Introduce self and ask participants to introduce themselves, possibly tell what they hope to gain from the session.
Review the Code of Cooperation and ask if there are any others that need to be added. If no recommendations are made, then ask for a thumbs-up signifying their acceptance of the code.
Introduce the article. Came from the March 2009 of Educational Leadership from ASCD that focused on Literacy 2.0. Team from Wake County attended a NCTE Conference that focused on 21 st Century Literacy and was the foundation for this workshop.
Review process for the protocol.
After the table discussions, ask each participant to stand and say their word. Capture the words and create a Wordle. Discuss how this might be used in the classroom.
So, how does this impact literacy instruction in my classroom?
This is the Wake County Reading Model that shows the five components of effective reading instruction as identified by the National Reading Panel. As you can see the classroom environment impacts the student. As we consider balanced literacy instruction, we want to focus both on the processes of modeled, shared, guided, collaborative, and independent as well as the components. Both pieces will lead to more effective reading instruction.
Here is another way to look at the complexity of reading. We could easily overlay the components of reading as outlined in our WCPSS Reading Model over the components listed here. What this visual adds to our reading model is the message of how integrated these skills have to be in order to be a skilled reader. Give example of 5 th grade student at the end of the rope.
As we think about the “importance” of Foundational Literacy Skills, this analogy seems very appropriate. When we get ready to build a house, we sit down with our builder and discuss the “plan or blueprint” he’ll use to construct the house. Our builder, who by the way is extremely knowledgeable, realizes the importance of a “strong foundation”. So he assures us that the necessary footings will be in place before the foundation is poured and initial construction is completed. Thus, we are certain that our home will have that firm ground level structure it needs in order to support the framework of the walls and roof that will follow. As we share this information, we are supporting them in becoming those knowledgeable “builders” who will construct that “strong foundation” for all students they teach.
Phonemic awareness is a part of phonological awareness. In some literature, authors interchangeably use these 2 terms. They are different from one another. As we look at the graphic we notice that phonological is shallow focusing on the word level of listening, rhyming, sentences, and words. As students move to the syllable level, they are going deeper until they reach the phoneme level that deals with individual sounds. This work can usually be completed within 20 hours of instruction but some students may need more. This provides students with the foundation they need to develop word recognition strategies that will enable them to become proficient readers.
Phonics is the link between sounds and the symbols which represent them. This is the basic part of word recognition that takes place in grades K-2.
Let’s think about what good phonics instruction should include. As we look at this, we can see the hierarchical nature of teaching phonics. We begin with the most basic – teaching the relationship between letters and sounds. We continue with blending and segmenting sounds to reach our ultimate goal of helping students apply this knowledge to read words, sentences, and texts.
Of a genuine and lasting value. Myth: English is too irregular to make phonics worthwhile. Fact: Actually about 87% of English words are regular enough to be decoded 50% are completely regular 37% have only one irregular sound (i.e. the word put ) Hanna, Hanna, Hodges, & Rudorf, 1966
Read the poem and have participants discuss what might being taught – short o, -op family, CVC words.
As students enter the upper elementary grades, they transition from blending the sounds to read words to looking at the structure of the word to read and determine its meaning. Students can use word stems, prefixes, and suffixes to derive the meanings of some words. Directly teach thinking through the different steps of this process. Teach marking-up strategy using dry erase markers and plates, find meanings using handouts
ID stem first word: ID prefix and give other words with that prefix: Premade, prepaid, prearrange, premature ID suffix and give other words with that suffix
Word parts are a valuable resource More than 60% of words can be broken down into parts to figure out their meanings. (Nagy, Anderson, Schommer, Scott and Stallman, 1989) Which prefixes should you teach? High-leverage prefixes that are in nearly 3,000 words 11 prefixes account for 81% of all prefixed words. (Graves, 2004)
This visual helps us see that fluency is that bridge between word recognition and comprehension. It is more than just reading a certain number of words per minute. It is the ability to recognize and read words automatically so that one can focus on comprehension.
Fluency begins with recognizing letters automatically in kindergarten. As students develop sight word vocabularies, they can increasingly identify words. Students move on to phrases which impact the meaning and then sentences. The end result of this journey is the ability to read connected text automatically.
