Developing Cognitive Strategies and ContentKnowledge to Improve Academic Achievement:The Responsibility of Teachers and School Leaders JUDITH TOURE, ED.D. CARLOW UNIVERSITY PITTSBURGH, PA JTOURE@CARLOW.EDU FIRST ANNUAL HIGHER EDUCATION COMPACT BEST PRACTICES SYMPOSIUM CLEVELAND, OH JUNE 11, 2012
OverviewDemographic imperativeThemes from the literature: Racialized ideologies in PK-12 contexts Culturally relevant leadership in PK-12 Culturally relevant pedagogy in undergraduate educationImplications
Percentage of K-12 students in public education by race/ethnicity: 1990, 2000, 2008 (nces.gov)October White African Latino/a Asian Pacific Native Twoof year American Islander American or more races1990 67.6 16.5 11.7 Racial/Ethnic Enrollment in Public Schools 3.0 (1) .9 - Table A-4-1. Number and percentage distribution of the race/ethnicity of public school students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade:2000 61.3 16.6 16.6 4.2 (1) 1.3 -2008 55.5 15.5 21.7 3.7 .2 .9 2.6
Percentage of public school teachers byrace/ethnicity: 1999-2000 and 2007-2008K-6 White African Latino/a Otherteachers American1999-200 83 8 6 302007-200 82 7 8 387-12 White African Latino/a Otherteachers American1999-200 86 6 5 202007-200 83 7 7 38
Themes from the literature:Racialized ideologies in schools Issues of race, culture, and learning surface in schools but are rarely addressed Largely empirically unexamined in schools (Pollock, 2001; Sleeter, 1993) “Colorblind” and “colormute” Privilege, racism, and reproduction invisible in schools (Lewis, 2005; Schofield, 1989) “Kids are all the same, I don’t see color.” “Colormute”: race as taboo subject of discussion (Pollock, 2004) Often expressed as deficit thinking (Valencia, 1997, 2010)
Educator perspectives toward children of colorConsistent deficit thinking Nuanced deficit Nuanced asset Consistent asset thinking perspective perspectiveEducator does not recognize “funds Educator views children Educator views children Educator recognizes children’sof knowledge” that children possess primarily from a deficit primarily from an asset funds of knowledge and buildsand bring to school. Holds and perspective, but may perspective, capable of upon them to encouragedemonstrates low expectations for acknowledge some learning, but occasionally learning. Views children asstudent learning and behavior. positive attributes and displays views rooted in highly capable of learningResponsibility for learning and assumes some deficit perspective. challenging material with highacademic success situated within responsibility for their quality instruction. Feels andchildren and their families rather than learning. shows sense of responsibilitywithin classroom instruction. for student learning andEducator displays diminished sense academic success.of responsibility toward students.(Diamond, Randolph, & Spillane, (Diamond, Randolph, &2004; Garcia & Guerra, 2004) Spillane, 2004; Garcia & Guerra, 2004)1 school leader (mathematics coach), 3 school leaders (principal, 4 school leaders (2 1 school leader (assistant1 teacher mathematics coach, and principals, literacy coach, principal), literacy coach) and mathematics coach), 1 teacher 3 teachers
Relationship of deficit thinking to instructional improvement Deficit thinking places cause of children’s poor academic performance outside of the classroom (Valencia, 2010). Less impetus to change instructional practice (Diamond, Randolph, & Spillane, 2001). Teachers holding an asset perspective tend to be more innovative in instructional practice.
Culturally relevant pedagogy, PK-12Three goals of CRP To develop students academically; To nurture and support students’ cultural competence in home culture; and To develop sociopolitical or critical consciousness in students (Ladson-Billings, 1995, p. 483)
Framework:Culturallyrelevantschoolleadership Adapted with permission from Stein & Nelson, 2003
What about demographics andculturally relevant pedagogy in the post-secondary context?
Who are our students?Total % of undergraduate enrollment in degree-granting institutions by race/ethnicity Percentage distribution (nces.gov) 1980 1990 2000 2008 White 81 77.5 68.3 63.2 African American 9.7 9.6 11.8 13.9 Latina/o 4.1 6.1 10.3 12.9 Asian/Pacific Islander 2.4 4.2 6.4 6.8 American Indian/ Alaska Native 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.1
Themes from the literature: Racialized reality of university context For students of color, “everyday life as racialized” (Lesage, 2002) PWIs as sites for the enactment of whiteness ; when a “White, male, heterosexual societal norm is privileged in such a way that its privilege is rendered invisible” (Grillo & Wildman, 2000, p. 650) Curriculum as code of power (Delpit, 1998); key role in communicating institution’s commitment to diversity
Themes (cont’d) Research on persistence of students of color tends to focus on students’ coping strategies Limited research on role of curricular and faculty support for students of color (Gasman, Gerstel-Pepin, Anderson- Thompkins, Rasheed, & Hathaway, 2004; White & Lowenthal, 2010) Recent work on identity development positions students of color as holders and creators of knowledge (Delgado- Bernal, 2002; Reyes & Rios, 2005; White & Lowenthal, 2010)
Implications, PK-12 Role for leadership in disrupting deficit thinking that may influence new teachers in particular and be more pervasive in less integrated contexts School leaders play a role in developing asset thinking in educators Leadership as distributed in knowledge of racial ideologies/CRP Importance of addressing racial ideologies in school leadership preparation programs for 21st century Need for professional learning for school leaders
Implications, IHE Improve recruitment, support, retention of students of color Continue becoming more learner-centered Broaden conceptions of knowledge and scholarship in disciplines How is knowledge constructed? Which topics are legitimate for inquiry? Who is recognized as constructor of knowledge? Representation in curriculum and course structures Recruitment, support, and development of faculty of color