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Managing the Maturity of Tourism Destinations: the Challenge of Governance and Product Innovation - Prof. Antonio Paolo Russo
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Managing the Maturity of Tourism Destinations: the Challenge of Governance and Product Innovation - Prof. Antonio Paolo Russo

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Presentation at the Summe School "Leadership and Governance for Sustainable Tourism" - 2nd July 2014 Finland

Presentation at the Summe School "Leadership and Governance for Sustainable Tourism" - 2nd July 2014 Finland

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  • 1
  • Dynamic structure of the tourism system

    There’s an inner dynamics in the development of a tourist system, which may (usually does) raise questions of sustainability.

    A COMMUNITY creates / preserves the local natural and cultural idiosyncrasy
    VISITORS discover the attractiveness of a place and start to visit it
    LOCAL ENTREPRENEURS develop a tourism industry and a local market
    GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURS distribute / sell these products all over the world and in some cases take over the production process
    The number of visitors who arrive in the locality increases, changing its structure, social profile, image

    There are various critical point in this process: do locals recognise the value of - and conserve - the features of their landscape as tourist resources of the territory? It depends….; are locals able to develop a tourism industry and maintain control in early stages of development? Are non-locals respectful of the interests of the local community in later stages of development? Is this process brought to an end when increasing visitation affects the social structure and cultural identity of places ?


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  • Transcript

    • 1. Antonio Paolo Russo Universitat Rovira i Virgili Tarragona, Catalunya, Spain antonio.russo@urv.cat
    • 2. A COMMUNITY creates / preserves the local natural and cultural idiosyncrasy VISITORS discover the attractiveness of a place and start to visit it LOCAL ENTREPRENEURS develop a tourism industry and a local market GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURS distribute / sell these products all over the world and in some cases take over the production process The number of visitors who arrive in the locality increases, changing its structure, social profile, image DO THEY SEE THE POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT? IS THERE CAPACITY TO DO THAT? ARE THEIR OBJECTIVES COMPATIBLE WITH THE INTERESTS OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY? ARE THEY TOO MANY?
    • 3. Already developed! ◦ Consolidation – Stagnation stages of Tourism Area Life Cycle Consolidated structure of interests ◦ Possibly dominated by TNCs Declining competitiveness of tourism products ◦ Overtly specialised in core product(s) ◦ Unattractive for repeat visitors ◦ Unattractive for new generation of young, curious, high spending visitors Number of visitors pushing carrying capacity limits ◦ Production of economic / spatial / socio-cultural externalities Irregular regional structures ◦ National, regional and local governments playing against each other
    • 4. PRODUCT/MARKET Innovation Attract new or other visitors with more sustainable impacts ◦ Diversification: Design new products ◦ Differentiation: Upgrading existing ones ◦ Value chain: the assemblage of the tourist product INNOVATION CHALLENGES for mature destinations Conditions and strategies FIRMS / DMOs Steer product development towards new concepts Commit existing stakeholders around a new project Involve new stakeholders and establish strategic alliances Leave behind pressure groups Upgrade value chains opportunities for local producers Form new entrepreneurs and workers
    • 5. PLANNING Innovation Reshape our destination ◦ Form and shape: the physical and geographical aspect ◦ Tourism practices: the ‘tourismscapes’ or performance / relational spaces of our tourists ◦ Accessibility: the system of internal and external connections INNOVATION CHALLENGES for mature destinations Conditions and strategies POLICY / TECHNICAL Intervene in the physical development process Change and recycle obsolete infrastructure Foster new concepts and uses of public space Design meetingplaces and new hospitality models in quotidian landscapes Restructure mobility systems Identify smart packages and routes
    • 6. MANAGEMENT Innovation Make our destination function better ◦ Seasonal cycle ◦ Prices and markets ◦ Information ◦ Visitor experiences INNOVATION CHALLENGES for mature destinations Conditions and strategies DMOs / FIRMS / SUPPLIERS Promote off-season products and events Upgrade the technological infrastructure of tourism firms Regulate quality standards and establish label systems Focus on visitors' cultures: creative tourism Use smart ICT to engage visitors and enrich their experiences
    • 7. INNOVATION CHALLENGES for mature destinations Conditions and strategies MARKETING Innovation Sell our destination to new people, in new and better ways ◦ New market exploration: Identifying potential markets and niches ◦ Branding: the projection of the destination value to the world ◦ Communication: the outreach of our destination DMOs / RESEARCH Explore potentials and threats and identify new opportunities Engage research organisation Benchmark actively with international competitors Identify new brand values and communicate new image systems Promote 2.0 and social media marketing
    • 8. INNOVATION CHALLENGES for mature destinations Conditions and strategies GOVERNANCE Innovation Restructure the structure, scope and functioning of our destination system ◦ Coherence, cohesion, consistency ◦ Geographical scope ◦ Social and political support ◦ Organisational capacity and flexibility POLICY/ POLITICS Establish open DMOs structure involving emerging stakeholders Identify system of interests in space and create horizontal alliances Identify and empower visionaries and watchdogs Audit and involve local community and policymakers Adopt sound system of strategic planning Break the rules and foster tourism sector ecology Be ready to redress the ‘tourism vocation’ of a territory
    • 9. Andriotis, K. (2006). Hosts, guests and politics: coastal resorts morphological change. Annals of Tourism Research 33(4): 1079-1098. Anton Clavé, S. (ed.) (2012). 10 Lessons on Tourism. The challenge on reinventing destinations. Barcelona: Planeta, pp. 223-242. ISBN 978-84-08-00401-1 Baggio, R., & Cooper, C. (2010). Knowledge transfer in a tourism destination: the effects of a network structure. The Service Industries Journal 30(10): 1757-1771. Hjalager, A. M. (2002). Repairing innovation defectiveness in tourism. Tourism management 23(5): 465-474. Novelli, M., Schmitz, B., & Spencer, T. (2006). Networks, clusters and innovation in tourism: A UK experience. Tourism management 27(6): 1141-1152. Russo, A.P. & G. Segre (2009). Destinations and property regimes: an exploration. Annals of Tourism Research 36(4): 587-606. Sanz Ibáñez, C. & Anton Clavé, S. (2014). The evolution of destinations: towards an evolutionary and relational economic geography approach. Tourism Geographies. In press. DOI:10.1080/14616688.2014.925965 Van den Berg, L., & Braun, E. (1999). Urban competitiveness, marketing and the need for organising capacity. Urban Studies36(5-6): 987-999.
    • 10. Any requests / further info / contacts: antonio.russo@urv.cat Skype: Aprusso1 http://www.urv.cat/dgeo/en_index.html http://www.pct-turisme.cat/eng/

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