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Designer Drugs Testing Solutions for Employers
 

Designer Drugs Testing Solutions for Employers

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Designer Drugs Testing Solutions for Employers

Designer Drugs Testing Solutions for Employers
Presented February 1, 2012
by Dr. Barry K. Logan, PhD, DABFT
NMS Labs National Director of Forensic Services

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  • The term designer drug came to prominence in the 1980’s when everything was designer – jeans, eyewear, shoes, purses, and it was applied to novel drugs that appeared around the same time. Originally included the ioids alpha me fentanyl or china white, MPPP (1-Methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine) - meperidine analog, contained byproduct MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) which killed dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, causing parkinson like symptoms ( shaking , rigidity , slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait . Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia ). MDMA appeared in the 1970’s and was well established in the rave culture in major cities by the late 1980’s. The 1980’s saw continued growth in popularity of MDMA and the appearance of occasional analogs, notably PMA which is almost exclusively serotonergic and an hallucinogen rather than a stimulant, but packaged indistinguishable from MDMA. Believed to have caused several deaths from serotonin syndrome. In the early 1990’s methamphetamine became more popular, repackaged as ice or crystal methamphetamine which adopted the designer drug mantle, but was no different from regular meth, however this contributed to growth in its popularity.
  • The term designer drug came to prominence in the 1980’s when everything was designer – jeans, eyewear, shoes, purses, and it was applied to novel drugs that appeared around the same time. Originally included the ioids alpha me fentanyl or china white, MPPP (1-Methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine) - meperidine analog, contained byproduct MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) which killed dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, causing parkinson like symptoms ( shaking , rigidity , slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait . Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia ). MDMA appeared in the 1970’s and was well established in the rave culture in major cities by the late 1980’s. The 1980’s saw continued growth in popularity of MDMA and the appearance of occasional analogs, notably PMA which is almost exclusively serotonergic and an hallucinogen rather than a stimulant, but packaged indistinguishable from MDMA. Believed to have caused several deaths from serotonin syndrome. In the early 1990’s methamphetamine became more popular, repackaged as ice or crystal methamphetamine which adopted the designer drug mantle, but was no different from regular meth, however this contributed to growth in its popularity.
  • In the absence of comprehensive testing methods or practices, or any central reporting, and a 2-3 years delay in the ICD-10 coding one source of data is from poison control centers. This is data from the most recent National Forensic Labortatories Information System report which cam eout this month showing the rise in synthetic cannabinoid related calls. Note the dip in Jan 2011 when the scheduling of JWH018 etc was announced, and the quick recovery.
  • By the mid to late 2000’s, with over 1bn people on the internet, specialty online retailers were selling both non-controlled psychoactive drugs and precursors for synthesis, Widespread audience, more difficult to find and control. Many of the initial compounds were taken from Shulgins book, especially the 2C series of psychedelic phenethylamines from Shulgin’s book PiHKAL, 2C-B, 2C-E, and 2CT7 but also a few tryptamines, AMT, DMT, and 5-MeODiPT (foxy methoxy). When a drug gained a sufficiently high prominence Federal Authorities have moved to place them in the Federal Schedule. Foxy, one of Shulgin’s received a lot of media attention in the early 2000’s and was added to schedule I in 2003, along with AMT. In 2004 Federal authorities executed operation web tryp, resulted in the arrests of 10 people. The DEA has followed a track of adding specific compounds to schedules
  • At the end of the decade however, there was an explosion of new chemicals and supply routes and an unmanageable international distribution network grew up which was very difficult to track or police. Nobody knew the identity or potential use for these compounds, they were not specifically scheduled, they were often buried in catalogs of legitimate research supplies, it was not clear what their pharmacology was as they had never been studied, all of which made them difficult to cover under analog statutes. More about scheduling later. The drugs shown here are the major categories currently in distribution, although new classes are already emerging. There is a patchwork of federal, state, and even municipal codes that schedule specific compounds usually based on regional patterns following a specific adverse event like a death or assault, making it difficult for law enforcement to police, and for labs to know what they should be testing for. Benzylpiperazines are stimulants, often mixed with TFMPP and m-CPP are currently legal in the US, although banned most other places. Synthetic cannabinoids are marijuana-like Beta keto amps are more MDMA-like with a mix of stimulant and hallucnogenic/entactogenic properties Phenethylamine derivatives are more pure serotonergic with more consciousness changing/ hallucinogenic effects MDPV primarily stimulant effects with mild entactogenic effects. Major attraction has been their legality. Also on the list would be tryptamines which are truly hallucinogenic and are rising in popularity and availability.
  • More anecdotal informtion comes from the press and the media, and attracts more attention, but many times lacks the testing data
  • The term designer drug came to prominence in the 1980’s when everything was designer – jeans, eyewear, shoes, purses, and it was applied to novel drugs that appeared around the same time. Originally included the ioids alpha me fentanyl or china white, MPPP (1-Methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine) - meperidine analog, contained byproduct MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) which killed dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, causing parkinson like symptoms ( shaking , rigidity , slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait . Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia ). MDMA appeared in the 1970’s and was well established in the rave culture in major cities by the late 1980’s. The 1980’s saw continued growth in popularity of MDMA and the appearance of occasional analogs, notably PMA which is almost exclusively serotonergic and an hallucinogen rather than a stimulant, but packaged indistinguishable from MDMA. Believed to have caused several deaths from serotonin syndrome. In the early 1990’s methamphetamine became more popular, repackaged as ice or crystal methamphetamine which adopted the designer drug mantle, but was no different from regular meth, however this contributed to growth in its popularity.

