the destination IP address is on the same network segment the data was received from.
      • If the destination IP address is for a different network, the router looks in its routing table for a route to that address.
      • If the router does not have a route listed for that destination network, it selects the default gateway address.
  • Public and Private IP Public addresses Private addresses
    • Do not have to be registered
    • Can be assigned by the network administrator
    • Are used on computers that are not accessed by the Internet 10.x.y.z 172.16-32.x.y 192.168.x.y
    • Are assigned by an ISP
    • Consist of unique class-based blocks
    • Are kept to a limited number
  • TCP/IP Protocol Functions
    • ICMP
    • FTP
    • ARP
    • DHCP
    • RARP
    • DHCP
  • ICMP
    • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
      • An Internet layer protocol that reports on the success or failure of data delivery
      • ICMP announcements provide critical information for troubleshooting network problems
  • ARP
    • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
    • An Internet layer protocol that obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or node, then creates a database that maps the MAC address to the host’s IP (logical) address
  • RARP
    • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
    • Allow the client to send a broadcast message with its MAC address and receive an IP address in reply
    • RARP was originally developed as a means for diskless workstations
  • DHCP
      • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
      • An automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network
      • DHCP does not require a table of IP and MAC addresses on the server
      • DHCP does require configuration of DHCP service on a DHCP server
      • A terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite
      • Using Telnet, a TCP connection is established and keystrokes on the user’s machine act like keystrokes on the remotely connected machine
      • Telnet is notoriously insecure
  • FTP
        • Used to send and receive files via TCP/IP
        • FTP commands will work from your operating system’s command prompt
        • Many FTP hosts accept anonymous logins