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7 christian nasser
 

7 christian nasser

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  • This presentation is not about tourism development per se; it is about how tourism should be thought out and planned taking into consideration cultural heritage recources and how Euromed Heritage programme has contributed to tourism development in the ENP region - south. As the title indicates, the Euromed Heritage Programme is focused on heritage development however, and as all of you are awre, heritage development and tourism development intersect at more than one level as will be discussed in this presentation; they are both multi-disciplinary, in the sense that they both touch on issues such as the environment, ‘host communities’ who carry the culture Heritage represnts and tourism tries to transmit; and management, which is the main theme of this conference,and both have to be managed in a proper way to ensue their sustainability.…
  • This presentation is not about tourism development per se; it is about how tourism should be thought out and planned taking into consideration cultural heritage recources and how Euromed Heritage programme has contributed to tourism development in the ENP region - south. As the title indicates, the Euromed Heritage Programme is focused on heritage development however, and as all of you are awre, heritage development and tourism development intersect at more than one level as will be discussed in this presentation; they are both multi-disciplinary, in the sense that they both touch on issues such as the environment, ‘host communities’ who carry the culture Heritage represnts and tourism tries to transmit; and management, which is the main theme of this conference,and both have to be managed in a proper way to ensue their sustainability.…
  • Euromed Heritage is a framework for international institutions, governmental bodies, local authorities, civil society entities, professionals in the field of cultural heritage and education, and people and youth from the region, for working together at the development of a better environment for cultural heritage at the national and regional levels: rediscovery and sharing of traditions minding the present, exchange of experience, dissemination of best practices, all that in order to pave the way for a better and sustainable human and economic development in the region. It provided its players with know‐how and training in cultural heritage disciplines (conservation and rehabilitation of historical buildings and areas, implementation of requalification and management plans for historical sites, inventories and archiving of artefacts and objects, etc.), international legislation and norms applying cultural heritage, communication and visibility activities for a better participation of and appropriation by local communities
  • At the euro-mediterranean conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the European Union in Barcelona in 1995 , the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership between the European Union (EU) and its Southern neighbours was launched (eeas.europa.eu/euromed/docs/bd_en.pdf ) to the end of building an “area of peace, security and prosperity”, and culture was recognized as an essential element for people’s mutual understanding and improvement of perception of each other across the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. As stressed in the third chapter of the Barcelona Declaration dealing with social, cultural and human issues, the main objectives are the development of human resources , promotion of understanding between cultures and exchange between civil societies .
  • Nine years later, in 2004, the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was launched and Euromed Heritage was henceforth funded through the ENP instrument ( http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/index_en.htmandPolitique européenne de voisinage ). The premise of the ENP is that the EU has a vital interest in seeing greater economic development, stability and better governance in its neighbourhood. Spreading peace and prosperity beyond the borders of the EU prevents artificial divisions and creates benefits for the ENP partners and the EU alike. The ENP allows the EU to strengthen its relations with individual countries. It is a partnership for reform that offers ‘more for more’: the more deeply a partner engages with the Union, the more fully the Union can respond, politically, economically and through financial and technical cooperation.
  • A total of 74 million EUR have been allocated between 1998 and 2013 to finance and support 44 projects bringing together entities and professionals active in the cultural heritage field throughout the Mediterranean. The last phase of the programme, which concluded on 15 February 2013, was budgeted a total of 17 million EUR financing 12 projects. 1998 – 2013 74 million EUR 44 Projects 500+ partners and associates The three initial phases of the programme (1998-2008) were developed based on two main sets of premises, which were refined as lessons were learned in the process of project implementation and interaction between partners: The rich cultural heritage of the Mediterranean area, both tangible and intangible, should be viewed as a crucial component of human development strategies and an essential tool of cultural diversity, itself the main precondition for intercultural dialogue. 2. There are several common challenges affecting the preservation of cultural heritage in MPCs:
  • The Mediterranean region has been receiving one third of the income of international tourism with matching impacts, including on heritage. Over the last two decades, MPCs - together with Libya and Turkey - have recorded the highest growth rates in inbound world tourism. In the same period, domestic tourism in these countries also increased rapidly. Such figures indicate the huge potential tourism carries for the region even if political crises temporarily bring visitor increases to a halt. These figures also raise the alarm to the many issues that need to be addressed if tourism is to be a competitive force in the development of the region. Some of these have to do with the development of the industry itself: hasty and short-sighted decisions may lead to inappropriate practice and development. Security and climate change have also been identified as two important factors that will influence the development of the sector. The main issue of concern as regards heritage has to do with minimising the threats tourism represent for natural and cultural heritage resources, and enhancing the role tourism can play to conserve these same resources.   From the perspective of cultural heritage preservation, the economic value of the physical heritage is of primary concern inasmuch as it is linked to its direct use (and abuse) for tourism purposes. It goes beyond the need for increasing the access of paying tourists to heritage places to preserving the lifespan of heritage: it is about how tourism revenues are distributed, particularly where it concerns the owners of the heritage; about using part of these revenues for conservation purposes; and finally about raising the awareness about the heritage value of the site and the need for its sustainable use and conservation.   This is why tourism management constitutes an extremely important component in the planning and management of heritage sites. In fact, strategic and integrated planning in heritage management is pivotal in order to achieve sustainable results while preserving the physical integrity and heritage value of the site.  
