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Mechanical principles   sg
 

Mechanical principles sg

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    Mechanical principles   sg Mechanical principles sg Presentation Transcript

    • Standard Grade PE Mechanical Principles
    • Mechanical Principles
      • The following are some of the mechanical principles that we use in our Standard Grade course :-
      • Resistance
      • Balance
      • Streamlining
      • Centre of gravity
      • Force/friction
      • Transfer of weight
      • Levers
      • Propulsion
    • Resistance
      • Resistance can be an advantage or a disadvantage.
      • Disadvantage - in swimming the water causes resistance and slows you down.
      • Advantage - at the end of 100m sprint, air resistance slows the runner down but this is what the runner wants.
    • Transfer of weight
      • In everyday life, when you want to move you have to transfer your weight in the direction you want to move.
      • If you want to move to your right, then you push off your left foot and vice versa.
      • In different activities you transfer your weight in order to get more distance, more power etc.
      • EG - a Badminton player steps forward after playing an overhead clear to try and get more distance on the shot.
      • - a discus thrower transfers their weight continually from one foot to the other whilst spinning across the circle before releasing the discus.
    • Propulsion
      • In water based activities such as swimming, life saving and canoeing, movement through the water is called propulsion.
      • Propulsion in swimming is caused by using your arms and legs as levers.
      • In canoeing, propulsion is caused by the paddle or oar pulling/pushing against the water.
    • Force and Friction
      • Force
      • Muscles provide force.
      • When muscles contract strongly, the force causes thrust.
      • Friction
      • Can be an advantage
      • Footballers wear studs on their boots to improve the friction between the boots and the ground
      • An ice skater wants to reduce the friction between his skates and the ice – that is why the blades are thin and narrow
    • Centre of Gravity
      • Where your centre of gravity is when you are performing skills determines how balanced a position you are in.
      • When moving forwards, backwards etc, your centre of gravity constantly moves to stop us from falling over.
      • In Gymnastics, when performing a stationary balance, your centre of gravity will be within your base and the wider the base the more stable the balance.
    • Levers
      • There are many levers in our body.
      • The muscles in our bodies move our limbs like levers.
      • A long lever will give more speed and this in turn will make the ball, shuttle etc travel further.
      • Examples of long levers are - a tennis player using a racket and playing with a straight arm to serve the ball fast.
      • A gymnast keeps her legs straight during a headspring to increase her speed of movement
      • Short levers may be used to bring accuracy and control to various skills or techniques.
    • Streamlining
      • Streamlining is when you put your body into a shape and position to reduce resistance.
      • In swimming, the swimmer will try to keep his/her body as straight as possible in the water and part of this is by putting their face in the water instead of keeping their head up.
      • In cycling, the cyclist wears specially designed helmets and clothes to make their body position even more streamlined.