Periodic TableObjectives 5.4 Locate metals, nonmetals and metalloids in the periodic table. 5.5 Locate the family of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and inert gases in the periodic table. 5.6 Describe the progression of certain properties of elements in a given period on the basis of their atomic number. 5.8 Justify the classification of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and inert gases in the periodic table on the basis of the simplified atomic model currently in use.
Metals, Non-metals and MetalloidsElements have characteristic propertiesthat allow them to be classified intothree groups. 1 2 3
Properties of METALS Lustre (shiny) Conduct heat and electricity Ductile Malleable (bendable) Dense Most are solid at room temperature Release gas when placed in acid
Properties of NON-METALS Dull (not shiny) Poor or non-conductors Non-ductile Non-malleable (doesn’t bend) Low densities Will not react with acids Can be gases, liquids or solids
Properties of METALLOIDS Metalloids are known as the “in between” group. They have some properties of both metals and non-metals. There are only 10 of these.Si (Silicon) is shiny but is notmalleable or ductile
Metals, Non-metals and Metalloids Metals are found to the left of the step line on the periodic table. Non-metals are to the right of this line. Hydrogen is not a metalo Metalloidscluster rightaround thisline.
(CLICK FOR ANSWER)State whether these are metals, non-metals or metalloids. (use your periodictable as a guide)
(CLICK FOR ANSWER) State whether each of these is a metals non-metal or metalloid1. Shiny and ductile ______________________2. Malleable and non conductor _____________3. Reacts with an acid and non ductile _________4. Non malleable and dull _________________
5. Releases a gas when placed in an acid ______________________6. Will not react with an acid _________________7. Ductile and non conductor _________________8. Low density _________________9. Non malleable and ductile _________________
PERIODIC TABLE Elements on the periodic table are organized according to their similar properties. Columns (going down on the periodic table) are called groups or families Rows (going across of the periodic table are called periods.
Next slide will show you a visual! Groups (Families) (Columns) There are 4 groups (families) that this course is concerned with.• 1st column is called alkali metals (Group IA)• 2nd column is called alkaline earth metals (Group IIA)• 7th column is called halogens (Group VIIA)• The last or 8th column is called the inert or noble gases (Group VIIIA)
Please mark these onto your own periodic tableIA – Alkali Metals VIIIA – Inert or Noble IIA – Alkaline Gases Earth Metals VIIA - Halogens
Properties of Alkali Metals • Soft, light metals that melt at low temperatures • High degree of reactivity, especially with waterProperties of Alkaline Earth Metals • Grey solids • Hard • Reactive
Properties of Halogens • Corrosive and toxic • Very reactive and colored • Often form compounds with other elementsProperties of Inert (Noble) Gases • No chemical reactivity • Colorless • Do not form compounds with other elements
(CLICK FOR ANSWER) State which FAMILY the following substances belong to by reading its description:1.Very Hard ______________________2. Very reactive and corrosive _____________3. Soft light metal ___________________4. Non reactive with other elements _________________
Families and PeriodsThe period # and the family # gives you veryimportant information. - Tells you how many energy shells an element has - Tells you the number of valence electrons an element has
WHAT IS VALENCE ELECTRONS? Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer most shell of an element. Lithium Magnesium WHAT ARE ENERGY SHELLS? 3 12Li 1 valence Mg 2 valence 7 electron 24 electrons3 P+ 12 P+ 2 e- 1 e- 12 N04 N0 8 e- 2 e- 2 e-
Recall: Families - # of valence Periods - # of shells How many valence electrons andshells does the following element have? 7th family so…. 7 valence electron 4th family so…. 1 valence electron 1st family so…. 4 valence electron 4th period so…. 4 energy shells 5th period so…. 3 energy shells 3rd period so…. 5 energy shells
How many energy shells and valence electrons do the following elements have? (Click For Answer)Element Valence Energy Electron Shells Ca 2 4 N 5 2 Rb 1 5 Te 6 5 F 7 2
WHICH ELEMENT….. Is non-reactive and has Has 3 valence electrons 2 valence electrons and 4 energy shells?IsHas 4 energy shells and valence a colorless gas and has 4 is very reactive withelectrons? water?
Note the difference of the properties of metals, non-metals and metalloids. Be able to find metals, nonmetals and metalloids on your periodic table Know the Families and names of the first two and last two rows Group IA – Alkali Metals Group IIA – Alkaline Earth Metals Group VIIA – Halogens Group VIIIA – Inert or Noble Gases
Valence Electrons are found in the outermost shell. The maximum number is 8. You must be able to tell how many valence electrons each Family on the Periodic Table has. Remember: Families – tells you # of valence electrons Periods – tells you # of energy shells