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CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities
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CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities

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CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities

CIC 17 - Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities

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  • 1. Color Science & Imaging: Future Opportunities Nathan Moroney, Principal Scientist, HP Labs, Print Production Automation Lab
  • 2. Overview • Acknowledge that this talk is one of the keynotes from the MCSL25th Anniversary symposium • Approach the topic as a question of color extrapolation • Format the presentation as a series of questions • First portion are a broad sampling of opportunities • Last part is more specific to my ongoing research interests CIC17 2
  • 3. Bigger Future of Color Imaging Smaller Novel Personal Intuitive Authentic Pervasive Hybrid CIC17 3
  • 4. Q: What tool would you want to have when you meet the president? CIC17 4
  • 5. (Digital) Cameras Color photograph taken in Iraq on the cover of the Wall Street Journal © Zuma Press CIC17 5
  • 6. Q: What’s a good way to remember something that never happened? CIC17 6
  • 7. (Digital) Printing Ink jet print of me with ink jet printed Bill & Dave. CIC17 7
  • 8. Q: A Softball is to a ping-pong ball as …? CIC17 8
  • 9. Ink Jet Drop Volumes • Five years ago 30 to 50 picoliters • Where a picoliter is 1/1,000,000,000,000 liter • Currently as low as 2 to 4 picoliters, − with an announcement of 1 picoliter drop (~20 microns) − example application is printing prototype flexible displays • Roughly from a softball to ping-pong ball • Spot sizes from 150 microns to 50 microns • See also image sensor detector sizes CIC17 9
  • 10. Q: How long does it take to get a spectrophotometer from a benchtop to a printer? CIC17 10
  • 11. 1929: Benchtop Dr. Arthur Hardy with his spectrophotometer. Journal American Oil Chemists Society CIC17 11
  • 12. 2009: Printers So that’s about 80 years from benchtop to printer. CIC17 12
  • 13. Q: Is there more to colorants than dyes, pigments and the occasional lake? CIC17 13
  • 14. Nanoscale Structures Graphene created through abrasion of graphite? CIC17 14
  • 15. Nanoscale Structural Color • Carbon nanotubes with 10 nm diameters can have reflectances of < 0.05% − Z. Yang et al, “Experimental Observation of an Extremely Dark Material Made by a low Density Nanotube Array”, Nano Letters, (2008) − P. Vukusic et al, “Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly wings”, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, S237-239 Suppl. 4, (2004). − X. Zhou et al, “Color Detection Using Chromophore- Nanotube Hybrid Devices”, Nano Letters (2009). CIC17 15
  • 16. Q: Is Variable Data Printing just about paper? CIC17 16
  • 17. Variable Data Textiles • Spoonflower.com − CIELAB encoded textile designs uploaded to a web site and then digitally printed • Digital personalization in this case is color CIC17 17
  • 18. Q: When is printing not about making prints? CIC17 18
  • 19. Flexible Displays HP Labs – Information Surfaces Lab Roll-to-roll self-aligned imprint lithography flexible displays. Color properties a key consideration. CIC17 19
  • 20. Q: What’s a reference magazine? CIC17 20
  • 21. The Color Thesaurus • Magcloud.com • Web service for indigo printing of magazines • Mashing of physical form factors CIC17 21
  • 22. Q: How many colors per feet per minute are there in a high speed inkjet press? CIC17 22
  • 23. Inkjet Web Press: Speed 400 Feet per Minute CIC17 23
  • 24. Inkjet Web Press: and Color 1200 x 600 dpi addressability Four Color CMYK Printing From pages per minute to miles per hour… CIC17 24
  • 25. Q: Seen any interesting color imaging in a museum lately? CIC17 25
  • 26. New York MOMA: April 2009 The Printed Picture Exhibit: “the enormous social impact of multiple images.” CIC17 26
  • 27. Chromaticity Diagrams @ MOMA! “If today's complex tools are not carefully calibrated and controlled they wreak havoc.” CIC17 27
  • 28. Digital Presses @ MOMA “In the digital realm it is no longer possible for a photographer or printer to develop an intuitive grasp of materials and processes simply by using them.” CIC17 28
  • 29. Q: What does a book with 5000 authors look like? CIC17 29
  • 30. Unconstrained Color Naming on the Web = A Book with 5000 Authors CIC17 30
  • 31. Q: What do you mean, your computer is better at naming colors than you are? CIC17 31
  • 32. Machine Color Naming • Every pixel gets a color name − Color, the only meaningful cognitive category for a single pixel • Based on large scale corpus of color names collected online • Basis for lexical image processing • My computer knows more color names and color name boundaries than I do. • In fact it taught me chartreuse. CIC17 32
  • 33. Q: So the color naming debate is not just about the universalist versus relativist philosophical argument? CIC17 33
  • 34. Prototype Theory vs. Fuzzy Logic Original Process CIELAB each pixel Slices one at a time Learn Prototype centroids, Theory need a distance metric Learn Fuzzy memberships, Logic need full memberships in a color space CIC17 34
  • 35. Q: How does color naming pixels help? CIC17 35
  • 36. Lexical Quantization • Massive, non-uniform, image independent, natural language partitioning of color space 24-Bit Original Uniform Device Lexical Quantization Quantization (27 colors) (25 names) CIC17 36
  • 37. Lexical Quantization: Image 24-Bit Original Uniform Device Lexical Quantization Quantization (27 colors) (25 names) CIC17 37
  • 38. Q: Is there an aesthetics of abstraction? CIC17 38
  • 39. Non-Photorealistic Rendering CIC17 39
  • 40. Future Opportunities • Pages per minute to miles per hour • Digital is the original, and it’s museum-worthy • Variable data color grows out • Race for flexible color displays • Innovations on the nano-scale • Numbers to names, and back again • Questions? CIC17 40