Designer Drugs Testing Solutions for Employers Designer Drugs Testing Solutions for Employers Presentation Transcript

  • Designer Drug Tests Solutions for Employers
  • SYNTHETIC MARIJUANA UPDATE
  • K2/Spice
  • K2/Spice
  • Marijuana Most popular recreational drug after alcohol and tobacco. Main psychoactive component THC #1 Drug in the DRE program Some 25 million Americans have smoked marijuana in the past year, and more than 14 million do so regularly. Possession and use illegal under federal law, but states have variable policies on enforcement and prosecution. 6.8% of Friday and Saturday evening drivers test positive for use.
  • K2/Spice
    • What is K2/Spice?
    • Synthetic chemicals that look to the brain like marijuana.
    • Sprayed onto plant material for smoking.
    • Give marijuana-like high
    • Sold online and in headshops
    • Legal grey area
  • K2/Spice
    • Chemicals used change frequently.
    • Different products with same name contain different chemicals.
    • The same product from the same manufacturer contains different drug, lot to lot.
  • K2/Spice
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids 2010
    • JWH-018
    • JWH-073
    • CP 47, 497 (C7)
    • CP 47,497 (C8)
    • HU-210
  • Synthetic Cannabinoid 2012 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-018 methyl hexyl homolog JWH-019 JWH-073 JWH-073 methyl butyl homolog JWH-081 JWH-122 JWH-133 JWH-175 JWH-200 JWH-201 JWH-203 JWH-210 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-302 JWH-398 CP 47, 497 (C7) CP 47,497 (C8) CP 55,940 AM-694 AM-1220 AM-1241 AM-2201 AM-2233 RCS-4 RCS-8 WIN 48,098 (Pravadoline) WIN 55,212-2 WIN 55,212-3 CB-25 CB-52 HU-210 HU-211 HU-308 HU-331 JT-7770
  • Legal Status - Federal
      • Temporary Scheduling
      • 3/1/2011 – Synthetic Cannabinoids
      • JWH-018
      • JWH-073
      • JWH-200
      • CP47,497 (C7)
      • CP47,497 (C8)
  • Marijuana/K2 Effects Red eyes / bloodshot Burning of the eyes Xerostomia (dry mouth) Tachycardia Changes in perception/mood Balance and Coordination Hallucinations Sedation Subjective thought disruption/loss of concentration Impaired sense of time Self assessed impairment Arrhythmias Seizures/Convulsions Panic Attacks Paranoia and Anxiety Sickness
  • K2/Spice Prevalence NFLIS, Oct 2011 Calls to Poison Control Centers
  • K2/Spice Behavioral Effects
  • K2/Spice and Lethality
    • Synthetic Cannabinoid Metabolites Screen - Expanded, Urine (Forensic) Test (9562U)
    • JWH-018 N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite
    • JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite
    • JWH-019 N-(5-hydroxyhexyl) metabolite
    • JWH-073 N-(3-hydroxybutyl) metabolite
    • JWH-073 N-(4-hydroxybutyl) metabolite
    • JWH-250 N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite
    • AM-2201 N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite
    Urine K2/Spice – Expanded Scope
  • Urine K2/Spice - Positivity
  • Blood K2/Spice - Positivity
  • “ BATH SALTS” UPDATE
  • Designer Drugs
      • 1980’s
      •  -methylfentanyl, MPPP, MDMA,
      • 1990’s, early 2000’s
      • PMA, rise of methamphetamine
      • Growth of the Internet
      • Beginnings of the “Research Chemicals” or “New Psychedelic” Movement.
      • Mid 2000’s
