CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities

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CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities

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CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities

  1. 1. Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities Nathan Moroney, Principal Scientist, HP Labs, Print Production Automation Lab
  2. 2. Overview • Acknowledge that this talk is one of the keynotes from the MCSL25th Anniversary symposium • Approach the topic as a question of color extrapolation • Format the presentation as a series of questions • First portion are a broad sampling of opportunities • Last part is more specific to my ongoing research interests CIC17 2
  3. 3. Bigger Future of Color Imaging Smaller Novel Personal Intuitive Authentic Pervasive Hybrid CIC17 3
  4. 4. Q: What tool would you want to have when you meet the president? CIC17 4
  5. 5. (Digital) Cameras Color photograph taken in Iraq on the cover of the Wall Street Journal © Zuma Press CIC17 5
  6. 6. Q: What’s a good way to remember something that never happened? CIC17 6
  7. 7. (Digital) Printing Ink jet print of me with ink jet printed Bill & Dave. CIC17 7
  8. 8. Q: A Softball is to a ping-pong ball as …? CIC17 8
  9. 9. Ink Jet Drop Volumes • Five years ago 30 to 50 picoliters • Where a picoliter is 1/1,000,000,000,000 liter • Currently as low as 2 to 4 picoliters, − with an announcement of 1 picoliter drop (~20 microns) − example application is printing prototype flexible displays • Roughly from a softball to ping-pong ball • Spot sizes from 150 microns to 50 microns • See also image sensor detector sizes CIC17 9
  10. 10. Q: How long does it take to get a spectrophotometer from a benchtop to a printer? CIC17 10
  11. 11. 1929: Benchtop Dr. Arthur Hardy with his spectrophotometer. Journal American Oil Chemists Society CIC17 11
  12. 12. 2009: Printers So that’s about 80 years from benchtop to printer. CIC17 12
  13. 13. Q: Is there more to colorants than dyes, pigments and the occasional lake? CIC17 13
  14. 14. Nanoscale Structures Graphene created through abrasion of graphite? CIC17 14
  15. 15. Nanoscale Structural Color • Carbon nanotubes with 10 nm diameters can have reflectances of < 0.05% − Z. Yang et al, “Experimental Observation of an Extremely Dark Material Made by a low Density Nanotube Array”, Nano Letters, (2008) − P. Vukusic et al, “Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly wings”, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, S237-239 Suppl. 4, (2004). − X. Zhou et al, “Color Detection Using Chromophore- Nanotube Hybrid Devices”, Nano Letters (2009). CIC17 15
  16. 16. Q: Is Variable Data Printing just about paper? CIC17 16
  17. 17. Variable Data Textiles • Spoonflower.com − CIELAB encoded textile designs uploaded to a web site and then digitally printed • Digital personalization in this case is color CIC17 17
  18. 18. Q: When is printing not about making prints? CIC17 18
  19. 19. Flexible Displays HP Labs – Information Surfaces Lab Roll-to-roll self-aligned imprint lithography flexible displays. Color properties a key consideration. CIC17 19
  20. 20. Q: What’s a reference magazine? CIC17 20
  21. 21. The Color Thesaurus • Magcloud.com • Web service for indigo printing of magazines • Mashing of physical form factors CIC17 21
  22. 22. Q: How many colors per feet per minute are there in a high speed inkjet press? CIC17 22
  23. 23. Inkjet Web Press: Speed 400 Feet per Minute CIC17 23
  24. 24. Inkjet Web Press: and Color 1200 x 600 dpi addressability Four Color CMYK Printing From pages per minute to miles per hour… CIC17 24
  25. 25. Q: Seen any interesting color imaging in a museum lately? CIC17 25
  26. 26. New York MOMA: April 2009 The Printed Picture Exhibit: “the enormous social impact of multiple images.” CIC17 26
  27. 27. Chromaticity Diagrams @ MOMA! “If today's complex tools are not carefully calibrated and controlled they wreak havoc.” CIC17 27
  28. 28. Digital Presses @ MOMA “In the digital realm it is no longer possible for a photographer or printer to develop an intuitive grasp of materials and processes simply by using them.” CIC17 28
  29. 29. Q: What does a book with 5000 authors look like? CIC17 29
  30. 30. Unconstrained Color Naming on the Web = A Book with 5000 Authors CIC17 30
  31. 31. Q: What do you mean, your computer is better at naming colors than you are? CIC17 31
  32. 32. Machine Color Naming • Every pixel gets a color name − Color, the only meaningful cognitive category for a single pixel • Based on large scale corpus of color names collected online • Basis for lexical image processing • My computer knows more color names and color name boundaries than I do. • In fact it taught me chartreuse. CIC17 32
  33. 33. Q: So the color naming debate is not just about the universalist versus relativist philosophical argument? CIC17 33
  34. 34. Prototype Theory vs. Fuzzy Logic Original Process CIELAB each pixel Slices one at a time Learn Prototype centroids, Theory need a distance metric Learn Fuzzy memberships, Logic need full memberships in a color space CIC17 34
  35. 35. Q: How does color naming pixels help? CIC17 35
  36. 36. Lexical Quantization • Massive, non-uniform, image independent, natural language partitioning of color space 24-Bit Original Uniform Device Lexical Quantization Quantization (27 colors) (25 names) CIC17 36
  37. 37. Lexical Quantization: Image 24-Bit Original Uniform Device Lexical Quantization Quantization (27 colors) (25 names) CIC17 37
  38. 38. Q: Is there an aesthetics of abstraction? CIC17 38
  39. 39. Non-Photorealistic Rendering CIC17 39
  40. 40. Future Opportunities • Pages per minute to miles per hour • Digital is the original, and it’s museum-worthy • Variable data color grows out • Race for flexible color displays • Innovations on the nano-scale • Numbers to names, and back again • Questions? CIC17 40

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