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11 john hummel Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lessons from SNV's involvement in tourism and development projects Changing implementation approaches of the last 15 years John Hummel Senior Adviser CBT-IRDC PM4SD, 10.07.13
  • 2. “Leadership and management in sustainable tourism”  Aim of the presentation  Present lessons from SNV's involvement in tourism and development projects and its implementation approaches of the last 15 years  Agenda  Introduction, the materials used, and reasoning for reflecting on SNV  History on SNV in relation to implementation and facilitation of tourism and development initiatives  Measuring development impact and showing sustainable development results  Lessons learned, and way forward
  • 3. John Hummel  I am  Senior Adviser Community Based Tourism International Research for Development Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand  PhD candidate “Ordering tourism, poverty reduction and development organizations ” - Wageningen University  I was  (Senior Regional ) Tourism Adviser and Knowledge Network Leader for SNV in Asia (1996-2011)
  • 4. Tourism, Sustainable Development, Community Benefits Tourism, Sustainable Development and Community Benefits Tourism Development in partnership • Market demand • Value chain analysis and development • Partnerships; Private Sector engagement • Product development Sustainable development • Enabling policy environment • Multi-stakeholder collaboration • Environmental, social and cultural impacts • PES and Climate Change • Development impact measurement Community benefits • Awareness, empowerme nt, and cultural understanding • Regional and village planning and development • Sustainable livelihoods • Social inclusion
  • 5. Applied research 1. Demonstrate development impact 2. Tourism Governance; Private Sector engagement 3. Innovation and joint learning in the Greater Mekong Subregion Tourism Development in Partnership Sustainable Development Community Benefits
  • 6. Useful resources
  • 7. Useful resources
  • 8. 1. Enabling environment  Strategy development  Destination planning  Multi-stakeholder platform development  Value chain analysis and development 2. Strategic marketing support; product development  Promotion and branding  Supporting private sector campaigns  Pro-poor product development 3. Delivery on the ground  Capacity building and training  Responsible enterprise development  Impact measurement
  • 9. SNV - Capacity development for impact (2007 - 2011)  SNV‟s core business is capacity development to support local actors to strengthen their performance in realising poverty reduction and good governance; engage much more strongly with local capacity builders  Two impact areas (+ Governance for empowerment)  Basic services include Water sanitation & hygiene; Renewable energy, Health and Education  Production, Income and Employment include Agriculture, Forestry and Tourism  Subsidy agreements with Dutch government in 2002 (2002- 2006), and 2006 (2007-2015).
  • 10. Development Approach Main concepts and ideas in relation to the tourism - development nexus Tourism phases in SNV Main elements and concepts of the tourism-development nexus in SNV 1950s and 1960s Modernisation Numbers of tourists, contribute to economic growth, employment generation and foreign exchange; trickle-down SNV is not involved in tourism for poverty reduction SNV‟s approaches focus on a ´process approach´ and is target- group oriented 1970s Underdevelop ment/ dependency Tourism is associated with dependency on foreign capital and expertise, growing social and economic disparities; undermines local cultures 1980s Neo-liberalism (Washington consensus) Private sector tourism development; primacy of the free competitive markets, privatization as the way out 1990s Alternative/ sustainable development Small scale community based tourism / ecotourism/ sustainable tourism Phase 1. Before 1995 Involved, but only through scattered studies and consultancies. Phase 2. 1995- 1999 Strong focus on small-scale tourism development (ecotourism, community based tourism). End 1990s Beyond the impasse: a „searching‟ paradigm No „magic story‟ for development Tourism as a complex system in which local people may be able to resist, subvert, manipulate or transform tourism Pro-poor tourism, Public private partnerships Phase 3. 2000- 2003 „Phasing out‟ of tourism projects, focus on advisory services and capacity development, growth of the SNV tourism practice in Asia. Phase 4. 2004- 2006 Pro-poor sustainable tourism as „practice area‟; integration of MDGs, remarkable growth of tourism in SNV. Phase 5. 2007 - 2011 Re-confirmation of pro-poor sustainable tourism as a „value chain‟; focus on Public Private Partnerships (multi-stakeholder approaches).
