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HIV/AIDS in Africa

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By Nicole Menkel

By Nicole Menkel

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  • Human Immunodefiency Virus. Scientists believe HIV came from a particular kind of chimpanzee in Western Africa. Humans probably came in contact with HIV when they hunted and ate infected animals. HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. A Virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of it’s host. HIV is a lot like other viruses. The big difference is that over time your immune system can clear most viruses out of the body but that’s not the case with HIV--the human immune system cannot get rid of it. HIV can hide for long periods of time in the cells of your body attacking the cells that fight infections and diseases. Over time HIV can destroy so many of these important cells that your body can’t fight infections and diseases anymore. This virus thus leads to AIDS
  • Acquired Immunodefiency Syndrome. It is not inherited from your parents you acquire it after birth. Your body’s immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease. A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome rather than a single disease because it is so complex (range of complications and symptoms). AIDS is the final stage of HIV. People at this stage have badly damaged immune systems which put them at risk for infections. You can be diagnosed with AIDS if you have certain cancers, low # of CD4 cells or other symptoms. Treatment is necessary. No cure.
  • Unprotected sex is a very easy way to spread STDs including HIV/AIDS. Anal intercourse increases the chances of receiving HIV and of course having unprotected sex with someone who has an STD. in the US and europe Hiv/AIDS are more present among homosexuals but in Africa is it extremely present among heterosexuals. If a mother has HIV she can pass it to her baby as well; if she breast feeds the chances go up. Hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions and blood products have a greater chance of getting HIV but still very low . Sharing needles is a huge cause in north America, china, and eastern Europe. Meth can lead to unprotected sex behavior. Sexual assault increases the chance as well because condoms are not likely to be used.
  • AIDS and HIV are ruining this continent. Majority of the continent is red (over 200,000)
  • First bullet goes with the fact that villages are small, allowing members to frequently have sex with other people. Second bullet: state that even if men were to allow condoms they might not even be available. Third. Also say men believe condoms lessen the traditional power they hold in a community and they tend to feel more manly when a condom isn’t used. Talk about how this ties to economic because they can’t afford condoms also.
  • Once men are infected they don’t feel anything anymore because they are dying. They don’t even try to have protection anymore because what is the point. Success for men is measured by the number of women they sleep with and it is easy for them because children starting at the age of 5 have sex. The majority of poor people live in single rooms--no privacy. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/jun/19/hearafrica05.aids Children would practice what they saw, called the game Mum and Dad. Since children grow up having sex they aren’t educated about the dangers an no one thinks twice about using protection.
  • Majority of governments in African nations refuse to pay for healthcare or oversee safety regulations. Political leaders also refuse to acknowledge the link between HIV and AIDS. EXAMPLE: Thabo Mbeki, pres. of South Africa question the link to the point where he banned the use of antiretroviral drugs in public state hospitals. Wastes time in preventing the spread of AIDS and people get more ill. The government does not ensure that children and schools teach the importance of protection and the topic of disease in general. The leaders whom are the closest to recognizing the situation at hand and witnessing the disease in their village don’t have a say in the government so they are powerless against the pandemic.
  • Africa is the majority of the worlds number…maybe with a working government the numbers would decrease
  • Many sub-Saharan Africa (specifically) citizens live in poverty. The rising poverty level across the continent has increased the spread of infectious diseases in general, to which those with HIV become more susceptible. Also, people in sub-Saharan Africa have little access to medication or protection. Those who did have access to medication probably couldn’t afford it anyways. The lack of sanitation services makes people, with or without AIDS very susceptible to disease. According to world-poverty.org, the majority of the world’s poorest countries are in Africa. Lastly the income levels in African nations have been dropping.
  • Obviously natural disaseters effect a lot of areas tremendously. Villages, houses, other buildings get effected and no one knows how to deal. People need to stay safe and have somewhere to sleep and live for the time being. These disasters leave women desperate for survival. They put their health in risk because they need to obtain food, shelter and safe passage. These natural disasters have took their home and well being so their options are limited. They end up choosing sex for to receive money and a place to stay.
  • The pandemic devastates communities, regressing decades of developmental progress. Children are left parentless and orphans have a difficult time receiving an education without their parents around, thus the quality of education deceases.
  • Life span expectancy decreases. Adults and parents who die leave their children to take for themselves, children and teens have to look after their whole family. The healthy members of a family who are left will probably eventually get effected by the illness. Without a steady income it is hard to survive because so many things cost money like homecare (next slide)
  • The large amount of those affected with HIV has put a strain on healthcare in individual countries. The demand is too high for the supply of prevention and treatment. The number of healthcare workers infected with the virus is increasing-->fewer people with knowledge for treatment are available. With no healthcare or medication too many people are getting sick and there is no aid in helping them together so the government loses control of all aspects of society
  • With the supply of health care workers decreasing the prices for aid increases. The virus is taking over the lives of workers and the number of laborers are decreasing so work is not getting done. With the large amount of deaths, jobs and occupations are not egetting done creating an unstable economy. This only harms the economy because everything is costing money (getting new workers). Families/adults who are lucky to be alive may not earn enough money to provide home based care and are likely to not afford home care and thus not survive
  • Talk about the rest of the world and how I focused on Africa but there are other nations (including the US) that are affected by AIDS

