Oxygen Transport System• As you breathe in oxygen goes into you lungs. From there it goes to the heart and mixes with the blood and gets pumped around the body to the working muscles by the heart.• You can get more oxygen by: Breathing faster Breathing deeper
Oxygen debt (Credit extension)• If you perform for long time intervals it is often difficult for your breathing to supply enough oxygen to working muscles. This leads to a build up of lactic acid in your muscles, which will eventually force you to slow down. This is because your muscles will have fatigue. Lactic acid can only be removed with oxygen and until more oxygen arrives by deep and frequent breathing you will suffer from oxygen debt.
Warm UpStage Description Explanation1. Jogging Jogging twice round the To raise body temperature pitch, changing direction, and increase heart rate side stepping, jumping , ready for the activity. running. Game movements.2. Stretching Stretching quad and To increase muscle hamstring, holding each suppleness and to prevent stretch for 30 seconds. an injury3. Skill related practices Passing/volleying ball with To gain confidence with the partner, dribbling and ball and practice the skills shooting into the goal. used in the game.
Cool DownStage Description Explanation1. Jogging Slow jog once round the pitch To gently lower body temperature/Heart rate2. Stretching Stretching muscles used in the game To reduce muscle feeling stiff the next day
Tendon – a connective tissue attaching muscle to bone. When a muscle contracts to move a joint, it is the tendon which pulls on the bone.
Ligaments - are strong bands which connect bones to bones at the joint. Theyre elasticated to allow the movement of that joint, but are strong enough to stop movement outside the normal range.
Cartilage - is a soft cushioning substance which coversthe ends of the bones. It acts as a shock absorber and reduces the rubbing of the bone surfaces.
JointsWhere two or three bones meet, we have joints.1.Hinge joints are found at the elbowand at the knee and allow movement in one dimension, or direction.2.Ball and socket joints are found at the shoulder and the hip and allow movement in three directions.
MusclesThe muscles of the body allow movement to occur at joints. To allow movement at a joint muscles works in pairs. Examples of this can be found in the elbows and knees. Elbow – bicep and tricep Knees – hamstring and quad These muscles contract and relax to create movement.
Muscles controlling the elbow• The muscles which control the movement of the elbow, are the triceps and the biceps. The bicep contracts or shortens, pulling the lower arm up, and causing the elbow to bend. At this time the tricep relaxes or lengthens. To straighten the elbow it is then the tricep which contracts or shortens in order to pull the lower arm down, and at this time the bicep relaxes.
Muscles controlling the knee• If we look at the knee we can see the hamstring and the quad controlling the movement. The hamstring contracts, pulling the lower leg up and causing the knee to bend. At this time, the quad relaxes. To straighten the knee, the quad contracts, and pulls the lower leg down. At this time the hamstring is relaxed.