  • 11. SNV in Asia Till 2001 From projects to capacity development 2001-2006 Focus on (advisory) practice 2006-2011 Focus on impact SNV approach • Own implemented projects (integrated rural development and sustainability) • Capacity strengthening; projects; mediation and services between organizations South and North • Focus on target group, empowerment • Advisory practice/capacity development • Introduction of PPT and MDGs, and a more explicit focus on poverty reduction • Both Private Sector Development (PSD) and Natural Resource Management (NRM) • In 2004, SNV selects PPST as emerging „practice area‟ • Focus on development impact, stronger involvement of private sector, capacity development • More focus on pro-poor tourism development • Introduction of VCA&D; Destination development; Responsible Business in Tourism • Sector coordination and policy making • Focus on Public Private Partnerships Tourism Initiatives • Tourism as a component of larger Integrated Rural Development Projects (KLDP/DPP) • Research on demands of tour operators for local products and services • CBT in Lao PDR, Vietnam, as part of NRM • Tourism included in PSD in Nepal and Bhutan • Sustainable policy and law in Vietnam and Bhutan and pro-poor tourism policy in Nepal; ecotourism strategies in Lao PDR and Cambodia • VCA&D studies and programme designs (Laos, Nepal, Bhutan – GHT in Nepal) • Multi-stakeholder destination development programmes (Mekong Discovery Trail; Nabji Trail; GHT in Nepal; Northern Highlands Trail in Vietnam) • Responsible Business in Tourism programmes (MAST Nepal) Advisers One adviser in 1999 (in Nepal), four advisers by 2001 (Nepal, Vietnam, Lao PDR) Almost 30 advisers in 2005 and 2006 (of which 1/3 in Lao PDR) Gradual reduction of number of tourism advisers to around 20 (on average four advisers per country) in 2010
  • 12. Measuring impact in tourism and development
  • 13. Measuring impact in tourism and development (Mitchell & Ashley, 2010), p. 18
  • 14. VCA&D and Destination Development  Market intelligence, product development, marketing, an d branding  Destination/Circuit Development  Supply chains Agriculture Handicrafts „Responsible‟ Private Sector Development Local economic development Multi-stakeholder approaches Infrastructure development Excursions Enabling Environment
  • 15. 17
  • 16.  Detailed Analysis  Scale of pro-poor income generation; likelihood of success  Benefiting the poor does not automatically mean working with them  Entire sector (and Destination) as unit of analysis  Challenging assumptions and generating empirical base  Benchmarks  Combining a wide perspective of multiple strands and actors  Drawing on toolbox of others 18
  • 17. Challenges & key issues  What is being measured? Not only focus on poverty reduction/local employment & income generation, but also on environmental and social impacts  What does this PPI (Pro-Poor Income) represent? Is it only %? How many poor are benefiting? How much? Do they get out of poverty? For how long?  Different stake-holders have different needs with impact measurement. For what and whom are we measuring impacts, and in whose interest?  Who is in the lead/responsible for measurement?
  • 18. Nabji Trail, Bhutan Base-line, impact assessments, and critical success moments
  • 19. Critical success factors 1. Multi-stakeholder approach 2. Private sector coordinated 3. Impact assessment 4. Familiarization tour for villagers Poverty reduction through partnerships 21
  • 20. “We no longer travel to Bumthang and Langthil for wage work, and instead remain in the village and farms, in addition to serving tourists,” said a resident of Jangbi village. “Tourism revenue has saved me seeking loan from others to pay land tax and education fees for my children.”
  • 21. Great Himalayan Trail Development Programme ONE TRAIL TO RULE THEM ALL The Great Himalaya Trail Development Programme SNV NEPAL
  • 22. Making very good progress. All output indicators are being achieved, or exceeded, in all areas except those relating to data collection Focused upon a unique and exceptionally strong brand; has strong private sector linkages – and, critically, is centred around facilitating business and enterprise linkages; builds upon previous tourism projects most notably TRPAP Enjoys strong political and government support Key actors and agencies in Kathmandu have a far greater knowledge and a much deeper understanding of responsible tourism planning and management systems than was present 10- 15 years ago.
  • 23. The way forward • Market-based policy and planning models; destination development approach • Involvement of private sector/market-based solutions; work with champions • Use frontrunner organizations for creative industry models; innovative tourism development • Keep pro-poor development focus; consider scale income generation and likelihood of success • Improve capacity of stakeholders involved; develop multi- stakeholder Destination Management Organizations • Demonstrate pro-poor impact; dedicate resources to impact measurement
  • 24.  John Hummel, Senior Adviser, Community Based Tourism International Research for Development Center  johnhummeltourism@gmail.com  John_h@payap.ac.th Thanks