Whatever It Takes:  How Twelve Communities Are  Reconnecting Out-of-School Youth and What States Can Do Nancy Martin Ameri...
Today’s Presentation <ul><li>The dropout problem  </li></ul><ul><li>Why dropout recovery? </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever It Ta...
The Problem <ul><li>In 2004, 6,277,000 18-24-year-olds in the United States (22%) had not yet completed high school.   </l...
The Problem <ul><li>An estimated 3.8 million young people aged 18-24 are neither employed nor in school—15% of all young a...
The Problem <ul><li>From 1990 to 2000, high school completion rates declined in all but seven states and the rate of stude...
The Problem is Worse for Some <ul><li>In 2001… </li></ul><ul><li>72% of female students, but only 64% of male students gra...
The Problem is Worse for Some <ul><li>In SY 2000-2001, high school students from the poorest 20% of families dropped out o...
The Problem is Worse for Some <ul><li>In SY 2000-2001, only 47.6% of persons with disabilities graduated with standard dip...
Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Prevention important, but very large numbers are leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Need well-lit pat...
Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>In 2001, only 55% of young adult dropouts were employed, compared with 74% of high school gr...
Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Dropouts are 3.5 times more likely than high school graduates to be incarcerated in their li...
Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Estimated lifetime revenue loss for male dropouts ages 25-34 is $944 billion. </li></ul><ul>...
Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>If only one-third of high school dropouts were to earn a diploma, federal savings in reduced...
Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Students who have dropped out tell us they want to return. </li></ul>
Case Studies of  Dropout Recovery Efforts <ul><li>Whatever It Takes:  How Twelve Communities Are  Reconnecting Out-of-Scho...
Central Question   <ul><li>What can be done to reconnect our young people to opportunities for building useful lives in wo...
Case Studies of Communities <ul><li>A sampling, illustrating various modes of reconnecting out-of-school youth to educatio...
12 Communities <ul><li>Austin, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore, Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Camden, New Jersey  </li></ul...
National Program Models <ul><li>Job Corps </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs for America’s Graduates </li></ul><ul><li>National Guard ...
Dropout Recovery Efforts Are Varied <ul><li>Program, district, city, county, state, and national level </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Who Pays? <ul><li>Dropout recovery efforts are funded largely by state and local public and private revenues.  </li></ul><...
Program Characteristics <ul><li>Open-Entry/Open-Exit </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Scheduling and Year-round Learning </li></...
Program Characteristics <ul><li>Opportunities for Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Codes of Conduct with Consistent Enfo...
Examples of Successful  Dropout Recovery Efforts <ul><li>In Portland, OR,  Portland Community College  is offering former ...
What Can States Do? <ul><li>Provide uniform measures of dropouts and student tracking mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Enact a...
1. Measuring Dropouts and  Student Tracking Mechanisms <ul><li>Implement a standard graduation rate definition and data co...
2. At-risk Student Legislation <ul><li>Mandate that districts: </li></ul><ul><li>improve the academic achievement of at-ri...
3. Multiple Pathways/ Alternative Options <ul><li>Encourage districts to offer a variety of options to meet student needs ...
4. Funds Follow the Student <ul><li>State education funds follow students as they move in and out of school districts or C...
5. Competency-based Credits <ul><li>Allow districts the flexibility to award credit toward graduation based on demonstrate...
Emerging Issues for State Education Policymakers <ul><li>Common measures- implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Age of compulso...
<ul><li>The nation has more than enough models and know-how to be able to reclaim America’s dropouts. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For More Information:  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nancy Martin </li></ul></ul></ul><...
