Obligation, Prohibition, Lack of Obligation Presentation
He/She mustn’t be late.Images: Exsodus and Nutdanai He/She must have atApikhomboonwaroot /FreeDigitalPhotos.net least three years’ experience in education. He/She doesn’t have to have good ICT skills. Imagine you are responsible for finding a suitable candidate to fill a position for He/She has to be fun. a new English teacher at the He/She doesn’t have to school. be a native speaker. Work in pairs/small groups He/She must be over 25 and decide which of the years old. following sentences describe He/She mustn’t smoke at a good candidate. school.
The meaning of “must” We use must to talk He/She must have at about _____________ least three years’ experience in education. necessity/obligation absence of He/She must be over 25 years old. necessity/obligation (= don’t need to) • must + infinitive prohibition WITHOUT “to” • Only for present reference, not for past reference
The meaning of “mustn’t” We use mustn’t to talk He/She mustn’t be late. about _____________ necessity/obligation prohibition He/She mustn’t smoke absence of at school. necessity/obligation (= don’t need to) prohibition mustn’t + infinitive WITHOUT “to”
The meaning of “have to” He/She has to be fun. We use have to to talk about _____________•They HAVE to be fun. necessity/obligation• DO you HAVE to work absence ofon Saturday? necessity/obligation• DOES she HAVE to work (= don’t need to)on Saturday?• In past She/They HAD prohibitionto be fun• DID you HAVE to go tothe meeting yesterday?
The meaning of “don’t have to” He/She doesn’t have to We use don’t have to be a native speaker. to talk about He/She doesn’t have to _____________ have good ICT skills. absence of necessity/obligation • She DOESN’T HAVE to be a necessity/obligation absence ofnative speaker. (= don’t need to) necessity/obligation but (= don’t need to)• They DON’T HAVE to be prohibitionnative speakers.• In past She DIDN’T HAVEto be a native speaker.
More information & practice Unit 23: must, have to, should Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 4 (sentences C, D, E, I, J, K) Activity 5 Activity 6
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