      • AMT, DMT, 5-MeO-DiPT
      • Khat, cathinone, methcathinone
  • Designer Stimulants and Hallucinogens
      • 2008-2012
      • Benzylpiperazines (6+)
      • BZP, TFMPP, m-CPP
      • “ Bath Salts”
      •  -Keto amphetamines (30+)
      • Ephedrone, mephedrone, methylone, methedrone…
      • Phenethylamines (2C suite) (15+)
      • 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-B, 2C-T-7,…
      • Pyrrolidophenones (pyrovalerones) (20+)
      •  -PVP, MDPV, PPP,…
  • Designer Stimulants and Hallucinogens
      • Bath Salts Products
  • Bath Salts Effects Meth Ecstasy Bath Salts Excitement Euphoria Tachycardia Increased pupil size Rapid Speech Motor Restlessness Anxiety Paranoia Mood Changes Withdrawal/Depression Delusions Hallucinations Seizures/Convulsions Death
  • Bath Salts - Prevalence NFLIS, Oct 2011 Calls to Poison Control Centers
  • Legal Status - Federal
      • Temporary Scheduling
      • 10/21/2011 “Bath Salts”
      • MDPV
      • Mephedrone
      • Methylone
  • Bath Salts and Depression
  • Bath Salts and Violence
  • Bath Salts Lethality
  • Designer Drugs - Salvia
  • ANABOLIC STEROIDS UPDATE
  • Designer Drugs
  • Designer Drugs
  • Anabolic Steroids Mimic Effects of Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Increase protein synthesis Buildup of muscle Stimulate bone growth Stimulate Appetite Treat Chronic Wasting Cause acne Elevate cholesterol Hypertension Heart and Liver damage Gynecomastia Testicular atrophy Mood changes/Depression Anger Violence
  • 9305U Anabolic Steroid Assay
    • Bolasterone
    • Boldenone
    • Clenbuterol
    • Clostebol Metabolite
    • Clostebol
    • Creatinine
    • Drostanolone Metabolite
    • Epitestosterone
    • Fluoxymesterone
    • Methandienone Metabolite
    • Methandienone
    • Methenolone
    • Methyltestosterone
    • Nandrolone Metabolite
    • Nandrolone
    • Nandrolone
    • Norandrostenedione
    • Norethandrolone Metabolite
    • Norethandrolone
    • Norethindrone
    • Oxandrolone
    • Oxymetholone Metabolite
    • Probenecid
    • Stanozolol Metabolite
    • Stanozolol
    • Testosterone/Epitestosterone Ratio
    • Testosterone
    • Tetrahydrogestrinone
    • Trenbolone Metabolite
    • Turinabol
  • Urine Detection Times for Steroids Various internet sources including user input* Compound Detection Clenbuterol ~4 days Testosterone Undecanoate ~1 Week Testosterone Propionate ~ 2weeks Oxandrolone ~ 3 Weeks Oral Stanozolol ~ 3 Weeks methandienone ~ 3 Weeks Noretadrolone ~ 3 Weeks Oxymetholone ~2 months Injectable Stanozolol ~2 months Boldenone ~ 5 months Trenbolone ~ 5 months Nandrolone ~12-18 months
  • Most Frequently Encountered - 9305U Compound Abnormal Testosterone/Epi Ratio Nandrolone Metabolite Nandrolone Norandrostenedione Boldenone Methenolone Trenbolone Metabolite Methandienone Metabolite Stanozolol Methyltestosterone Stanozolol Metabolite Methandienone
  • Testosterone:Epitestosterone Ratio Normal Range, less than 4.0 ~3% have concentrations greater than 4.0 Range: 4.1 – 420
  • Designer Drugs
  • NMS Labs Philosophy
    • NMS Labs is the industry leader in its ability to identify and stay current in an evolving and challenging designer drug market offering testing established and new and emerging drugs of abuse.