Let’s practice. Read the alphabet, paying attention to the punctuation marks. Read the sentences paying attention to the punctuation marks. Read the sentences, paying attention to the bolded words. What impact does this have on the meaning? What happens if we don’t pay attention to these details?
Echo reading is when the students read the sentence after the teacher.
Giggle Poetry is a great website for additional poems for practice.
Fluency is important because … ask for participant responses, then show rest.
Fluency is important because … ask for participant responses, then show rest.
Think about learning to ride a bike – if you go to slow, what happens?
This information was collected over a year long study done by Hart and Risley in 1995. They put cameras in homes and recorded the number of words children heard during that time. Professional families – children heard 11 million words while working class families’ children heard 6 million words, and welfare children heard 3 million words. What impact will this have on developing readers? Children from lower SES backgrounds are at significant risk for difficulties in learning to read because of their lower level of emergent literacy skills in terms of oral language, phonological processing and print knowledge.
Oral language skills provide the basis for development of phonological processing skills. This slide graphically demonstrates how oral language affects reading skill development. Again – emphasize early intervention for oral language and vocabulary development. What impact does this have on vocabulary instruction?
If students are to learn an average of 3000 words per year and of those 3000 words we only have time to teach 400-500 then we must be wise in our choices that we make. As a way to begin thinking about which words to teach, consider that words in our language have different levels of utility.
The more oral language experiences children have, the more word meanings they learn. Reading aloud is particularly helpful when you have them engaged in the conversation. These conversations help them learn new words, concepts and relate them to their prior knowledge and experience. Children learn many new words by reading extensively on their own. The more children read on their own, the more words they encounter and the more word meanings they learn. The problem is that many students in need of vocabulary development do not engage in wide reading, especially of the kinds of books that contain unfamiliar vocabulary and are less likely to derive meaningful information from the text (Kucan & Beck, 1996; McKeown, 1995).
Children learn new words better when they encounter them often and in various contexts. The more children see, hear and work with specific words the better they seem to learn them. Children learn words best when they are provided with instruction over an extended period of time. The more they use new words and the more they use them in different context, the more likely they are to learn new words. When thinking about the children that we teach do they fit more into the average range of 6-14 or do you think that a higher number of exposures for learning new vocabulary words is more appropriate?
Students learn vocabulary directly when they are explicitly taught both individual words and word-learning strategies. Direct vocabulary instruction aids in reading comprehension. Specific word instruction can deepen students’ knowledge of word meanings. In-depth knowledge of word meanings can help students understand what they are hearing or reading. It also can help them use words accurately in speaking and writing.
In Bringing Words to Life, Beck, McKewon, and Kucan identify 3 tiers of words. Tier 1 is the most basic and requires little or no instruction. Tier 2 words are more useful and require instruction because they can be used in multiple contexts so they are called high frequency words. Tier 3 words are low frequency words that are limited to a particular subject area. They do not need to be taught but rather students should be familiar with them and have strategies to help them identify their meaning and pronunciation – glossaries, dictionaries, etc.
What are some Tier 2 words that we might teach?
I selected nimble and toast. We could begin by offering a kid friendly definition of nimble – moves easily and toast – a piece of bread that is cooked. I would include those definitions in my think aloud as I read the poem and offer opportunities for students to share their thoughts.
As we look at this classroom, do you think the students have opportunities for each of these? That makes it a language rich classroom.
Comprehension is the goal of reading.
Comprehension is impacted by 3 things. Text – What is the text that is being read? Is it fiction, nonfiction, poetry? Purpose – Why are you reading the text – for fun, to learn something, to answer a question? Reader – What kind of background knowledge and skills does the reader bring to this text?
Before reading, students need to activate prior knowledge and ask questions.
During reading, students will make connections, ask questions, visualize, stop and summarize up to that point, and use fix-up strategies when comprehension breaks down.
After reading, students need to identify the big ideas, make connections, ask questions, draw inferences, and retell and summarize. When do we ask students to do this? What about retelling, performance assessments, etc.?