  • Achievements have been substantial at the global level. To name just a few initiatives: 1. ICOMOS issued the Charter of Cultural Tourism ( http://www.icomos.org/tourism/tourism_charter.html ) in 1976, defining comprehensively for the first time the positive and negative effects of tourism on historic monuments and sites and laying the bases for integrating cultural assets into social and economic planning while respecting cultural heritage . ICOMOS revised the charter in 1999, and established an international scientific committee on cultural tourism and another on cultural routes. 2. UNESCO assists its 191 Member States in preparing their tourism development policies while reconsidering the relationship between tourism and cultural diversity, tourism and intercultural dialogue, and tourism and development. Through a variety of pilot tourism projects, the organization proposes to contribute to the fight against poverty, protection of the environment and mutual appreciation of cultures. 3. UNWTO is a major player in the international tourism arena. Article 4 of its 1999 Global Code of ‎Ethics for Tourism ( ethics.unwto.org/en/content/global-code-ethics-tourism ) deals with “Tourism, a user of the cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to its enhancement.” So far, only five MPCs are members of the organisation: Morocco (1995), Tunisia (1995), Israel (1995), Egypt (1995), and Jordan (2000). The organisation maintains LEXTOUR, a tourism legislation database ( www.unwto.org/documentation/lextour/en/lextour.php?op=1&subop=2 ).   . Examples of achievements include:
  • Euromed Heritage has contributed substantially to the development of cultural tourism within an approach that promotes socioeconomic development among local communities, while contributing to the enhancement of regional identities. The programme has operated at the micro level by striving to make tourism an instrument of exchange, respect, and mutual understanding beyond the visual enjoyment of heritage sites and monuments. Much of the work accomplished constitutes a sound base for promoting sustainable development of tourism activities in the region. The programme’s primary concern is the preservation of cultural heritage resources, both tangible and intangible, including their proper management; but in as much as these resources contribute substantially to tourism activities, they become of major concern particularly where it comes to the ‘use’ of these resources. From the programme’s perspective, the economic value of the physical heritage is of primary concern and goes beyond the need for increasing the access of paying tourists to heritage places to preserving the lifespan of the ‘heritage’: it is about how tourism revenues are distributed, particularly where it concerns the ‘owners’ of the heritage; about using part of these revenues for conservation purposes; and finally about raising the awareness about the heritage value of the site and the need for its sustainable use and conservation. This perspective stems from the logic that a well protected and presented heritage brings additional indirect returns to the community and economy that surround it, and a reputed heritage site increases the reputation and hence the market value of the local production that benefits from the reputation of the site. As such, tourism development becomes an enormously complex endeavour. Through the programme, we have tried to establish that management and sustainable development cannot be exclusive of each other; that cultural management and tourism management require inter-disciplinary interventions based on a multiplicity of competences; that stakeholders’ analysis and definition of their roles and responsibilities are prerequisites to any planning and implementation of a project; that public awareness and participation are key factors in securing sustainability of projects. As valuable as they are, all these efforts would be enhanced by a tourism management methodology
  • Delta (phase II), a project dealing with the integrated regional planning of heritage conservation and management, produced a Vademecum with guidelines for use by decision-makers, adminis trators, social and economic actors, and the cultural and tourism sectors. Foundations for a Strong Future (phase IV) (www.mercycorps. org/countries/lebanon/16925) educated children to appreciate their heritage and laid the ground for future professional orientations in tourism services. Montada (phase IV) (www.montada-forum.net) promoted the recognition by policy-makers, governments and the general public of the value of traditional architecture as an element of cultural identity and a potential source of social, economic and environ- mental development at local level, notably through tourism. Mutual Heritage (phase IV) (www.mutualheritage.net) highlighted the value of modern heritage for the development of historic cities, including through tourism. Remee (phase IV) (www.remee.eu) illustrated the possibilities available to develop alternative forms of tourism meeting with the expectations of an environmentally conscious public. Mare Nostrum (phase IV) (www.eh4-marenostrum.net) provided a sustainable mechanism for the protection and management of Mediterranean port-cities and their correspondent archaeological sites within the Mediterranean Phoenician routes. 7. Siwa-Tanger (phase IV) (www.siwatanger.com) implemented initia- tives to promote the two towns as new destinations for organised cultural tours.