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Whatever it Takes: How Twelve Communities Are Reconnecting Out-of-School Youth and What States Can Do

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Presentation to U.S. Dept. of Educ. School Dropout Prevention Grantees, July 2006

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Whatever it Takes: How Twelve Communities Are Reconnecting Out-of-School Youth and What States Can Do

  1. 1. Whatever It Takes: How Twelve Communities Are Reconnecting Out-of-School Youth and What States Can Do Nancy Martin American Youth Policy Forum School Dropout Prevention Directors’ Meeting U.S. Department of Education July 28, 2006
  2. 2. Today’s Presentation <ul><li>The dropout problem </li></ul><ul><li>Why dropout recovery? </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever It Takes report </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of successful dropout recovery efforts </li></ul><ul><li>What states can do </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Problem <ul><li>In 2004, 6,277,000 18-24-year-olds in the United States (22%) had not yet completed high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Education Statistics. (2004). Digest of education statistics 2004. Washington, DC, Table 9; Greene, J.P., & Winters, M.A. (2005, February). “Public high school graduation and college readiness rates: 1991-2002.” Education Working Paper No. 8. New York, NY: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Problem <ul><li>An estimated 3.8 million young people aged 18-24 are neither employed nor in school—15% of all young adults. From 2000 to 2004, the ranks of these disconnected young adults grew by 700,000. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2004). Kids count data book. Baltimore, MD. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Problem <ul><li>From 1990 to 2000, high school completion rates declined in all but seven states and the rate of students dropping out between 9th and 10th grades increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Barton, P. E. (2005). One-third of a nation: Rising dropout rates and declining opportunities. Princeton, NJ: Policy Information Center, Educational Testing Service, p. 3. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Problem is Worse for Some <ul><li>In 2001… </li></ul><ul><li>72% of female students, but only 64% of male students graduated. </li></ul><ul><li>African American students had a graduation rate of 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian students had a graduation rate of 51%. </li></ul><ul><li>Latino students had a graduation rate of 53%. </li></ul><ul><li>there were enormous disparities among state graduation levels, and even larger disparities by ethnicity and gender within the same states. </li></ul><ul><li>Orfield, G., Losen, D.J., Wald, J., & Swanson, C. B. (2004). Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Problem is Worse for Some <ul><li>In SY 2000-2001, high school students from the poorest 20% of families dropped out of school at six times the rate of their peers from higher-income families. </li></ul><ul><li>US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2004). The condition of education 2004. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, Indicator 10, p. 11. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Problem is Worse for Some <ul><li>In SY 2000-2001, only 47.6% of persons with disabilities graduated with standard diplomas. </li></ul><ul><li>US Department of Education. (2003). Twenty-fifth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Prevention important, but very large numbers are leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Need well-lit pathways back into education and employment training </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>In 2001, only 55% of young adult dropouts were employed, compared with 74% of high school graduates and 87% of four-year college graduates. </li></ul><ul><li>Sum, Andrew et al. (2002). Left behind in the labor market: labor market problems of the nation’s out-of-school, young adult populations. Chicago, IL: Alternative Schools Network. Retrieved December 27, 2005 from http://www.nupr.neu.edu/2-03/left_behind.pdf </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Dropouts are 3.5 times more likely than high school graduates to be incarcerated in their lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Catterall, J.S. (1985). On the social cost of dropping out. Stanford, CA: Center for Education Research, cited in Alliance for Excellent Education. (2004, December). Measuring graduation to measure success. Washington, DC: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-quarters of state prison inmates are dropouts, as are 59% of federal inmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow, C.W. (2003). Education and correctional populations, bureau of justice statistics special report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Estimated lifetime revenue loss for male dropouts ages 25-34 is $944 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost to the public of their crime and welfare benefits is an estimated $24 billion annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Thorstensen, B. I. If you build it, they will come: Investing in public education. Retrieved December 27, 2005 from http://abec.unm.edu/resources/gallery/present/invest_in_ed.pdf </li></ul>
  13. 13. Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>If only one-third of high school dropouts were to earn a diploma, federal savings in reduced costs for food stamps, housing assistance, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families would amount to $10.9 billion annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Muenning, P. (2005, October). Health returns to education interventions. Paper presented at the symposium on the social costs of inadequate education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY. Retrieved December 27, 2005 from http://www.tc.columbia.edu/centers/EquityCampaign/symposium/resourceDetails.asp?PresId=5 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Why Dropout Recovery? <ul><li>Students who have dropped out tell us they want to return. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Case Studies of Dropout Recovery Efforts <ul><li>Whatever It Takes: How Twelve Communities Are Reconnecting Out-of-School Youth </li></ul><ul><li>In cooperation with Council of the Great City Schools National Association of Secondary School Principals National Conference of State Legislatures National League of Cities National School Boards Association </li></ul>
  16. 16. Central Question <ul><li>What can be done to reconnect our young people to opportunities for building useful lives in work, family, and citizenship? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Case Studies of Communities <ul><li>A sampling, illustrating various modes of reconnecting out-of-school youth to education, employment, and civic participation </li></ul><ul><li>A practical resource </li></ul><ul><li>Not a survey </li></ul>