The research tells us that these 5 components are critical to being a proficient reader and we need to determine what skills and strategies our students have and need before we can plan appropriate instruction. What assessments are currently being used that assess foundational literacy skills including phonological and phonemic awareness ? (Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Concepts of Print, Letter/sound ID, and PAST) What assessments are currently being used that assess word recognition ? (Nonsense Word Fluency, Running record, High Frequency Word List, Early Names Test, Names Test for 3 rd -5 th grade) What assessments are currently being used that assess vocabulary ? (Oral Language Checklist in K and conversations with students) What assessments are currently being used that assess fluency ? (Oral Reading Fluency and Fluency rubric on the Running record) What assessments are currently being used that assess comprehension ? (Retelling, conversations about books, Performance Assessments at 3-5) Not enough time to assess: If more than 20% of a class needs digging deeper, BEGIN assessing the bottom 10%. Grade level supports each other in problem solving the issue of time. Can they take turns watching each other’s class during recess while the other teacher assesses a student? Can they block out a few days with no guided reading to assess students? Can they have a few class periods of class coverage so that they can begin the assessments?
Individually write your own definition – 10 phrases or words – 5 min Work as a table to define using phrases or words – 10 min Create a graphic – 10 min Post and put a blank piece of paper beside for Chalk Talk – 10 min Whole group wrap-up about 21 st Centuries Literacies
Compare your definition to the position adopted by NCTE. Underline any similar words, phrases, etc.
Literacy 2.0 Sharon Collins Nancy Mangum
Participants will … <ul><li>Develop an understanding of Web 2.0 tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding of Literacy 2.0. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase understanding of the five components of effective literacy instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan ways to incorporate Web 2.0 tools in their classroom to increase literacy learning. </li></ul>
Code of Cooperation <ul><li>Honor time </li></ul><ul><li>Participate </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss openly and honestly </li></ul><ul><li>Seek constructive solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Put phone on vibrate </li></ul><ul><li>Limit sidebar conversations </li></ul>
Text Rendering Protocol <ul><li>Read the article. </li></ul><ul><li>Underline a sentence, a phrase, and a word that you believe important. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your sentence and why you selected it. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your phrase and why you selected it. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your word and why you selected it. </li></ul>
Independent Physical Cultural Social Emotional Cognitive Classroom Environment Strategies Foundational Literacy Skills Strategies Word Recognition Strategies Vocabulary & Concept Development Strategies Fluency Strategies Comprehension Modeled Shared Guided Collaborative
Concepts of Print Letter Knowledge Alphabetic Principle Phonemic Awareness Word Recognition Vocabulary and Concept Development Fluency Comprehension Foundational Literacy Skills Building on a strong foundation Comprehension
Listening Rhyming Receptive Expressive Sentences Words Syllables Onsets & Rimes Sounds Awareness Blending Segmenting Manipulating Shallow Deep Phonological Phonemic Word Level Syllable Level Sound Level Components of Phonological Awareness
<ul><li>Phonics instruction teaches students the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. </li></ul>letters
Good phonics instruction should… Teach the relationship between letters and sounds Teach children how to blend and segment sounds Teach children how to connect letters and sounds Help children to apply what they learn about sounds and letters to read words, sentences, and text Help children to apply what they learn about sounds and letters to their writing
If a teacher teachers 10 words by sight, the students learn 10 words. But if students are taught 10 sounds and blending, they read: and over 21,000 5-sound words . 4,320 4-sound words, 720 3-sound words, rush b rush b rush ing Why Teach Phonics?
<ul><li>Poems for Word-Family Practice </li></ul><ul><li>By: Laureen Reynolds </li></ul>
Analyzing Word-Part Clues (Adapted from Baumann, Font, Edwards and Boland, 2005) <ul><li>Look for the WORD STEM and see if you know what it means. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a PREFIX and see if you know what it means. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a SUFFIX and see if you know what it means. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the meanings of the parts together and see if you can build the meaning of the word. </li></ul>
Using Word-Part Clues <ul><li>My mom said she thought the winner of the reality TV show was predetermined . </li></ul>pre determin ed decide + past tense before +
For example, if a student knows the word clear and affixes, he or she also knows: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> un clear </li></ul><ul><li> clear s clear er </li></ul><ul><li> clear ed clear est </li></ul><ul><li>clear ing clear ly </li></ul><ul><li> clear able clear ness </li></ul>
Fluency is important because… it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension!