Transcript

  • 1. HIV/AIDS in Africa By: Nicole Menkel
  • 2. What is HIV? A V irus that takes over the cells Weakens the I mmune System Infects H umans
  • 3. What is AIDS? It is a S yndrome (collection of symptoms of disease--very complex) The Immune System becomes D eficient The I mmune system has organs and cells that fight off disease Can’t inherit it from your parents-- A cquired
  • 4. How can you get HIV/AIDS? Sexual assault Blood transfusions Breast feeding Having sex with infected partner methamphetamine Drug users Transmission in pregnancy Anal intercourse Sharing and reusing syringes Exposure to blood products Homosexual contact Unprotected sex
  • 5. Where HIV can be found
  • 6. A closer look
  • 7. Why does Africa have such high numbers?
    • Highest Transmission mode (37.7%) of HIV is through multiple sex relationships
    • Wives beaten if they ask for condoms
  • 8.  
  • 9. Individual Attitudes
    • Men “feel nothing” and continue to have unprotected sex
    • Success based on amount of women men sleep with
    • Promiscuous is the new normal
    • Children and teens grow up watching adults having sex
    • Sex happened all the time so no one used protection
  • 10. What is the government’s role?
    • Political instability
    • Healthcare
    • Leaders won’t recognize the connection of HIV and AIDS
    • Education?
    • Powerless village leaders
  • 11.  
  • 12. Economic Causes
    • Poverty
    • Medication?
    • No access to safe water and proper sanitation services
    • Poor continent
    • Income levels dropping
  • 13. Natural Disasters
    • Damages villages
    • Vulnerability (women)
    • Sex for money
  • 14. Social Effects
    • Devastation
    • Families are left in shambles
    • Children surviving on their own
    • Orphans
    • School and education are threatened
  • 15. More Social Effects
    • Mortality rates increase
    • Orphan rates increase
    • Family members get infected
    • No steady income for a family
  • 16. Political Effects
    • Government can’t provide healthcare
    • Lack of workers with proper knowledge
    • Government loses control over society
  • 17. Economic Effects
    • Treatment drugs and medical aid price increase
    • Labor supply decreases
    • Agriculture laborers to shop owners are effected
    • Replacing ill or dead workers cost money
    • Home based care?
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Statistics (Kenya)
  • 21.  
  • 22. Statistics (South Africa)
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. What the government can do
    • Put more money towards healthcare
    • Ensure policies on testing for HIV
    • Media: insist on precautions
    • Train teachers to talk about AIDS prevention
  • 26. What the U.S. can do
    • Donate money
    • Donate medication
    • Donate condoms
    • Raise awareness
    • Educate!!
  • 27. What I did
    • www.avert.org/
    • Donated money