  • INTEGRATING HERITAGE WITH DEVELOPMENT POLICIES 3.1.1  Cultural heritage is indispensable for sustainable social and economic development. Both tangible and intangible heritage are key components of the daily life and values of local popula- tions and their habitat. Consequently, heritage must be integrated in the policies, strategies and implementation of development projects, with the aim of contributing to the well-being of local communities and nations. Policy areas for urgent action include the mobilisation of heritage in housing projects, urban planning, revitalisation of crafts and industries, and creative industries. The responsibility for action is cross-cutting and goes beyond the cultural sector; it requires the contribution of public authorities in charge of education and training, local authorities, crafts, tourism, land use, housing, etc. 3.1.2  There is a need for general and specific management plans in order to support the contribution of heritage to the general well- being. These plans must be based on sound diagnoses and clear objectives with regard to social impacts, job creation, and respect for the environment. 3.1.3  To achieve effective implementation of these plans, it is neces- sary to reinforce the legal and institutional frameworks as well as the mechanisms for implementation, including the use of invento- ries as a management tool. 3.1.4  The safeguarding and development of heritage towns and villages, including the improvement of living conditions and services, requires the coordination of various actors and donors, whose respective roles must be clearly defined: these include municipalities, various public departments, awqaf, representatives of professional and commercial interests, etc. There is often a need for land ownership regimes to be monitored. It may be advisable to start with pilot projects. 3.1.5 Multilingual university courses, based on common curricula and innovative teaching methods, are a priority. Mobility of trainers and trainees between partner countries and/or European countries is necessary in order to reinforce expertise and build management, restoration and rehabilitation capacities. 3.2 HERITAGE AS A SOURCE OF EMPLOYMENT AND WEALTH CREATION 3.2.1  The development of handicrafts and traditional occupations encompasses support for artisans and small enterprises, micro credit, management training, quality labelling, certification of origin, code of ethics, etc. 3.2.2  The transmission of oral expressions and intangible cultural heritage requires institutional recognition and protection of the intellectual property rights of artists and actors. 3.2.3  It is important to ensure the appropriate training of heritage professionals and those in traditional occupations through collaboration with universities and training bodies, and various forms of apprenticeship. 3.2.4  Continuous training of all those involved will allow all players to stay abreast of evolving ideas and techniques. 3.2.5  Competence in tourism is imperative in order to maximise positive economic impacts and minimise risks threatening local heritage and cultures . 3.2.6  It is important to reinforce professional and institutional South- South and North-South networks. 3.2.7  Support should be given to emerging heritage specialisations in facilitation, marketing, publicity, the use of multi-media and new information technologies (IT). 3.2.8  The creation and development of cultural enterprises should be boosted. 36 3.3 SUPPORTING HERITAGE AS A VECTOR FOR CITIZENSHIP 3.3.1  It is essential to involve local people in the processes of heritage safeguarding and development, within the framework of a participative approach that also makes use of the advice of heritage professionals, as required. 3.3.2  The role of elected representatives is very important as spokes- people of the population. They should take care to draw on the advice of professionals. 3.3.3  Information and awareness raising amongst the general public, authorities and young people concerning the fragility and impor- tance of their heritage should be a permanent priority. 3.3.4  As a collective good providing services to all, heritage contrib- utes to socialisation. The participation of civil society should be encouraged through associations working on heritage protection. It is desirable for the role of these associations to be recognised and supported by public authorities within an appro- priate regulatory framework.