Critical Levels for Automaticity Letter Word Phrase Sentenc e Connected Text
Children also need to be able to read with prosody and expression. Fluency is more than automatic word recognition.
<ul><li>exposure to rich and varied models of fluent reading. </li></ul><ul><li>explicit feedback, guidance, and instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>processing appropriately challenging and varied text. </li></ul><ul><li>oral reading practice on a regular basis. </li></ul>Readers become fluent from…
A BCD?EFG!HI?JKL.MN? OPQ.RST!UVWX.YZ! Dogs bark. Dogs bark? Dogs bark! I am tired. I am tired. I am tired .
Giggle Poetry “ I Call First” “ Get Out of Bed!” “ Rules for the Bus” “ Ish” http://www.gigglepoetry.com
Fluency is important because … it frees students to understand what they read.
Reading fluency can be developed by … engaging students in repeated reading activities.
Reading is like learning to ride a bike: if you go too slowly, you fall off. Susan Hall and Louisa Moats, Straight Talk About Reading
Differences in exposure to words over one year Hart and Risley, 1995 Professional Working Welfare
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth (Hirsch, 1996 ) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 Reading Age Level Chronological Age Low Oral Language in Kindergarten High Oral Language in Kindergarten 5.2 years difference
Vocabulary Instruction Students need to learn an average of 3000 words per year. (Stahl, 2003). We can effectively teach 400-500 words per year. (Block and Mangieri, 2005; Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki, 1984; Stahl, 2005).
Indirect Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Children learn word meanings indirectly in three different ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in oral language </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to adults read to them </li></ul><ul><li>Read extensively on their own </li></ul>
Effective Word Instruction (Block and Mangieri, 2005; Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki, 1984; Stahl, 2005) Includes multiple exposures and review. Number of exposures to a word needed by most students 6-14 Number of exposures to a word needed by students with learning disabilities 40
Direct Vocabulary Instruction helps children learn difficult words and concepts by: Direct Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Providing students with specific word instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching students word-learning strategies </li></ul>
Choosing Words to Teach Tier 1 Words - The most basic words Rarely require instruction in school Examples: clock, baby happy Tier 2 Words - High-frequency words for mature language users. Instruction in these words can add productively to an individual’s language ability Examples: coincidence, industrious Tier 3 Words - Low-frequency words, often limited to specific domains Examples: isotope, peninsula
Jack Was Nimble Jack was nimble, Jack was quick. Jack jumped over the candlestick. Jack kept jumping, much too close. Now his pants smell like burnt toast. Bruce Lansky
Jack Was Nimble Jack was nimble , Jack was quick. Jack jumped over the candlestick. Jack kept jumping, much too close. Now his pants smell like burnt toast . Bruce Lansky
From within PowerPoint From within Camtasia Studio Explore and experiment with language Ask and answer how and why questions Hear good models of language use Explore and experiment with language
Comprehension Depends on Student Thinking….. <ul><li>Before Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate prior knowledge (make connections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions (I wonder….) </li></ul></ul>
Comprehension Depends on Student Thinking….. <ul><li>During Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate prior knowledge (make connections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions (I wonder…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize and retell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use fix up strategies </li></ul></ul>
Comprehension Depends on Student Thinking….. <ul><li>After Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine most important ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate prior knowledge (make connections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions (I wonder…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retell and synthesize </li></ul></ul>
Linking Assessments to the WCPSS Reading Model Oral Language Checklist Conversations Oral Reading Fluency Fluency Rubric on the Running Record Nonsense Word Fluency Running Record High Frequency Word List Early Names Test Names Test Unassisted Writing Samples Letter Naming Fluency Phoneme Segmentation Fluency PAST Letter/Sound ID Concepts of Print Retelling Conversations about books Performance Assessments
What are 21 st Century Literacies? Adopted by NCTE Executive Committee February 15, 2008
Reading Model for the Wake County Public School System Independent Physical Cultural Social Emotional Cognitive Classroom Environment Strategies Foundational Literacy Skills Strategies Word Recognition Strategies Vocabulary & Concept Development Strategies Fluency Strategies Comprehension Modeled Shared Guided Collaborative