Unit04:
Protocol Stacks
Overview
• Protocol
• TCP/IP
• IPX/SPX
• Appletalk
• NetBEUI
Protocol
• Standards define how devices communicate with each
other and access media
• Once a standard is implemented in s...
Protocol Suite
• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
– the most common of all network protocol suites...
TCP/IP
• Developed for use on the Internet for the American
Department of Defence
• Two Parts:
– TCP – responsible for con...
Features of TCP/IP
• Interoperability – has become the industry ‘standard’,
Netware have replaced two of its proprietary p...
TCP
• Designed to guarantee delivery of data from the sending
device to the receiving device
• Requires additional control...
TCP/IP
Layer
TCP Layer Encapsulation
22Bytes 20Bytes 20Bytes 4Bytes
64 to 1500 Bytes
TCP Headers
UDP
• Alternative to TCP is User Datagram Protocol
• Not guaranteed delivery
• No preservation of sequence
• No protection...
UDP Headers
The Internetwork Layer and IP
• The TCP/IP model’s internetwork layer deals
primarily with addressing and routing data
IP
• One of the most important protocols
• Developed to function within a UNIX environment in the
days of ARPAnet
• Uses c...
Understanding IP Addressing
• Address consists of 4 bytes = 32 bits
• Address is quoted as four dotted decimal numbers suc...
IPX/SPX
• Novell first developed its Internetwork Packet
Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
protocol suite for u...
IPX(Internetwork Packet Exchange) and Addressing
• IPX/SPX-based networks require that each node on a
network be assigned ...
NetBEUI
• NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System) is a
protocol originally designed for IBM to provide Transport
and S...
NetBEUI
• Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) - Provides a
means of resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses
• A compute...
Appletalk
• The protocol suite originally designed to interconnect
Macintosh computers
• An AppleTalk network is separated...
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Unit04

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Unit04

  1. 1. Unit04: Protocol Stacks
  2. 2. Overview • Protocol • TCP/IP • IPX/SPX • Appletalk • NetBEUI
  3. 3. Protocol • Standards define how devices communicate with each other and access media • Once a standard is implemented in software it becomes a protocol • Protocols define how devices and applications communicate • The protocols on a network affects the way in which it functions and its ability to interface with other networks
  4. 4. Protocol Suite • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) – the most common of all network protocol suites, is the ‘standard’ in modern networks, used for communication on the Internet • Internet Packet eXchange/Sequence Packet eXchange (IPX/SPX) – developed by Novell, ensures communication between Netware operating systems, provides similar functionality to TCP/IP, can be routed but only to communicate with other Netware networks • AppleTalk – popular networking protocol in American educational establishments, used for communicating between devices using the Mac OS
  5. 5. TCP/IP • Developed for use on the Internet for the American Department of Defence • Two Parts: – TCP – responsible for connection oriented communication using error checking – IP – implemented in the addressing system used to identify devices • Although designed for the Internet it is used to build LANs, WANs and MANs • Most widely used protocol suite, used within Unix, Windows and Macintosh platforms
  6. 6. Features of TCP/IP • Interoperability – has become the industry ‘standard’, Netware have replaced two of its proprietary protocols (IPX and SPX) with TCP and IP • Flexibility – the multiple protocols within the suite allow a variety of implementations, eg the use of either TCP (reliable but slow) or UDP (fast and efficient, but not as reliable) • Multivendor Support – almost all network software supports it, eg Apple, DEC, IBM, Novell, Microsoft and Sun
  7. 7. TCP • Designed to guarantee delivery of data from the sending device to the receiving device • Requires additional control information in the header • Each data packet is placed in the correct sequence order when it is received
  8. 8. TCP/IP Layer
  9. 9. TCP Layer Encapsulation 22Bytes 20Bytes 20Bytes 4Bytes 64 to 1500 Bytes
  10. 10. TCP Headers
  11. 11. UDP • Alternative to TCP is User Datagram Protocol • Not guaranteed delivery • No preservation of sequence • No protection against duplication • Minimum overhead • Adds port addressing to IP
  12. 12. UDP Headers
  13. 13. The Internetwork Layer and IP • The TCP/IP model’s internetwork layer deals primarily with addressing and routing data
  14. 14. IP • One of the most important protocols • Developed to function within a UNIX environment in the days of ARPAnet • Uses connectionless delivery – it does not guarantee delivery • Main purpose is to provide logical addressing through the use of an IP address • Uses IP address to route information between networks, therefore every device requires a unique address
  15. 15. Understanding IP Addressing • Address consists of 4 bytes = 32 bits • Address is quoted as four dotted decimal numbers such as 134.220.198.170 = 10000110.11011100.11000110.10101010 • IP address consists of two parts the network portion, and the host portion • The network portion is used to route packets between networks • The host portion identifies the particular device on the host network • (continued in next chapter)
  16. 16. IPX/SPX • Novell first developed its Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) protocol suite for use with its NetWare operating system in the 1980s • SPX is similar to TCP in that it functions at the transport layer and provides a connection-oriented service to upper-layer applications
  17. 17. IPX(Internetwork Packet Exchange) and Addressing • IPX/SPX-based networks require that each node on a network be assigned a unique address to avoid communication conflicts • IPX is the component of the protocol that handles addressing, addresses on an IPX/SPX network are called IPX addresses • IPX addresses contain two parts: the network address and the node address
  18. 18. NetBEUI • NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System) is a protocol originally designed for IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services for applications running on small, homogenous networks • NetBEUI can support only 254 connections, however, and does not allow for good security • Because NetBEUI frames include only Data Link layer (or MAC) addresses and not Network layer addresses, it is not routable
  19. 19. NetBEUI • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) - Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses • A computer’s NetBIOS name and its TCP/IP host name are different entities, though you can have the same name for both • WINS has the same relationship to NetBIOS as DNS has to TCP/IP • WINS does not assign names or IP addresses, but merely keeps track of which NetBIOS names are linked to which IP addresses
  20. 20. Appletalk • The protocol suite originally designed to interconnect Macintosh computers • An AppleTalk network is separated into logical groups of computers called AppleTalk zones • An AppleTalk node ID is a unique 8-bit or 16-bit number that identifies a computer on an AppleTalk network • An AppleTalk network number is a unique 16-bit number that identifies the network to which a node is connected

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