  18. 18. 12 Communities <ul><li>Austin, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore, Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Camden, New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson County (Louisville), Kentucky </li></ul><ul><li>Milwaukee, Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery County (Dayton), Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>Oakland, California </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Pima County (Tucson), Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>Portland, Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>Salt Lake City, Utah </li></ul><ul><li>Trenton, New Jersey </li></ul>
  19. 19. National Program Models <ul><li>Job Corps </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs for America’s Graduates </li></ul><ul><li>National Guard Youth ChalleNGe </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities Industrialization Centers </li></ul><ul><li>YouthBuild </li></ul><ul><li>Youth Service and Conservation Corps </li></ul><ul><li>Youth Opportunity Grant Program </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dropout Recovery Efforts Are Varied <ul><li>Program, district, city, county, state, and national level </li></ul><ul><li>GED prep, high school completion, associate’s degree completion, employment prep </li></ul><ul><li>Public school districts, CBOs, community colleges, and private companies </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and programs AND policies and initiatives to encourage such programming </li></ul>
  21. 21. Who Pays? <ul><li>Dropout recovery efforts are funded largely by state and local public and private revenues. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Investments in second-chance education and training programs has fallen from $15 billion in the late 1970s to $3 billion (inflation adjusted) today. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Program Characteristics <ul><li>Open-Entry/Open-Exit </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Scheduling and Year-round Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers As Coaches, Facilitators and Crew Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Real-World, Career-Oriented Curricula </li></ul>
  23. 23. Program Characteristics <ul><li>Opportunities for Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Codes of Conduct with Consistent Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive Support Services </li></ul><ul><li>A Portfolio of Options for a Varied Group </li></ul>
  24. 24. Examples of Successful Dropout Recovery Efforts <ul><li>In Portland, OR, Portland Community College is offering former OSY the opportunity to complete high school and an associate’s degree or significant college credit. </li></ul><ul><li>In Montgomery County, OH, The Out-of-School Youth Initiative has reduced the dropout rate dramatically by targeting programming to 16-24 year-olds without a high school diploma. </li></ul><ul><li>In Philadelphia, the Reintegration Initiative puts programs and supports in place to prevent young people exiting the juvenile justice system from reoffending. </li></ul><ul><li>YouthBuild programs across the country are helping young people obtain a GED or high school diploma while learning work skills by building affordable housing. </li></ul>
  25. 25. What Can States Do? <ul><li>Provide uniform measures of dropouts and student tracking mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Enact at-risk student legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage multiple pathways/ alternative options </li></ul><ul><li>Make provisions for funds to follow students </li></ul><ul><li>Allow award of competency-based credits </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1. Measuring Dropouts and Student Tracking Mechanisms <ul><li>Implement a standard graduation rate definition and data collection protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Count only those students earning a diploma as graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Build and maintain capacity for collecting, analyzing, and reporting graduation rate data </li></ul><ul><li>Example: MD </li></ul>
  27. 27. 2. At-risk Student Legislation <ul><li>Mandate that districts: </li></ul><ul><li>improve the academic achievement of at-risk students </li></ul><ul><li>provide alternative education options </li></ul><ul><li>include dropouts in definition of “at-risk” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: CA, ID, IA, MN, OR, WI </li></ul>
  28. 28. 3. Multiple Pathways/ Alternative Options <ul><li>Encourage districts to offer a variety of options to meet student needs </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate barriers to collaboration between public school districts and community-based organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for various routes to a high school credential without ending up with a system of tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Increase funding for alternative education </li></ul><ul><li>Example: OR </li></ul>
  29. 29. 4. Funds Follow the Student <ul><li>State education funds follow students as they move in and out of school districts or CBO-run schools </li></ul><ul><li>Provides incentive for schools to engage in dropout recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Example: WI </li></ul>
  30. 30. 5. Competency-based Credits <ul><li>Allow districts the flexibility to award credit toward graduation based on demonstrated competency, not just “seat time.” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: OR </li></ul>
  31. 31. Emerging Issues for State Education Policymakers <ul><li>Common measures- implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Age of compulsory schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Designing accountability systems that work for all students </li></ul><ul><li>Removing disincentives to honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between standards-based curriculum and extreme educational needs of some out-of-school youth </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The nation has more than enough models and know-how to be able to reclaim America’s dropouts. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For More Information: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nancy Martin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senior Program Associate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Youth Policy Forum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1836 Jefferson Pl., NW </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington, DC 20036 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(202) 775-9731 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.aypf.org </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
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