  • Based on the charters mentioned above and actions in the context of various projects, the program Euromed Heritage has identified the following strengths: 1. The Mediterranean basin, in its geography and history, is certainly a privileged geographic area for cooperation to promote a sustainable tourism requiring a specific approach. 2. Tourism is confirmed as a major factor for heritage enhancement: a) Firstly, it provides foreign and international recognition of the importance of heritage values by the national or local community; b) Secondly, it justifies the investment in the heritage conservation and rehabilitation as a real cultural capital. 3. We must constantly keep in mind the likelihood of values conflicts between tourism development and heritage conservation. The connection often seen in political and administrative responsibilities between tourism and heritage (the "antiques") must insure in the long-term the preservation of the authenticity of this heritage as a tourism capital, unfortunately often fragile and threatened.
  • 4. Tourism involves a large number of actors, both from private and public sectors. It is important that public authorities, at both national and local level, retain control of its development and ensure a proper balance between tourism economy and heritage preservation. It is also to ensure that significant financial flows generated by attendance at heritage sites be allocated to heritage conservation. 5. Particular attention or even priority must be paid to domestic tourism promotion for all age groups. 6. A comprehensive approach is needed to maintain control of cultural tourism development including: a) Management on request, by directing visitors from their home countries; b) Destination management - especially in historic towns-which distributes visitors throughout the year and towards several additional sites; c) Site management, which combines up enhancement and preservation of its specific charateristics, both tangible and intangible. 7. It is very important to take into account the social and cultural aspects: a) Intangible Heritage (crafts, musical performances, local cuisine) enriches the visitor experience while providing direct local revenues; b) Visitors should be required to respect the local culture and traditions .

7 christian nasser 7 christian nasser Presentation Transcript

  • Leadership and Management in Sustainable Tourism: Professionalising project management Lessons learned from the management of Euromed Heritage By: Christiane DABDOUB-NASSER Naples, 8-12 July 2013 Suor Orsola Benincasa University of Naples
  • INTRODUCTORY NOTE WHAT IS EUROMED HERITAGE? WHY TOURISM? ACHIEVEMENTS LESSONS LEARNED & RECOMMENDATIONS PERSPECTIVES
  • What is EUROMED HERITAGE?
  • Where do we come from ?
  • THE BARCELONA PROCESS 1995 Alliance based on the principles of joint ownership, dialogue and co-operation. Build together an area of peace, security and shared prosperity. WHAT WE AIMED FOR? ENHANCING MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION
  • ENPI, EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY SINCE 2004 27 Members of the European Union and 9 Southern Mediterranean states.
  • Who are the ACTORS? EUROPEAN UNION + 9 COUNTRIES FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN Algeria Egypt Israel Jordan Lebanon Morocco Palestinian Authority Syria Tunisia Libya
  • What is EUROMED HERITAGE?
  • Heritage: important component Socio-economic development: a major concern Heritage assets: economically viable WHY TOURISM?
  • ACHIEVEMENTS
  • ACHIEVEMENTS
  • ACHIEVEMENTS
  • LESSONS LEARNED
  • LESSONS LEARNED …  EH has proved the value of promoting heritage through a holistic approach that puts together public, private and civil society actors  EH has shown the potentials that heritage has on economic and human development and the improvement of the quality of life; that heritage resources can be mobilised in ‘development’ schemes that cater to the public good  EH has shown that heritage rallies diverse groups and communities and is a constant during times of sweeping changes
  • LESSONS LEARNED … SOME PERSPECTIVES / KEYS  Transversal approach, with various ministries/authorities (ahead and along)  Articulation with universities, specialised schools (cf EPA), education (training and research)  Public/Private partnerships (financing & management); Participation of NGOs, inhabitants, and media  Comprehensive territorial approach, incl. social and dwelling issues/dimensions  Regional & International cooperation
  • Mediterranean basin: privileged area for cooperation Tourism : major factor for heritage enhancement RECOMMENDATIONS Awareness of values conflicts between tourism development and heritage conservation
  • Balance between tourism economy and heritage preservation RECOMMENDATIONS Promotion of domestic tourism Need for comprehensive approach Respect for social and cultural aspects