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6 andrew jones

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  • 1. Conceptualising and aligning leadership style to successful performance in sustainable tourism (Cases from Wales) Dr Andrew L Jones & Dr Silvio Debono ITTC UNIVERSTY OF MALTA European Summer School “Leadership and Governance for Sustainable Tourism” Naples, 8- 12 July 2013
  • 2. Research parameters Research background The research - Case Studies Research Outcomes Research Conclusions
  • 3. The Research Background The Alternative Tourism Model (Mieczkowski,1995: 495) Mass tourism conventional or standard tourism nature tourism eco tourism cultural tourism educational tourism scientific tourism adventure tourism agri-tourism Alternative Tourism sustainable tourism development niche tourism or tourism micro markets TOURISM 3
  • 4. 4 Wales
  • 5. 5 WALES’ TOURISM PRODUCT  SMALL COUNTRY  CELTIC HERITAGE & LANGUAGE  RICH IN NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES  DOMESTIC orientated tourism  SMALL INTERNATIONAL MARKETS  FRAGMENTED PRODUCT Smes  DOMINATION SMALL BUSINESS  ACCOMODATION MAINLY SELF-CATERING  10% of GDP  9% ALL EMPLOYMENT
  • 6. 6 DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN WALES
  • 7. 7 Visit Wales Sustainable Tourism Strategy PRIORITY STRATEGIES Policy Focus  Economic sustainability  Environmental sustainability  Coastal and resort regeneration  Cultural Tourism Strategy  Historic town programme  Country holiday marketing  New product development Food and Gastronomy Examples  Kite Country Project Mid Wales  Landsker Borderlands  Festival of the Countryside  Makers of Wales
  • 8. Swansea Bay festival UNESCO Historic Seaside resorts Tenby Wales Rural Forum Industrial Heritage S Wales Valleys Urban Regeneration Swansea CYMRU Y GWIR FLAS Wales True Taste Wales Coastal Tourism Strategy The research cases studies 2001-2011
  • 9. The research premise The concept of sustainability  ‘Sustainable tourism tends to be a kinder gentler form of tourism that is generally small in scale, sensitive to cultural and environmental resources and impacts and respects the involvement of local people in policy development’. (McCool and Moisey 2001:3)
  • 10. Research Questions 1. Is sustainable tourism and its associated markets a kinder or gentler form of tourism? 2. Are such forms of tourism more sensitive to cultural and environmental resources? 3. Do such forms of tourism have less impact, particularly on the environment? 4. Are local people genuinely engaged in the policy and decision making processes and gain positive benefits ? 5. What makes a good sustainable tourism project?
  • 11. Key Findings 1. “The results highlighted that both positive and negative impacts were largely influenced by , for example, a) the scale of the attraction b) its location and c) its type. 2. “As well as these, there are more critical operational factors associated for example with a) the sophistication of organisational structure b) financial support and funding and c) variety of product market focus particularly the tensions associated between conservation or commercialisation”
  • 12. Key Findings -support 1. “there are significant imbalances in the support mechanisms available to the small, medium sized public, private and voluntary sector attractions” 2. “ some correlation does exist between strong public support and positive effects on levels of community engagement and cultural capacity building.” 3. “levels of public funding and support available to smaller public, private, and voluntary sector attractions can be a major determinant of broad success or failure within their respective communities.”
  • 13. Key findings -strategy 1. “research clearly shows that the key message for tourism and economic policy makers is one that requires a more strategic inclusive and government led approach if such attractions are to be sustained and evolve into cultural assets for the regions and communities in which they are located”.
  • 14. Key Findings - strategy 1. “Without an over-riding strategy it is not possible to plan and implement cohesive initiatives which benefit the nation” 2. “Nonetheless, it could be contended that lack of momentum and lack of focus with regards a strategy have created perceptual gaps. 3. “there is also a perception that there is not an over-riding strategy but only a large quantity of short-term peace-meal initiatives.”
  • 15. Key finding – long term 1. “Ensuring strategic long term agendas have also become progressively more difficult as evidence from the cases shows high incidences of failed strategic planning and poorly co-ordinated community led responses.”
  • 16. Key Findings – sustainable concepts 1. “There is a failure to optimise the use of natural and built environment, the local community and local businesses - the co- ordination of which is fundamental to the concept of sustainable development” 2. “critical problems and implementation issues which arise also concern perceptual gaps. These not only relate to the gaps between public sector and private sector, previously mentioned, but also relate to the gaps between the perceptions of the consumer and those of the producer”
  • 17. Key Findings – economic development? 1. “Destination management priorities appear to remain largely focussed upon economic development objectives” 2. “The compatibility between resource conservation and economic development also appears to remain fundamentally at odds”
  • 18. Key Findings - malaise 1. “evidence from the cases demonstrates that despite much positive debate during the early 1990s progress on implementation and understanding has been marginal with increasingly negative attitudes and more resigned pragmatic responses” 2. “the growing paradox between the need to ensure public support for such strategies against a back drop of ever decreasing public funding and an increasing reliance on the private sector to deliver socially and economically balanced initiatives has been a somewhat perplexing phenomena “
  • 19. Key Findings - complexity 1. “The key findings from the cases support the notion that sustainable concepts associated with the conservation of heritage and the environment, the promotion of urban renewal and rural regeneration and the development of cultural tourism markets are becoming increasingly complex with little evidence of real achievement or progress being made in attaining wide spread long-term growth.”
  • 20. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES the creation of sustainable tourism markets - Conceptually Speaking - More Questions than Answers! Top Down – Bottom Up Policy Directions Strategic Leadership Role of strategic planning? Regulating Tourism Access Managing finite sensitive resources with social and environmental responsibility? Strategic Priorities Balancing economic development vis a vis social and conservation needs? Tourism Dependency on Natural Resources resource auditing & priority for conservation ? Diverse Stakeholder Interests Getting agreement consensus through enablers? Meeting Community Capabilities & Expectations measures for community capacity building? Funding Sustainable Projects Relying on private finance in a world of ever decreasing public funds THE PARADOX Leadership Challenges
  • 21. 21 Successful performance for sustainable tourism? 1. Securing Balanced & Sustainable Funding? 2. Organisational infrastructure and co- ordinated strategies - Strategic planning? 3. Statutory regulation – Protecting Resources? 4. Capacity building - Dissemination of good practice – Building Consensus? 5. Distinctiveness and valuing authentic regional identity? 6. Education & skills development? 7. Understanding the concepts and reality - Research?
  • 22. Key Findings “When integrated with properly balanced approaches to regeneration such tourism initiatives can show great benefits and sustain pride in once proud communities”,
  • 23. Thank you GRAZIE

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