AST 406 Chapter 14 Electrical Engineering

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AST 406 Chapter 14 Electrical Engineering

  1. 1. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING History Chapter 14
  2. 2. 1745: 1ST Electrical Capacitor
  3. 3. 1837: 1st Electric Telegraph
  4. 4. 1861: 1 Electric Oven st COMBINATION  WOOD ELECTRIC
  5. 5. 1874: st 1 Electric Light Bulb
  6. 6. 1887: 1ST Alternating Current Network
  7. 7. 1904 : 1st Diode
  8. 8. 1929: 1ST Theory of Semi-Conductors
  9. 9. 1943: 1st Programmable Electronic Computer
  10. 10. 1947: 1st Transistor a semiconductor device is used to: amplify switch electronic signals switch electrical power
  11. 11. 1971 : 1 Micro-Processor & 1st Micro-Computer ST
  12. 12. 1975: Pong console
  13. 13. 1977: Atari 2600 Console
  14. 14. 1978: Electronic QB banned from high schools
  15. 15. 1980: 1 Handheld Video Games and Commercial Cell Phones st
  16. 16. 1980s: 1 Personal Computer st
  17. 17. 1980s: The Walkman
  18. 18. 1998: 1st Hard Drive MP3 Player
  19. 19. Electrical Engineering relates both electronics and electrcity
  20. 20. Electronic vs Electrical  Electronic    Made with semiconductor material Usually silicon Examples  Capacitors  Diodes  Transistors  Relays  Electrical    Made with conductor material Metals and alloys Examples    Wires Switches Fuses
  21. 21. Alloy A homogeneous mixture made by fusing two or more metals, or a metal and a nonmetal.  To obtain desirable qualities such as hardness, lightness, and strength.  Brass: Copper & Zinc  Bronze:Copper & Tin 
  22. 22. Electrical Current  Conventional current  Electron flow current occurs from the negative terminal (where there is an excess of negative electrons) to the positive terminal (where there is a lack of electrons)
  23. 23. Direct Current  Electrons move continuously in the one direction
  24. 24. Alternating Current   Electrons vibrate back and forth in a regular pattern 60 Cycles per second or 60 Hz
  25. 25. Electrical function:  the role that a component plays in the control or transformation of electric current
  26. 26. Power Supply  Provides the energy that causes the current to flow through the circuit
  27. 27. Advantages Portable/Compact Replaceable Rechargeable Cheap Advantages Continuous equal flow Recharges others Good for big items Advantages Renewable Environment friendly Good for remote places Disadvantages Drains fast Limited Power Polluting Disadvantages Stationary Fire Disadvantages Expensive Fragile Good only when sunny
  28. 28. Conduction     Energy transfer from one material to another by direct contact. Conductors are materials that allow transfer to happen. E.g. copper, aluminum, silver and optical fibres. A printed circuit is an electrical circuit printed on a solid support called a circuit board.
  29. 29. Insulation  The electrical function performed by a component to prevent the flow of an electric current  Prevent injury and short circuits  E.g. Ceramic and plastic
  30. 30. Protection  Protection is a component that stops the flow of current in the event of a power surge  E.g. Fuses and circuit breakers
  31. 31. Control The function performed by a component that can open or close a circuit  switches and pushbuttons are examples of controls 
  32. 32. Switches Rocker  Toggle  Push button  Magnetic contact 
  33. 33. Switches Single pole switches open/close 1 contact at a time  Double pole switches open/close 2 contacts  Single throw switches allow electrons to follow 1 path.  Double throw switches allow electrons to follow 1 of 2 paths 
  34. 34. Energy Transformation       Change of one form of energy (electricity) to another form of energy Light energy Thermal (heat) energy Mechanical Sound Magnetic Induction
  35. 35. Components with other Functions  Capacitors  Diodes  Transistors  Relays
  36. 36. Capacitors    Can store electrical charge Composed of two electrical surfaces separated by an insulator Charge builds up on one plate, when the insulator is removed, the charge is released E.g. Camera flash
  37. 37. Diode Allows electric current to flow in one direction  Made of semi-conductors  Protects electronic parts from having electrons flow in the wrong direction  Used to convert AC to DC  LEDs are Light Emitting Diodes 
  38. 38. Transistors Block or amplify an electric current  Base acts like a valve that controls current 
  39. 39. Relays A relay opens or closes a circuit using an electrical signal from another circuit  Used in lighting in a theatre, high voltage appliances 
  40. 40. Resistors   Resistors limit the flow of electrons through an electrical circuit E.g. A 10 Ω resistor has less conductance than a 100 Ω resistor.
  41. 41. Coding on 4 band resistors:     the 1st two bands tell you the first two digits of resistance (e.g. red=2; blue=6) the next band tells you what to multiply those numbers by (e.g. red=100) the last band is tolerance factor (e.g. gold= ±5%) Therefore a resistor with red, blue, red, gold would have resistance of 2600 ohms ±5%
  42. 42. Activity  Page 479, Q. 1-15

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