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Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming by ; Shaobing Peng, Jianliang Huang, John E. Sheehy,...
Introduction <ul><li>World rice production must increase by 1% annually to meet the growing demand for food that will resu...
How temperature affect on rice yield  ?? Crop yield   crop biomass   Photosynthesis Respiration losses Temperature
Objectives <ul><li>To determine whether there were significant time trends in changes of temperature or radiation and whet...
Materials & Methods <ul><li>Meteorological instruments </li></ul><ul><li>- Gunn–Bellani radiation integrator </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Weather Data Collection   </li></ul><ul><li>A weather station was set up at the research farm of IRRI at lat 14°11...
<ul><li>Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>- Dry- and wet-bulb temperature  </li></ul><ul><li>- Daily minimum and maximum air ...
Crop Data Collection <ul><li>Field experiments were conducted at the  IRRI Farm  during the dry and wet seasons of 1992–20...
<ul><li>Hill spacing  - 0.2*0.2 m, with 4 seedlings per hill </li></ul><ul><li>Plot size  -  5  *   6 m </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Twelve hills (0.48 m 2 ) were sampled diagonally from a 5-m 2  harvest area for each replication at maturity to de...
<ul><li>Above-ground total biomass was the summation of straw,rachis, and filled and unfilled spikelets dry matter  </li><...
<ul><li>Grain yield was determined from a 5 m 2  area in each replication </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of time trend...
Data analyze <ul><li>Main database management tool  </li></ul><ul><li>- Climate Computer  (CLICOM) system </li></ul>
Results and Discussion
 
 
Conclusions <ul><li>Annual  mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35°C and 1.13°C, respectively, for t...
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Rice yields decline

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rice yield is decreasing due to increase the night temperature

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  • Trends in maximum and minimum temperatures and radiation from 1979 to 2003 for the whole year ( A – C ), dry season (January to April) ( D – F ), and wet season (June to September) ( G – I ) at the IRRI Farm. Trends (slopes) for the maximum temperature in A , D , and G and radiation in F are not statistically significant at the P 0.05 probability level according to the Student’s t test.
  • The relationship between rice-yield attributes (grain yield, above-ground total biomass, and spikelets per m2) and growing-season mean maximum temperature ( A – C ), minimum temperature ( D – F ), or radiation ( G – I ). Yield-attribute data were obtained from irrigated field experiments in which cropmanagement practices were optimized to achieve the highest possible yields from rice cultivar IR72 at the IRRI Farm in the dry seasons from 1992 to 2003. Growing-season mean maximum and minimum temperatures and radiation were calculated from daily values for the entire growing season from transplanting to harvest.
  • Transcript of "Rice yields decline"

    1. 1. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming by ; Shaobing Peng, Jianliang Huang, John E. Sheehy, Rebecca C. Laza, Romeo M. Visperas, Xuhua Zhong, Grace S. Centeno, Gurdev S. Khush, and Kenneth G. Cassman K.K.M.N.Chamara AG/2008/2732
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>World rice production must increase by 1% annually to meet the growing demand for food that will result from population growth and economic development </li></ul><ul><li>But…… </li></ul><ul><li>With global warming rice yield </li></ul>
    3. 3. How temperature affect on rice yield ?? Crop yield crop biomass Photosynthesis Respiration losses Temperature
    4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>To determine whether there were significant time trends in changes of temperature or radiation and whether these changes had an impact on grain yield </li></ul>
    5. 5. Materials & Methods <ul><li>Meteorological instruments </li></ul><ul><li>- Gunn–Bellani radiation integrator </li></ul><ul><li>- Solarimeter </li></ul><ul><li>- Glass thermometers (for minimum and maximum temperatures) </li></ul><ul><li>- Psychrometer </li></ul><ul><li>- Thermohygrograph </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Weather Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>A weather station was set up at the research farm of IRRI at lat 14°11’ N, long 121°15’ E and an elevation of 21 m </li></ul><ul><li>The site measures 10.5 * 9.5 m and is surrounded by irrigated rice throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>The experimental field in which rice yields were measured was located within 1 km of the weather station </li></ul><ul><li>Topography is flat </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>- Dry- and wet-bulb temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- Daily minimum and maximum air temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>- Total radiation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Crop Data Collection <ul><li>Field experiments were conducted at the IRRI Farm during the dry and wet seasons of 1992–2003 </li></ul><ul><li>To eliminate genetic factors, only crop data for IR72 were used in this study </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings were raised in trays </li></ul><ul><li>14 days old seedlings were transplanted </li></ul><ul><li>Dry seasons – Jan. 3 – Jan. 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Wet seasons - June 17 - July 17 </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Hill spacing - 0.2*0.2 m, with 4 seedlings per hill </li></ul><ul><li>Plot size - 5 * 6 m </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer application </li></ul><ul><li>Fields were flooded 4 days after transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>Floodwater depth of 5–10 cm was maintained until 7 days before maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Apply pesticides </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Twelve hills (0.48 m 2 ) were sampled diagonally from a 5-m 2 harvest area for each replication at maturity to determine panicle number per hill, above-ground total biomass, harvest index, and yield components </li></ul><ul><li>Plants were separated into straw and panicles </li></ul><ul><li>Straw dry weight - oven drying at 70°C </li></ul><ul><li>Panicles - hand-threshed </li></ul><ul><li>Filled spikelets were separated from unfilled spikelets. </li></ul><ul><li>Three subsamples of 30-g filled spikelets and </li></ul><ul><li>5-g unfilled spikelets were taken to count the number of spikelets. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Above-ground total biomass was the summation of straw,rachis, and filled and unfilled spikelets dry matter </li></ul><ul><li>Spikelets per panicle, grain-filling percentage (100 filled spikelet number/ total spikelet number), and harvest index (100 filled spikelet weight/above-ground total biomass) were calculated </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Grain yield was determined from a 5 m 2 area in each replication </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of time trends in changes of temperature and radiation was determined by testing the statistical significance of slopes at the P < 0.05 probability level according to the Student’s t test. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationships between yield attributes and climatic parameters were evaluated by using correlation and partial correlation analyses </li></ul>
    13. 13. Data analyze <ul><li>Main database management tool </li></ul><ul><li>- Climate Computer (CLICOM) system </li></ul>
    14. 14. Results and Discussion
    15. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35°C and 1.13°C, respectively, for the period 1979–2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1°C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant </li></ul>
    16. 18. THANK YOU...
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