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Elements Of Poetry Part 3

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  • 1. Elements of Poetry
    Part Three: Sound, Rhythm, Meter, Structure and Theme
  • 2. Sound
    Rhyme
    Matching of sounds in two or more words
    End Rhyme
    Corresponding sounds at the end of lines
    Internal Rhyme
    Corresponding sounds occur within the lines
  • 3. From “The Raven”by Edgar Allan Poe
    “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
    Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore ---
    While I nodded nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
    As some one gently tapping, rapping at my chamber door.
    “ ‘Tis some visitor,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door ---
    Only this and nothing more.”
  • 4. Perfect/Exact Rhyme
    Rhyming words share corresponding sounds and stresses, similar number of syllables
    “Weary” and “dreary”; “lore” and “door”
    Imperfect/Approximate/Slant Rhyme
    “dizzy” and “easy”
    Feminine Rhyme
    Final syllable of a rhymed word is unstressed
    Masculine Rhyme
    Final syllable of rhymed word is stressed
  • 5. Alliteration
    Repetition of consonant sounds
    Usually at the beginning of words
    Peter Piper picked a pickle
    Assonance
    Repetition of vowel sounds
  • 6. Rhythm and Meter
    Rhythm
    Regular occurrence of accent or stress in poem or song
    “JACK and JILL went UP the HILL”
    Meter
    Measure or patterned count of a line
    Count of stresses in a poem’s rhythm
  • 7. Meter
    Foot
    Unit of poetic meter
    Iambic
    iamb
    Unstressed syllable followed by an accented one
    “preVENT” “conTAIN”
    Trochaic
    Trochee
    Accented syllable followed by unaccented one
    “FOOTball” “LANGuage”
  • 8. Foot
    Anapestic
    Anapest
    Two unaccented syllables followed by an unaccented one
    “com-pre-HEND”
    Dactylic
    Dactyl
    Accented syllable followed by two unaccented ones
    “CHEER-ful-ly”
  • 9. Foot
    Spondee
    Two accented syllables together
    “KNICK-KNACK”
    Pyrrhic
    Two unaccented syllables
    “of the”
    Both can serve as the subsitute feet for iambic and trochaic feet
    Cannot be the metrical norm for a poem
  • 10. Rising Meter
    Move from unaccented to accented
    Iambic and anapestic
    Falling Meter
    Move from accented to unaccented
    Dactylic and trochaic
  • 11. Lines of Poetry
    Named based on numbers of feet in the line
    Tetrameter, pentameter, monometer, etc.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. Enjambed
    Run-on lines that may confuse the observation of meter and rhythm
    Metrical Variation
    Change in meter to avoid monotony
  • 15. Structure
    Closed Form
    Strictly constrained form
    Sonnet (MUST have 14 lines, etc.)
    Quatrain
    Four line sections
    Couplet
    Pair of rhymed lines
    Open Form/Free Form
    NOT formless, but allows poet to use multiple forms and bend rules
  • 16. Theme
    Idea or meaning inherent in a work
    Poems are easy to oversimplify – be aware of the increased imagery and metaphor.