China Under Mao Zedong After forming an alliance to fight the Japanese, the Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists continued their war following WWII. In 1949 the Communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong finally drove the Nationalists from power. Mao Zedong’s Communists formed the People’s Republic of China. The US refused to recognize the new Chinese Communist government
The People’s Republic of China Communists wanted to turn China into a modern, industrialized nation. In 1953 the first Five-Year Plan was announced. Build up China’s industry Land Reform The Communists forced landlords to give their land to the peasants. The peasants organized their new land into collective farms. The Five-Year Plan was a success.
The Great Leap Forward In 1958 Mao’s government announced a second Five-Year Plan called the Great Leap Forward. Huge farm communities were formed where farms and small industries coexisted side by side. Single people lived in dormitories and meals were served in mess halls. Industrial output decreased, and there were constants food shortages. Huge failure 20 million died between ’58-’60.
The Cultural Revolution After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao’s leadership was in question. He launched the Cultural Revolution, a violent attempt at social change. He aimed to rid China of its old customs, habits, and thoughts. He wanted to replace them with a new socialist culture. Red Guards- Radical students would lead Mao’s revolution by destroying ancient works of art, books and anything “old.”
China After Mao After Mao’s death a power struggle formed between moderate Communists and a radical group led by Mao’s widow. The moderates wanted to restore orders and economic growth, the Gang of Four led by Madame Mao wanted to continue the Cultural Revolution. Deng Xiaoing (Dung Show-Ping) the leader of the moderates took control of the government and wanted to improve agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense. The Four Modernizations.
Tiananmen Square Massacre Chinese people began speaking out for the “fifth modernization”- democracy. Thousands of students gathered in Tiananmen Square. They staged a hunger strike and ignored government orders to leave. Troops opened fire on the protesters. Many western countries cutoff loans and aid to China.
Foreign Relations Since 1949 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJBnHMpHGRY&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SB70mWXrzEE&feature=related In the early 1950s the Soviet Union and China were no longer Allies. China turned to the US and other Western nations.
A Divided Korea After WWII Korea had been divided at the 38th parallel line. The Soviet Union occupied the north, US in the south. The country was meant to be united but that never took place. Kim II Sung took power in the communist north, while Syngman Rhee (Sing-Min Ree) became president in the republic south. In July 1950 North Korea invaded the South and took Seoul.
A divided Korea The United Nations Security Council condemned the attack and sent troops in. The US supplied the majority of the troops and pushed back the North Korean troops back. China sent troops to support North Korea and pushed US troops back to the 38th parallel. After signing a ceasefire in July 1953 the dividing line was almost exactly where it had been before the war.
Divided Korea South Korea was a republic, but its was not democratic. Syngman Rhee (Sing-Min Ree) ran the country as a dictator. Although South Korean had very little political freedom, Rhee used his power to promote economic growth.
Divided Korea In 1998 Kim Dae Jung was sworn in as president. He placed great importance on bringing democracy to South Korea. Faced with famine and economic collapse, North Korea agreed to a meeting.
The Nationalists in Taiwan The Chinese Nationalists fled to Taiwan in 1949. Although a territory of China, Taiwan was allowed to govern itself. With close ties to the US, Taiwan became one of the world’s major producers of manufactured goods. In the early 1980s the Nationalists allowed for other parties to form. In 1989 Taiwan held open elections. In 2000 the Nationalists lost. The newly elected party believed Taiwan should become and independent nation. China does not think so.
Main Idea What is the main idea and concept of this section? How does this section relate to previous material?